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The Academy desires it to he uiiderstood that they are not 
aiisweraUe for any opinion, representaiion of facts, or train of 
reasoning that may appear in any of tlve following Papers. The 
AiUhors of t!ie several JUssays are alone responsible for their 

Dublin : Phistrh at nig TJnitehsitt Press bt Ponsonby *ni> Gihhs. 





GiLMouR (A.), M.Sc. : — 

See under McClelland (J. A.) and A. Giljiour. 

Hitchcock (Frank L.), Ph.D. : — 

A Study of the Vector Product F<^a^;S, 30 

McClelland (J. A.), D.Sc, F.R.S., and A. Giljioue, M.Sc. : — 

Further Observations of the Electric Charge on Rain, ... 13 

McClelland (J. A.), D.Sc, F.R.S., and P. J. Nolan, M.Sc. ;— 

The Nature of the Ions produced by Phosphorus, .... 1 

Nolan (J. J.), M.A., D.Sc. :— 

The Nature of the Ions produced in Air by radio-active Bodies, . 38 

N0L.4N (P. J.), M.Sc. :— 

See under McClelland (J. A.) and P. J. Nolan. 



r H i: R () Y A E I R I S EI A C A D E M Y 





P. J. NOLAN, M.Sc. 

Reail Februauy 10. I'liblislied October 3, 1919. 

Before the discovery of the large ion many observers investigated with 
conflicting conclusions the electrical conductivity of air in the neighbourhood 
of phosphorus. E. Bloch.^ in a paper which contains a history of the work 
on this subject up to 1904, showed that the conductivity imparted by the 
phosphorus was due to large ions. The mobility of the ions varied witli the 
rate of drawing air over the phosphorus into tlie electrical measuring apparatus. 
The lowest mobility, which was obtained with the slowest air current, was 
■00029 cm. per second. He was of opinion that all the ions observed in an 
experiment were not of the same mobilit)', and that his mobility numbers 
were means. His experiments lead him to think tiiat the ions are charged 
dust particles. L. Bloch- found that tlie ioiiisalion of tlie air by tlie phosphorus 
took place in the i-egion of the phosphorescence, and that ozone was formed 
in the same place. He decided that the phosphorescence is just like an 
ordinary flame which accompanies the combustion of phosphorous oxide into 
phosphoric oxide, and tliat ionisation liy phosphorus is a particular case of 
ionisation by flame. He pointed out that the fact that higher mobilities are 
obtained if the ions are examined at shorter times after formation has also 
been observed in the case of flame ionisation. 

In previous papers' the nature of the ionisation produced by bubbling air 

1 E. Bloch : Ann. de Chem. efc de Phys , vol. iv (1905). 
- L. Bloch : Ann. de Chem. et de Phys., vol. xxii (1911). 

^ McClelland and Nolan : Pioc. Roy. Iiisli Acad., vol. x.wiii, Sec. A (1910), and 
vol. xxxiv. Sec. A (1918). 


2 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

through meicury and through alcohol has been investigated. Many different 
types of ions were discovered. This present work was undertaken to see if 
any of these groups were formed in the case of ionisation by phosphorus. It 
was hoped that light might be thrown on the nature of these groups by the 
examination of ionisation produced in a way entirely different from bubbling. 
AVe did not propose to investigate the exact mechanism of the production of 
the ionisation ; our object was meiely to examine the ionisation when produced. 
Accordinglj' no observations were taken on the phosphorescence, the produc- 
tion of ozone, or on the various chemical changes whicli accompany the 
oxidation of phosphorus. 

A cylindrical tube designed to measuie mobilities, similar to that described 
in the previous papers, was used. A small flat piece of phosphorus was scraped 
free from oxide under water, dried with blotting-paper, and placed in a narrow 
glass tube. A current of air was drawn along this tube, through the mobility 
tube and into a gasometer. The quantity of air passing through the mobility 
tube per second could be deduced from the rate of motion of the gasometer. 
The time between the formation of the ions at the phosphorus and the 
measurement of their mobilities was varied by interposing different lengtlis 
of tubing between the phosphorus tube and the mobility tube. This time- 
interval was also varied by changing the rate of the gasometer. A tube 
containing a plug of cotton-wool was connected to the phosphorus tube so 
that the room air was filtered before passing over the phosphorus. 

The currents to the inner insulated terminal of the mobility tube for 
different voltages on the outer tube were measured by means of an electro- 
meter. Current voltage curves were plotted, and it was seen that they were 
formed of a number of straight lines. This indicated that different types 
of ions were present; each type gave rise to a corner on the curve. The 
mobilities of the various types were calculated by taking the voltages 
corresponding to the cornei-s as saturation voltages and applying the formula 
as described in the previous papers. The current-voltage curves were similar 
to those obtained when air was bubbled through mercury and through alcohol. 
Examples of these curves were given in the paper on the ionisation due to 
mercury; accordingly, none are given here. No difference between the 
positive and the negative electrification either as regards quantity or quality 
was noticed during this work ; accordingly, no distinction of sign has been 
made ; the observations of positive ions and of negative ions are practically 
equal in number. Each group of ions was obtained with both positive and 
negative electrification. 

McClelland and Nolan — Ions Produced bij Phosphorus. 

Undried Air. 

In the first series of experimenta the time-interval between the formation 
of the ions and the nicasuremeiit of their mobilities was varied from I'.Ssecs 
to 63 sees. Ordinary room air which was not dried, but which had passed 
through the cotton-wool plug, was used. The numbers obtained were very 
steady. This was a rather unexpected result, as E. Bloch was unable to get 
steady numbers until he dried the air. The results oljtained are shown in 
Table I. The mobilities are given in cms. per. sec. under a field of one volt 
per cm. 

Table I. 





•0021 F 











■0023 .' 










































Just as in the case of the ions derived from alcohol we see that the ions 
due to phosphorus can be divided into a number of groups, and that the 
mobility of an ion of any particular group does not change with time. As 
the time-interval is increased, it becomes difficult to observe the faster ions. 
When 19 sees, have elapsed, the two classes of highest mobilities previously 
observed cannot be detected. (The numbers given for a time-interval of 
63 sees, are not exhaustive. Ions of liiglier mobilities than ■00031 were present 
and gave about one-third of the ionisation. Their mobilities were not, how- 
ever, measured.) With, a time-interval of 63 sees, we find an ion of mobility 


4 Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

•00015, which could not be found a few seconds after the formation of the 
ions. The same question which we discussed in the case of the alcohol ions 
arises. We may account for the appearance of the ion of mobility -00015 by 
supposing that it was present at the very beginning as a small fraction of the 
total ionisation, and that the faster decay of the smaller ions brought it into 
prominence. Or, we may suppose that it was not present at first, but that it 
was formed from some grouping of the smaller ions. It is dithcult to decide 
which is the correct view. As was pointed out in the previous paper, it is 
difficult, with this method of finding mobilities, to measure and compare the 
percentages of the different classes present under different conditions. The 
evidence in this case would not prevent us from thinking that the ion of 
mobility 'OOOlo is present originally. In the case of the alcohol ions, we 
thought that a more likely explanation of the appearance of this ion was 
that it was formed as time went on. Perhaps the most satisfactory way of 
looking at this question is to suppose that in both cases the large ions are 
formed from the small ions, and that the rate of formation depends on the 
source of the ionisation and on otiier conditions. If the grouping of the more 
mobile ions to form tlie large ions took place very rapidly, we would have a 
system of ionisation very similar to that contemplated in our first theory. 
The evidence on the whole indicates that tlie large ions are formed by group- 
ing, and tiiat the grouping may proceed at widely different rates in different 
cases. In the case of phosphorus, the grouping takes place so (juickly that 
we cannot assert that the large ion of mobility -00015 is not present in small 
quantity after a few seconds. On this view there is no essential difference 
between the ionisation due to phosphorus and that due to alcoliol, although 
in the former case we can detect the ion of mobility -00031 after 1-3 seconds, 
whilst in the latter case this ion was not observed until over a minute had 
elapsed after bubbling. 

In the experiments with time- intervals 1-3 sees., 4-6 sees., and 16 sees., 
the ion of mobility 00063 was very prominent. It was present in greater 
quantity than any other ion, and gave about one-third of the ionisation. In 
some of the observations the quantity of the ions of mobilities -0024 and -0041 
was very small. At times, indeed, it was difficult to be certain of their 

A mobility tube havmg a short terminal was used so that the more mobile 
ions could be more conveniently examined. The time-interval was reduced 
to -8 second with the same object. The glass tube which contained the 
phosphorus was covered with tuifoil and placed in metallic connexion with 
the mobility tube. The object of this arrangement was to guard against the 
possibility of the smaller ions being turned back by the field which they 

McClklland and Nolan — loim Produced hif Phosphorus. 5 

would nieet; at tlie end ol' tlie mobility tui)u. Tliis piecaulioii was not 
considered necessary when dealing with the less mobile ions. The following 
results were obtained : — 

Table II. 

















The ion of mobility 'Ool was the fastest ion that could be detected and 
measured. The other two ions are the two smallest ions given in Table I. 
Thus with the special arrangements we were only able to observe one more 
group. Saturation did not occur with the ion of mobility '0068. Measure- 
ments of this ion were taken to keep in touch with previous experiments. 

During these observations the temperature of the room was sometimes 
between 7° C. and and 8° C. No ionisation was obtained when the tempera- 
ture was about this point. Placing the finger on the phosphorus tube for 
about a minute increased the temperature enough to start the ionisation. 
The ionisation then continued without any further heating. Barus^ observed 
that the ionisation due to phosphorus depended on the temperature, and 
states that in a room at a temperature of about 9° C. the phosphorus is 
nearly inert. 

A very definite case of variation from day to day in the quality of the 
ionisation occurred during the observation of the mobility •0068 (general 
mean value -0074). A reading of this mobility was taken in the usual way, 
and on the next day, when a second determination was desired, the ion could 
not be observed. The current readings for the diflerent voltages which had 
given two straight lines now gave one straight line. On the third day, one 
straight line was again obtained with both positive and negative electrifica- 
tion. The phosphorus was usually scraped about once a week ; this was now 
done to see if the change was due to the formation of oxide. The ion was 
still absent. On the fourth day, the ion was observed ; the ion reappeared 
without any change in tlie ai)paratus or method of working. This variation 
imder apparently the same conditions indicates how difficult it is to obtain 

• Barus: Phil. Mag., 6tli series, vol. ii, 1901. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

consistent and reliable results as regards the percentages of ions present 
under diflerent conditions. Temperature fluctuations could hardlv liave been 
the cause of the change. "S'ariations in the humidity of the air might possibly 
explain the disappearance of the ion. Experiments with partially dried 
air, carried out later, did not, however, explain the matter. 

Dried Air. Small Ions. 

Air was drawn through two towei-s containing calcium chloride, and 
through two long tubes, which had layers of pliosphorus pentoxide on the 
inside surfaces. This dried air passed through the cotton-wool plug and over 
the phosphorus. We do not consider the drying produced by any means 
perfect. It is very difficult to obtain perfect drying when considerable 
quantities of room-air are being continually drawn in. The drying we used 
is probably as good as can conveniently be obtained with these condi- 
tions. The time-interval was approximately 8 sec. The results are given in 
Table III («> 

Table III (a). 





























•032 » 


•■J2? ' 






Table III [b). 













With dried air we get three ions which were not present at the same 
time-interval with undried air, viz., ions of mobilities -22, -092, -028. At 

McCLia.r.ANi) and Nolan — Ions Produced by Phosphorus. 7 

fii'sl llie only additional ion we could dcte(;t was tlial of nioliility '028, hut 
when the drying was improved the other two appeared. The other ions wo 
observed are ions we have found before. Saturation was not obtained with 
the ion of mobility •0041. We failed to discover tlie ioii of moliility 'OOTi. 
Later results show that its non-appearance is not due to drying. 

In Table III [b) some numbers obtained with a time-interval of "6 sec. 
are given. More reliable observations for the fastest ion were taken as it 
was present as a bigger fraction of the ionisation with the shorter interval. 
No attempt was made to find more mobile ions. Perhaps with shorter 
intervals smaller ions would appear. It would be difficult, with the present 
method of working, to measure mobilities much sooner after the production 
of the ions than '6 see. 

Dried Air. Large Ions. 

In order to examine the larger ions with dried air, the apparatus was 

arranged so that there was a time-interval of 1'3 sees. The long mobility 

tube, suitable for measuring low mobilities, was again used. The following 
mobilities were observed : — 

•016 -0080 -0042 -0012 •00066 

These five classes can all be identified with types given above. We now 
observe the ion of mobility ^0074 (the present reading being -0080), which we 
failed to get a few days previously. No essential change has been made in 
the conditions. The change in the time-interval, or the fact that there is a 
different mobility tube, should not affect the formation of this ion. The 
same inexplicable variation has manifested itself with dried, just as with 
undried, air. The ion of mobility ^0024, which we observed with uudried 
air, is missing now. It represented only a small fraction of the ionisation 
before. It is probable that its non-appearance on tliis occasion does not 
mean a definite change brought about by drying, but is similar to the non- 
appearance of the ion of mobility -0074 at different times. 

The most prominent ion with dried air is the ion of mobility ^0012. It 
gives about 50 per cent, of the ionisation. Witii undried air the ion of 
mobility •00063 was the most prominent. Drying favours the observation 
of rhe faster ions. Complete saturation was not obtained with the observa- 
tion '00060, but the last straight line was so slightly inclined to the voltage 
axis that we were unable to measure any further mobilities. With undried 
air, and the same time-interval, we were able to measure the ion of mobility 
•00031. This, again, indicates the action of drying in bringing smaller ions 
into prominence. If we take the grouping theory as right, we may say that 
the grouping of the mobile ions to form the slow ions is retarded by drying. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acudemii. 

Verji Large Iciis. 

An iiivesLigatiou as to whether there were any slower ions than that 
of mobility 'OOOlo was carried out. Undried air was used, because with it 
we get slower ions than with dried air. A number of wide tubes were 
connected up in the apparatus between the phospliorus tube and the mobility 
tube to increase the time between formation and measurement. A slow 
gasometer blast was u.sed with the same object. For some of i,he experiments 
a mobility tube having a specially long terminal was used in order to examine 
the extremely low mobilities. The results obtained are as follows : — 

Table IV. 





















•00016 f 

•dOOO!l7 ? 
•0000!»1 ? 
•OOOOttl ? 

•000011 1 :- 

•000052 :- 



•000 1.") 



Tiine-inteivala of 3, 5, 9, and i:'> minutes were used. Two ions of 
lower mobility than -OOOlo were discovered. These ions are not present 
in measurable quantity five minutes after the foimalion of the ionisation ; 
they appcareil in the experiments conducted witli nine minutes as time- 
interval. The numbers and curves giving these last two ions were not quite 
as satisfactory as previous numbers. Tliis was perhaps due to the extreme 
conditions under which the experiments were carried out. No attempt 
was made to find slower ions than that of mobility OOOOoo. There is 
nothing to indicate that this ion is the largest that is formed, 'i'he quantity 
of electrification due to these slow ions is extremely small compared to 
electrification due to any of the other ions at the short time-intervals. If the 
ions of mobilities 000085 and 00005.3 are present at the short time-intervals, 
they are present in relatively minute quantities. The most probable explana- 
tion of their appearance is that they are gradually formed by grouping. It 

McClki.lanu and Nolan — Ions Produced bij Pliosphnru^. 9 

may be that these ions are furnuMl in nihri' casi's of iuiiisatinu. One could 
account for the fact that they liave not heen (jliserved Ky iw(] consiilerations. 
Firstly, tliey are formed in such small (quantities that their presence would 
be hard to detect, riiosphorus is one of the most active ionisation ajfeiits, 
and so they are more readily observed with it. Secondly, a very lou',' time is 
necessary for their formation. The time for formation \'ari(^s in diflerent 
cases. It is interesting to note in this conne.xion that the ion of mobility 
"OOOol appeared much sooner with phosphorus than with alcohol or mercury. 
Accordingly we suggest that it is quite possible that in other cases of 
ionisation these very large ions are formed in minute quantities at long 
intervals after the ionisation has been formed. 

It might be objected that these ions of very low mobilities are not similar 
to the ordinary large ions. It is well known that phosphorised air contains 
a large quantity of very big nuclei. These very large ions might be supposed 
to consist of large nuclei of some oxide of phosphorus carrying many times 
the electronic charge. "We reject this view for two reasons. In the first 
place, the continuity between these ions and the ions of higher mobilities 
leads US' to believe that thej^ are formed in the same manner and are of the 
same general nature. In the second place, one of these larger ions, that of 
mobility "00015, has been observed in air bubbled through alcohol, and we 
have no reason to believe that very large nuclei are produced when air is 
ionised by bubbling. 

The large ion which occurs in the atmosphere has a mobility of the order 
•0003 cm. per second. There has been a general opinion that there is a 
certain degree of stability associated with the ion of this size. An ion of 
this mobility was observed with phosphorus, but no special difference marked 
it out from the other ions. Furthermore, we get ions larger than the 
atmospheric ion, viz. the ions of mobilities "00015, "000085, "000053. As we 
pointed out already, we have no proof that the ion of mobility "000053 is by 
any means the final ion. It is remarkable that, in spite of its wide occurrence 
and stability, the size associated with the mobility "0003 is not the largest 

We can place all the mobilities observed in a certahi number of classes. 
The following are the means of the observations. Doubtful numbers are 
excluded, and a few numbers not given in the paper are included in 
calculating the means. 

"22 "092 "053 "028 "OlS -0074 

•0041 "0024 "0012 -00004 "00031 
■00015 •000085 "000053 

K.I. A. PKOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. A. [2j 

10 Proceedings of the Rot/al h'ish Academy. 

Discission of Results. 

The mobilities of the ions produced by phosphorus are given in column G, 
Table V. The other columns were given, in the manner shown, in the paper 
on the ions due to alcohol. Thev are reproduced here to show that the 
agreement, indicated at the time, between the mobilities of the ions due to 
different agents includes also the phosphorus ions. Column A shows the 
results of J. J. Xolan' on the mobilities of ions due to spraying distilled 
water. Only the mobilities smaller than 1'09 are given. Columns B, C, D, 
and E give the mobilities of the ions produced by bubbling air through 
mercury under ditt'erent conditions. Column F shows the mobilities of the 
ions due to bubbling air through alcohol. We see from this table that the 
ions dealt with in the present paper correspond to ions previously observed, 
the only exceptions being the two slowest ions. The agreement between 
the numbere througliout is so good as to leave no doubt but tliat the phos- 
phorus ions are built up in the same way as the ions produceil by bubbling 
and spraying. 

E. Bloch considers that all the properties of phosphorised air indicate 
that the ions in it are some oxides of phosphorus collected around charged 
nuclei, and L. Uloch is of a similar opinion. It is very difticult to reconcile 
this view with our conclusion that the phosphorus ions are very similar to 
the ions due to bubbling and sjiraying. As there is every reason to believe 
that the latter ions are composed of water, we couclude that the phosphorus 
ions are also composed of water. It is possible that the original charged 
nucleus is formed of an oxide of phosphorus, and that the various ions are 
formed from this by accretions of water. The similarity Ijelween the 
ionisation from the various 80UIX^e8 permits us to assume a different nucleus 
as the original starting-point of the ions ; it does not allow us to postulate 
a different giowth system. 

The general result of drying, both among the slow and the fast ions, was 
to bring the more mobile ions into prominence. No other deduction, such 
as a division of the ions into those which occur only with dry air and those 
which are formed only with undried air, can be made from our experiments. 
Investigations on the effect of drying on the phosphorus ionisation, aiming 
at a much higher degree of dr)ing, are at present being undertaken. 

' Proc Roy. Irish Academy, vol. xxxiii, Section A, 1916. 

McClelland and Nolan — Io)is Produced by Phosphorus. 11 

Table V. 





Long Time- Interval 

Short Time-Interval 





























































Although the results obtained in this work have not fulfilled our expec- 
tations as regards adding to previous ideas on the nature of group ionisation, 
our knowledge of phosphorus ionisation has been considerably extended. 
We hope that the further experiments, which will enable a high degree of 
drying to be reached, may throw light on the nature of these numerous 
groups of ions. 


1. Air which has passed over phosphorus is found to contain ions of the 
foUowing mobilities: -22, -092, -053, -028, -018, -0074, -0041, '0024, -0012, 
•00064, -00031, -00015, -000085, and -000053 cm/sec in a tield of 1 volt, cm. 

12 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

These ions have not been all observed under the same conditions of experi- 
ment. Some of the more mobile ions have only been obtained with dried 
air, and a short interval between formation and measurement. Some of the 
slower ions have only been found with uudried air, and a long time-interval. 

2. These ions are obtained with both positive and negative charges. The 
numbers of positive and negative ions are always practically equal. 

3. The mobility of any group of ions does not change with time. 

4. With dried air the ions of higher mobilities become more prominent. 
The values of the mobilities remain unchanged. 

5. Reasons are given for considering that the ions fomied by phosphorus 
are mainly composed of water. 

IM ] 







Kead Januauv 12. Piililislud Amu. 26, 1920. 

The whole subject of Meteorology lias iu recent years attracted a great 
deal of attention in view of the increasing importance of the knowledge of 
meteorological conditions in the upper atmosphere. Since 1890 much work- 
has been done on the electricity of atmospheric precipitation. The data 
obtained by various workers are, like all meteorological data, somewhat 
irregular' and- hard to co-ordinate, and show how complicated the subject is.' 
Simpson^ gives the following list of workers, and references to their publica- 
tions : — 



GottiiiKen, . 

Porto Eico, . 
Simla (India), 



Puenos Aires, 



Elster & Geitel, . 






Eenndoif, . 


Nolan & McClelland, 


Wien. Per. xcix, p. J21 (18!(0). 
TeiT. Magn. iv, p. 15 (1899). 

Miinch. Ber. xxxiii, p. 367 (190.3). 
Pbys. Ziit. iv, p. 837 (1903). 

Wien. Ber. cxv, Abt. ii a, p. 1299 (1906). 

Wien. Ber. cxviii, Abt. ii a, p. 25 (1909) 

Phil. Trans. A. ccix, p. 379 (1909). 
Proo. Roy. Soc. A. Ixxxiii, p. 394 (1910). 

Phys. Zeit. ix, p. 258 (190S). 

Veruff d. k. Preuss Met. Inst. No. 213 (1909). 

Ditto, No. 263 (1913). 

Wien. Ber. exix, p. 89 (1910). 
Sitz. Ber. K. B. Akad. d. Wiss. Miinehon, p. -102 

Lo Radium viii (Ai.rit, 1911). 
Ditto ix (March, 1912). 

Phys. Zeit. xiii, p. 151 (1912). 
Veiolf d. Deutsch. Wiss. Vereins in Buenos Aires, 
No. 3 (1913). 

Roy. Irish Acad. Proc. xxix, A, p. 81 (1912). 
Ditto XXX, A, p. 61 (1912). 

' Simpson, Phil. Mag., vol. xxx, p. 1. July, 1915. 



14 Proceedings of the Roi^al Irish Academy, 

He summarizes the outstanding results of their work as follows : — 

A. — Non-th xmderstoiin liatii. 

1. Eaiii is sometimes positively and sometimes negatively charged. 

2. About 90 per cent, of the rain is positively oharged. 

3. The normal potential gradient is nearly always reversed during the 

B. — Thunderstwm Rain. 

4. The precipitation is sometimes positively and sometimes negatively 

5. Moi-e positive than negative electricity is brouglit down by tlie 

6. The charges per unit mass of tlie precipitation and the vertical 
electrical currents produced by its fall are much larger than wiili non- 
thunderstorm rain. 

7. The potential gradient undergoes large and rapid changes of sign, and 
on the whole the potential gradient is more often reversed than not. 

C. — Snow. 

8. Snow is sometimes positively and sometimes negatively charged. 

9. In Simla positive electricity was in e.xces8, while in Potsdam an 
excess of negative electricity was observed. 

10. A given weight of snow may be more highly charged tiian the same 
amount of rain, even in a thunderstorm. 

11. High values of tlie potential gradient, both positive and negative, 
occur during snowfall. 

DirtVrent observers, however, do not agiee in details, and more work on 
the subject is needed. 

The work described in this paper was done at University College, Dublin. 
The apparatus employed was essentially the same as that used byM'Clelland 
and Nolan.' The receiving ve-ssel, A, was made of zinc, conical-shaped, 
81-3 cm. in diameter. Attached to it, and in metallic connexion with it, 
was a tipping-bucket. B, arranged to discbaige itself when 22 c c. of water 
had run into it from the receiving vessel. This part of the apparatus rested 
on a tripod, from which it was insulated by a parafiin wax ring. The whole 
was enclosed in a cubical wooden box, measuring about 1 metre each way, 
with a zinc top, sloped, so as to throw off the rain which fell on it. A circular 

' H'Clulland and Nolan, \loy. Irish Acad. Froc., vol. xxix, A. Feb., 1912. 

M'Ci.Ki.LANi) AND GiLAfoiiR — The FAcclvlc Chnrije. on Ihiin. lo 

opening was cut in this zinc, the edge nf which wii.s tuiiinl up Id a height of 
al)out lialf a centimetre. 

On tlie top of this opening was placed a zinc cylinder, 91 cm. high and 
91 em. in diameter. All this zinc and wooden bo.\ wei'e connected to earth. 
The receiving vessel was connected to a Dolezalek electrometer by a copper 
wire, enclosed in earthed metallic tubes, from which it was insulated by 
paraffin wax. The capacity of the electrometer, receiving vessel, and con- 
nexions was 0003 microfarads. The sensitivity of the electrometer was 
about IGOO mm. divisions per volt. When making mea.'^urements on the 

Fio. 1. 

rain it was found necessary to add to the electrometer capacities varying 
from -001 to '5 microfarads. The charge on the rain was calculated from 
the observed increase in potential of the apparatus, and the capacity. The 
discharge of the tipping-bucket was generally heard, bui, was always notified 
by its automatically earthing the apparatus. As a precaution, the apparatus 
was earthed independently at each discharge of the tipping-bucket. 

The apparatus was set up in a small quadrangle at the back of the college. 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The potential gradient in this quadrangle would be small owing to the high 
buildings surrounding it, and so the apparatus was well protected from the 
earth's field. Care was taken to place the apparatus so that no water from 
the adjoining roofs splashed into it. 

The results were obtained by personal observation between 1st January 
and 31st August, 19111. The type of rain and on many occasions the size of 
the drops were observed. No use was made of self-recording apparatus, so 
that only a portion of the rainfall was obtained. However, the results 
contained in this paper are probably fairly representative of the year's 
rain. Tliese results have been divided up into (1) non-thunderstorm rain, 
(2) thunderstorm rain, (3) sleet, (4) snow and hail. 

1. Non-thunderstorm Enin. 

This kind of precipitation is, of course, far more usual in Dublin than 
the otliers. During the year 1342 observations* on it were obtained cor- 
responding to 29,524 c.c. of rain-water. This rain fell on 49 days in 82 
"falls" or showers. Of these, 987 observations were on positive rain. Tliis 
is equivalent to 21,714 c.c. of rain-water, or 7o'.') per cent, of the total rain 
examined. The charge per c.c. varied as under : — 

Posilive Bain. 

No. of obterratioiu, showing charge per c.c. in E.S. units. 




obs. on 







•2- -3 

•3- -4 

•4- -6 


per c.c. 
in E.8.U. 

Joniiarr, . 






February, . 































































The remaining 35.5 observations, coi responding to 7810 c.c. of rain-water, 
or 265 per cent, of the rain examined, were on negatively charged rain. 

' An "observation" means one filling of the tipping-buckot. 

M'Clellanu AND GiLMouR — The Electric Charge on Rain. l7 

Negative Rain. 


No. of observations, showing negative charge 

per c.c. 

No. of 
obs. on 



< -1 


•2- -3 

•3- -4 

•4- -5 


per c.c. 
in E.S.U. 

January, . 







February, . 






















































Perhaps one of the most noticeable and unexpected features of the above 
tables is the increasing tendency for the rain to be negatively charged 
towards summer. This may be seen even more readily from the following 
table : — 



No. of 

of + rain. 

of - rain. 

Average + 
per c.c. 

Average — 
per c.c. 

January, . 






February, . 


96 •e 












81 •O 












83 •S 







87 •O 












26 •S 



During the later months of the period, but especially during July, there 
was a good deal of rain of the type classified by M'Clelland and Nolan' as 

• Lo(. cit. 

IB Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

" fine " rain. This rain is made up of very small droplets, the volume of the 
largest not being greater than 8 x 10"' c.c. It was found by them to be. 
always negatively charged, and has been so in every instance in the present 
investigation. It is generally very light, which makes the obtaining of 
reliable observations on it rather difficult. Indeed a shower of it, lasting an 
hour, oft«n failed to yield more than a few c.c. AVe were fortunate, how- 
ever, in getting veiy heavy rain of this type in July and the early days of 
August. Tliere was quite a downpour, lasting almost througliout the night 
of July 21, the rate of rainfall being for a considerable time greater tlian 
2"5 mm. per liour The chai-ge was negative throughout the night, and 
varied from '001 to 04 E.S.U. per c.c. The abundance of this " fine " rain in 
July accounts for the high percentage of negatively charged rain in that 
montli, and also to some extent for the percentage of negative rain in the 
period under observation. This is considerably higher than has been found 
by any of tlie recent observers. Schindelhauer' found 92 per cent, of the 
rain obser\ed by him positively charged ; Baldit,' 85 per cent. ; M'Clelland 
and Nolan, 82*6 per cent. ; as has been stated above, the percentage of 
positive rain in the present case is 73'5. If we neglect the July rain, the 
percentage of positive rain is 86, which is nearer tliat found by other 

Most of the rain observed during the other months was of the " mi.xed " 
type, i.e., it was a mi.\turc of drops of all sizes. It was generally positive; 
but the charge sometimes became negative. Tliis change from positive to 
negative seemed to occur irregularly at any period of the downpour or 
sliower, though there was a tendency for the negatively charged rain to be 
connected with a slower rate of rainfall, and perhaps with an increasing 
number of smaller drops, tliough negative rain sometimes occurred with 
quite large drops. The heaviest rain of this type was almost always posi- 
tively charged. The transition from positive rain to negative was never 
abrupt. The charge per c.c. always decreased before the change, and 
often fluctuated from positive to negative for several minutes. During 
these fluctuations the charge per c.c. was always small. Probably in such 
cases some drops are positive and some negative. 

From the tables given above it will be seen that the positive charge is 
generally much larger than the n^ative, on the average about double. The 
months of April and June would appear to be exceptions, but in both these 
months very few observations were got, and in each case all the negative 

' Schindelhauer, Veroffd. k. Preuss Met. Inst., No. 263. 1913. 
» Baldit, Le Radium viii. April, 1911. ix. Slarch, 1912. 

MH'mci.lani) and Gilmouk — The ElcHric Charge on Ruin. 19 

rain occuiiL'd nu a .sitiLjlc occasion. IL will also be seen that the highest 
charges per c.c, both positive and negative, were obtained in Maieh and 
April, generally in short showers. A positive charge of 10"1 E.S.U. per c.c. 
was got on a little shower on March 27th, and o'2 E.S.U. per c.c. on a 
shower on April 14th, while both positive and negative charges of 1 to 3 
E.S.U. per c.c. were obtained on several occasions in April. 

On almost every occasion the times between successive discharges of the 
tipping-bucket were noted by means of a stop-watch, so that it is possible to 
investigate the I'elation between the charge and the rate of fall, as well as 
the vertical current per square cm. due to the rain. 

Simpson^ and Baldit" found the highest positive and negative charges 
associated with light rain, while M'Clelland and Nolan' found the highest 
cliarges connected with heavy rain. In the case of positively charged rain 
the present investigation seems rather to support M'Clelland and Nolan, as 
will be seen from the following tables, showing the number of observations 
obtained for different times of discharge of the tipping-bucket and the 
corresponding average charges per c.c. The different times of discharge of 
the tipping-bucket were taken as being more convenient for the purposes of 
calculation than the rate of fall. The corresponding rates of fall are given 

' Simpson, Phil. Trans. A, ccix (1909). 

^ Loc. cit. 

3 M'Clelland and Nolan, Roy. Irish Acad. Proc. xxi, A (1912). 


Proceedings of tjie Royal Irish Acadeinif. 



c. s •- 

t- o = -?• — -- . ^ 
— — — . o 3: — 1 -M 
T t' 9 '.- 9 ? '9 



- — = c^ -r -- 1 C-i 

T) c-i 1 



2 2 I 1 g § 1 1 

? 1 

:i"S| " = 2 1 - « 1 1 



= n C = r~ ac 

? ? 2 s S = 1 1 



* S S " "" "^ 1 1 



o« cs o c . » o o 

S 2 S 2 1 S g = 



f. ;; £ ■= 1 " - = 




S - >- 

e> oc -^ •- C5 o eccs 



•o « et « 




•OMo — — — -^r". 
— wooac — -'■^o 



■r •- »* CO 




i^ S .= 1 1 § 2 .? 



S 2 ' 1 1 '^ • :: S 

1 ; 


1 i 

April. . 
May. . 
Juno, . 
July. . 


M'Ci.KLLAND AND GiLMouK — The Elcclric Charge on Rain. 2l 



Kg. Average 

of charge 

obs. per c.c. 

01 CO "ft fO 0> 1- 
1.. 10 CO CO ^^ »0 .-. — 


•022 4 
•031 3 
•023 26 

— 1 
•015 12 

— 2 
•036 7 
•738 2 










- ^ *- 1 - 1 - - 


per c. c. 

1 1 S 1 1 S 2 § 

1 1 1 1 c^ 05 



1 1 S 1 1 - "" -^ 




per CO. 

**«,»-«, , »C <-• CO 
»^ « 10 CO CO 
' ' '(MO.— 



. ^ IS 1 1-^2^ 






per c.c. 





(M -d* CO -H j .- --H C-1 



per c. c. 

fM CO eo , , 1^ CO 
n. I-- c^ ^ CO 1^ 

GO r-^ »0 1 loo 



. . I 



per c. c. 




°"S| 1 « ^ 1 1 - =0 J. 







March, . 
April, . 
May, . 
July, . 




I'rocefidliiyn nj the Ro>/al Iriah Aemfenli/. 

The above tables would seem to show that in the case of positive rain 
the highest charge per c.c. occurs with rather heavy rain, the maximum 
appearing fairly generally in tlie table when the rate of fall is from '6 to 
1 mm. per hour. The following table gives the rate of fall corresponding to 
times of discharge of tipping-bucket : — 

Time to tip bucket in niins. 



1 1 
3" 4' 5' 6' 

Equivnlent rate of fall ( .,.. . .,. 
in mm. per hour. ) " "* i "" 


•83 -625 



With negative rain the light rain seems ic be most heavily charged, but 
observations on it are numerous, and therefore not so reliable, since a 
very few high values make a great diflerence in the totals, as in second 
column in table. 

It seems to be customary, in pai)ers on the electricity of rain, to express 
the ciiarge brought down as curront per square cm. of the earth's surface. 

Positive i2f«7i. 


Current in Amperes x I0-" per sq. cm. 
< 1 1-5 1 > •'>. 

JonuBrjr (No. 

of Ob..), 


































M'Clkli.ani) and (iii.MoUK — 'Pk': Electric Chanjc on Rain. 2:] 

N&jalivc liain. 



\t in Arnpores x 10'^. 


< 1 


> 5 

J^niuiiy (No. c 

f Ol.s 







11 arch, 




























The values contained in the above tables are possibly slightly too low, 
owing to the fact that the zinc cylinder surrounding the receiver may be 
expected to ward off a small portion of the rainfall from it. As the small 
quadrangle in which the apparatus was placed is almost completely sur- 
rounded by high buildings, the apparatus was well protected from the winds, 
and this error is probably very small. 

The tables give a striking illustration of the fact that in non- thunderstorm 
rain as well as in thunderstorm rain, investigated by Simpson,^ " the greater 
the current the more likely is it to be carried by positively charged rain." 

Uncharged rain was never found during the observations. It was always 
necessary to use a capacity of at least -001 microfarads on the electrometer, 
so that the charge per c.c. on the rain was always greater than '00007 E.S.U., 
the lowest that could be measured with this capacity. As a matter of fact, 
a charge per c.c. less than twenty times this was exceedingly rare. 

The amount of positive electricity brought down was 3691-4 E.S.U., while 
the amount of negative electricity was 702-9 E.S.U., so that 84 per cent, of 
the total electricity brought down by the rain was positive. 

Thunderstorm Bain, 

Only two thunderstorms occurred during the time these observations 
were being taken. Both took place late in the evening. The first was on 

Simpson, Phil. Traus. A, vol. ccix. 1909. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

the night of May 14th. A slight shower had fallen earlier in the evening 
but the first peal of thunder was heard about 9.50 p m.' From 10.30 p.m. till 
1 a.m. the thunder and lightning were alnipst incessant. Ilain did not begin 
to fall till about 10.20, so that it was possible to get observations throughout 
the entii'c thunderstorm. At first the rain was very light, hut became 
exceedingly heavy from 10.40 to 11 o'clock. It continued to be fairly heavy, 
with one or two lulls throughout the storm. The charge at first was negative 
and high, 3-6 E.S.U. per c.c. After about ten minutes it became positive, 
but the positive cliarge per c.c. was not so large, generally 1-2 E.S.U. 
The charge changed in sign several times, and during these changes the 
values were sometimes quite low. A negative charge of 5 E.S.U. per c.c. 
was got again at 12.45, and from 12.50 till near the end a positive charge of 
2-5 E S.U. per c.c. was recorded. 


Number of observations, allowing charge per c.c. 

of charge. 

1 E. S. U. 

1-3 E. S. U. 

3-5 E. S. C. 

Total No. of 








Average positive charge per c.c. = 1'62 E.S.U. 
Avei-age negative charge per c.c = 203 E.S.U. 

It is perhap-s worthy of note tliat in this stonn the highest charges, both 
positive and negative, occurred with the heaviest rain. The rate of fall 
between 10.40 and 11 o'clock was over 5 mms. per hour. 

The other thunderstonii occurred after 10 p.m. on June 4. Only two 
short, heavy showers fell. The first of these was missed. The second, lasting 
about ten minutes, gave seven readings, of which five were negative and two 
(not consecutive) positive. 

Average positive charge per c.c. = '45 E.S.U. 
Average negative charge per c.c. = 43 E.S.U. 

Highest negative charge per c.c. in shower = 108 E.S.U. 
Highest positive charge per c.c. in sliower = •73 E.S.I^. 

In both these storms the rain was sometimes positively charged, some- 
times negatively ; and the charge per c.c. was in each case larger than is 
usually obtained with non-thunderstorm rain. 

> Ball lightning observed. M'Clelland and Gilmour: Nature. 12th June, 1910. 

M'Ci>ELi.ANi) AND Gri.MouR — TItc Elcctric Charf/e on Rain. 25 

Taking the t'vo storms togctlier — 

Volume of positive laiii = 1122 c.c.s. 
Volume of negative laiu = 946 c.c.s. 

Percentage positive = 54-2. 
Amount of positive electricity brought clown = 80'2S E.S.U. 
Amount of negative electricity bi'ought down = 79'29 E.S.U. 
Percentage positive = 50-.'3. 

Tlie amount of positively charged rain is slightly in excess ; but the 
amounts of positive and negative electricity brought down are almost equal. 

Some sliowers of sleet, i.e., a mixture apparently of raindrops and snow. 
fell in January and Maieh. In these showers the charge varied almost 
continuously from positive to negative, and vice versa, being generally, thougli 
not always, positive wlien the precipitation was in the form of rain, an<l 
generally negative when the rain became mixed with snow, or when snow 
alone fell for a few minutes. This sleet melted as quickly as it fell, so that 
its charge was easily measurable in ti)e same manner as rain. 

Positive Precipitation. 


No. of 


charge per 

c.e. inE. S. U. 


January 4, . 
March 4, . 

i, ■ 

„ 28, . . 





Negative Precipitation. 


No. of 



charge per 

c.c.inB. S. U. 


January 4, . 

,. 4, . • 
March 4, . 

4, . • 
„ 21, . 
„ 24, . . 



Eain and sleet. 







Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

From this table it would appear that the negative charge on sleet is very 
similar in magnitude to tiie negative charge on rain ; but the positive charge 
is much smaller thau the corresponding one. It is noteworthy that a decided 
change in the form of precipitation is generally accompanied by a change in 
the sign of the charge. 

Hail and Snoic. 

A good many showere of hail and snow were observed, especially in 
March and April. The apparatus is not well suited for measuring the 
charge on these forms of precipitation. It was possible, however, to measure 
accurately the toul chai-ge on the snow and hail wliich fell into the appara- 
tus, melt them afterwards with a known volume of warm wat«r, and thus 
get the increase in volume of the water in c.cs. The following observations 
were obtained in this way. 


Arerage charge' 
Vol. ill e.c. per c.c. Sign of iharge. 

in E. S. U. 













































Small hailstones. 






• 1 ft 



Large snov and hail (mixed) 



Hail and large rain. 




■J -06 



1 -08.5 











Small faailflonu. 



Small faailflonu. 


1 ■ 


Snow and rain. 







Small hailstones. 

The change from small hailstones to large hailstones is always very 
abrupt when it occurs, and is always accompanied by an equally abrupt 
change in the sign of the chaise. This is perhaps the most remarkable 
characteristic of these showers. It provetl rather disconcerting at first, so 
that for this reason, or owing to the use of too low a capacity, sevei-al 
s'lowers wer« missed, or the charge not accurately determined and such 

M'Ci.i;li-and and Gilmuui{ — The iAcctric Charge on Rain. 27 

numbers have not been i-.icludeil in the table. "We think, however, that tlie 
above table ia fairly re[ire>ientative of the .-snow ami hail which fell, except 
that on one or two occasions large snowHakes were positively charged, thougli 
it is pretty evident that the charge on snow was generally negative. Large 
hailstones were always positively charged, and small hailstones negatively. 
These small hailstones are about the usual size of raindrops, and generally 
colourless. The only change in the form of precipitation which did not 
cause a change in tlie sign of the charge was on March 27, when hail 
appeared to change to large raindrops without any alteration either in the 
sign or magnitude of the charge. It will be observed that the charge per c.c, 
is much larger in the case of snow and hail than in the case of rain. 

Size of Drops. 

In order to find whether the sign or magnitude of the charge on the rain 
is influenced by the size of the raindrops, some measurements of the latter 
were undertaken. Work has been done on the sizes of raindrops by 
Bentleyi and Defant." Bentley computed the sizes from the flour-pellets 
formed by allowing the raindrops to fall into Hour spread on a tray. The 
method adopted by Defant, viz., Weisner's, consisted in receiving the drops 
on filter paper, and allowing them to spread. lu the present case the latter 
method was employed. 

A mixture of one part of eosin to at least thirty of talc powder was 
rubbed into the filter paper. When a drop of water fell on this, it left a 
permanent pink circular stain as far as it spread. The relation between the 
volume of the drop and the diameter of the stain w-as found by allowing 
drops of known volume to fall on the filter paper, and measuring the stain 
produced. At first it was thought that drops as small as raindrops could be 
got from glass tubing drawn to a very fine point, and dipped in paraifin wax 
to prevent the water from wetting the glass. On trial it was found that the 
vast majority of raindrops were smaller than the smallest drops obtained in 
this way. Spraying water was then tried, but the number of drops falling 
on a given small portion of the area sprayed over was too variable. 

The method finally employed was as follows : — The water was allowed to 
drop at constant pressure from a glass tube drawn to a very fine point, which 
was dipped in paraffin wax. This tube was enclosed in an outer tube, open 
at the lower end, through which a steady blast of air was driven by a com- 
pression pump. The blast forced the drops from the end of the inner tube 

' Monthly Weather Review. Uctober, 1904. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, Sits: Ber. May, 1905. 

"28 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

before they could grow large. The drops obtained were found to be very 

To measure them, 100 drops were counted as they fell into a weiglied 
beaker; about 20 were then allowed to fall on the prepared filter paper; 
then another 100 were counted into the beaker, and the beaker weighed 
again. The volume per drop was thus obtained. The strength of the blast 
was then altered, giving drops of a dififercnt size, and the experiment 
repeated. Drops varying from '04: x 10"' c.c.s to 2 x 10"-^ were obtained 
in this way. Drops larger tlian this could be got without the blast by using 
tubes of diflferent bores, and altering the pressure, i.e. the head of water. 
The diameters of the stains were measured by a travelling microscope, and 
the curve, volume of drop against diameter of stain, plotted. 

Itaiudrops taken from a great many showers have been examined, as well 
as the stains left by some hailstones and snowflakes. No drops were got 
from tlie lliunderslorm rain. 

The volume of the largest drops examined was about 5 x lO-" c.c.s. Drops 
of this size — indeed, drops greater than 2-5 x 10' c.c.s— are rather excep- 
tional, the groat majority of raindrops being smaller tlian 1 x 10"' c.c.s. 
Some as small as '03 x 10"' c.c.s have been measured. At this stage the 
roughness of the paper began to become comparable with tiie size of the 
stain, rendering the stain slightly irregular, and making accurate measure- 
ments difhcult. Drops smaller than this certainly fell. In the case of the 
very large drops, the drop was inclined to "splash" when it fell on the 
paper. Though the spreading of the drop generally covered this "splashing," 
the stain was left somewhat irregular. The volume, however, could be 
determined with a fair amount of accuracy. 

Drojjs of all sizes were found, generally very much mixed. No relation 
was found between the charge per c.c. and the size of the drop, except that 
in the case of the "fine" rain, which is always negatively charged, the 
volume of the largest drop was less than 08 x 10' c.c.8. Several papers 
exposed in this rain liave been examined, each recording hundreds of 
drops. Only about half a dozen altogether had a volume greater than this, 
though the largest drops on each paper were picked out and measured. 
Small drops of this size occur in everj' kind of rain. I'apers exposed when 
only large drops seemed to be falling showed that these small drops were 
present. Negative rain sometimes contains as large drops as positive rain, 
but tliere seems to be a tendency for the drops to be more uniform in the 
case of positive rain. 

An atteuipt was made to mea.sure some snowflakes in tlie same manner. 
They were found to consist of small weights from aliout 9 m. gms. down to 

M'Ci.KM.AND AND GiLMouR — Tlic Eleclvic Charge on Rain. 29 

that of the smallest raindrop; but the stains left by them were more irregular 
than those of the raindrops. 

Very regular stains, which could be accurately measured, were left by 
the hailstones. The small negatively charged hailstones varied between the 
same limits as the raindrops, generally less than 2'5 m. gms. in weight. The 
large hailstones were very much larger than this. On one occasion some of 
them weighed about 50 m. gms., and many between 30 and 40 ni. gms. 


1. liain was never found uncharged. 

2. Of non-thunderstorm rain tested — 

(«) 73'5 per cent, was positively charged. 
(h) 84 per cent, of electricity brought down was positive, 
(c) Average positive charge per c.c. = '21 E. S. units. 
Average negative charge per c.c. = '08 E. S. units. 
((J) Average vertical current due to positive rain = r6 x lO"" amps. 

per square em. 
Average vertical current due to negative rain = '5 x 10''* amps. 

per square cm. 
(c) Eain consisting of droplets smaller than '08 x 10"' c.c.s was always 

negatively charged. 
(/) No general relation was found between charge and size of drops. 

3. Thunderstorm rain (two storms examined) — 

{a) 54-2 per cent, positively charged. 

(&) 50-3 per cent, of electricity brought down was positive. 

{c) More highly charged than ordinary rain. 

4. Hail and snow — 

(ft) Snow sometimes positively charged ; excess negative. 
(6) Small hailstones always negatively charged, 
(c) Large hailstones always positively charged. 

{d) Charge per c.c. higher than on rain ; often higher than on thunder- 
storm rain. 

R.I. A. PUOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. A. [4] 

( 30 ) 


Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

[ReadJcNK U. Published Novemiikh 19, 11120.] 


1. I.NTROnUCTION, . . 30 0. PkOOK nv niRP.CT THAN8P011MATI0K, 35 



3. FoUM OP THK FUNCTION r, 32 7. PUOOK IIV USB OF V, .... 36 


1. Introduction. 

If <p and 6 are two linear vector functions, and if a and |3 are any two 
vcct'jrs, the vector product YipaO^i possesses many properties dependent on 
the iniiwrtant invariants discovered by the late Professor C. J. Joly ; in fact, 
this product, being one of the simplest expressions which can be written down 
containing two linear vector functions, appears well adapted to show the 
meaning and application of Joly's invariants. 

The special problem I propose to study in this paper is suggested by a 
relation long ago proved by Hamilton, who showed (Elements, Art. 350) that 
the expression 

V^ali + Fa^/3 (1) 

is a linear vector function of Va^ ; is equal, in fact, to 

iin" - 4>') Vafi. (2) 

where m" is an invariant nf <p. 

1 propose to prove that the expression 

Vi,ae(i * V0af(5 (3) 

is a linear vector function of Va^i, and to study the form of this function. 
It will be found to involve Joly's invariants of f and 6. 

Hitchcock — A Study of the Vector Product V(f)a0fi. 31 

2. Proof that V<l>a0(5 t- V(ia<pji is a , function of F(i/3. 

The main proposition follows at once from Hamilton's definition of the 

cvnjufjatc of a linear vector function : if ^ be any such function, its conjugate 
\f/' satisfies the relation 

Sfjxpa = Saip' f), (4) 

where f) and a are any two vectors. 

Consider now Iho term V(i>u0f5. Since it is linear in ji, we may take p 
any vector whatever, and transform as follows : — 

SpV.pa6ii = - S<paVpei5 

= - Sa(p' Vptiii, as in (4), 
= - Saxpfi, say, (5) 

if we agree to write 

^Pfi^f'Vpdii. (6) 

Again, starting with the term VOafIS, we may write 

Sp F6»a(/,/3 = + S<j>(5 VpOa 

= + Slicf>' Vpt)a, as in (4), 

= + Sjii^a, by (6J, 

= + Sc4'(5, by (4). (7) 

Adding the two results (6) and (7) gives 

Sp[ V,paefi + Vea<j,t5] = - Sa[^P - ^'J/S. (8) 

But it is well known that an expression of the form [ip - \p']f5 is of the 
form Vij3, where £ is a vector ; and, since the left side of (8) is linear in p, 
the same must be true of the right side, whence we may write 

[i - f ] /3 = V^p(5. (9) 

where np (which is the same as t) is a linear vector function of p. The 
equation (8) now becomes 

Sp[V,j,a9li + V9a^^] = - SaVnpii 

= + Sllf^TTp 

= +6p7r'Faj3; (10) 

but, since p is any vector whatever, it follows that 

V(Paei5 + Vea,j>l5 = tt' F(./3, (11) 

which shows that the left side is a linear vector function of FVi/3. It remains 

to study the form of tt'. 


32 Proceedings of the lioyal Irish Academy. 

3. Form of the fiuuiion n. 
The function tt was defined by (9), henee depends on i// - i//'. Now i/- was 
given by (6) ; to find ,/»' we use (4), thus, 

= S<^a Vpdii, as in (4), 

= - SOfi Vp4>a, identically, 

= - S\W Vp(pa, as in (4) ; (12) 

hence by definition of a conjugate 

^■fi = -ffVp^^. (13) 

Returning to (9) and using the values of ;^/3 and ;//'/3, we have 

«' VpB^ + V Vp^ti = Vnpii. (14) 

which is to be solved for the linear vector function n. Tliere are many ways 
of solving. We may choose first a method which, while slightly unsym- 
metrical, brings out the relation of the equation to Joly's invariants, and also 
has the advantage of compactness. 

Since p may be any vector whatever, write p = fl/3, whence 

e'V,pi5i)fi= V^nefi. (15) 

Multiply the left side by any vector A, and transform thus, 

SWV^ftRfi - SeX^iiOii, as in (4), 
= .s>/ie/30A, identically, 
= .S>/3F0/3OA. (16) 

Now, by a well-known relation due to Hamilton, 

VefidX-' md'-'VliX. (17) 

where m is the coefficient of the absolute term in the cubic 

e* - ?n"fl* + m'e - M = 0. (18) 

Therefore (16) becomes 

sxe' f>/3e3 = ms^^W' f/3a 

= »/i.s'd->|3K/3A, as in (4), 

= - 7nSXfie-^<pfi, identically ; (19) 

but, since A was any vector whatever, this is equivalent to 

e' Ff^Oii = - m J73e >f3. (20) 

Tt is worth while to note in passing that (20) is a special case of the identity 

OT^Oii ^-mViiO-'p. (21) 

where nt is the third invariant of 9 and p and /3 are any vectors whatever; 
this relation may 1>€ proved as in (19), writing p in place of ^/3. 

IliTCiTOOCK — A Stiidij of the Vect.oi- Product V(\)a()^. 33 

If we now compare (20) with (15j, we have, axiomatically, 

V\W{)^ = - VI ViW<i>fi, (22) 

whence by transposing and factoring 

F/3[ni0-V^ + 7r«/3] = 0, (23) 

that is, the vector in brackets is parallel to j3. Suppose 

m0-i0/3 + 7r(*/3 = «/3, (24) 

where « is a scalar. I shall now show that this scalar is one of Joly's 
invariants. The function tt will then be fully determined. 

4. Determination of the scalar a. 

To determine the value of a, return to (14), and write 6'X in place of p, 

-// VOXdji + 0' Vti\<t>i3 = - VldirOX. (25) 

The first term on the left, by (17j, is equal to ■m<^'B'~'^ FA/3 ; the second term, 
by (21), is m FA0 i(/)j3 ; whence (25) becomes 

m.^'6>"i FAjS + m VXe-^i.fd = - FjSvr&A. (26j 

To see the meaning of the left side we may write 

'nid~^(j> = 5, a linear vector function ; (27) 

and therefore 

vKj)'!)''^ = S,', the conjugate function. (28) 

Equation (26) will now read 

r FA^ + FA$j3 = - VfintiX ■ (29) 

but by Hamilton's relation referred to in the introduction, 

r FXj3 + VX^ji = x" FAj3 - r?X/3, (30) 

where x" is the first invariant of S, namely, 

„ SXfx^v + Sfxv^X + SvX^/j. r■'^\ 

Comparing (29) and (30), 

.;•" FA^ - F?A/3 = - V\iirQX, (32) 

which may be written 

F/3 [x"X - ^\ - TT^A] = 0, (33) 

that is, the vector in brackets (which does not involve /3) must be parallel to 
any vector /3 (which is impossible), or else must vanish idL'iitically, i.e., 

x"X - ?A - ttOX = : (34) 

34 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadenii). 

but the operand X is any vector whatever, hence 

y - I - TT^ = 0, identically. (35) 

This agrees with (24), and shows « = x" . Finally, form the invariant x" by (81), 
putting for ^ its value from (27), and we have 

= m {S<pye'-' FA/x + . . .) 

= S^ve\9^ - S<p\0fiB,- - S^uBvdX by (17) ; (36) 

but this makes x" agree precisely with Joly's invariant /'^ in Trans. R. T. A., 
vol. XXX, part XVIII (March, 1896), p. 713. Inserting the values of x" and 5, 
(35; gives 

•n-tf = /', - me^-t, (37) 

and by multiplying both sides into fl"' 

JT = ^e-i - //i0 »^r' ; (38) 

whence by taking conjugates 

. „' = /',^-'- „,e'->'r-', (39) 

so that (11) becomes 

r^e^ + r«a0/3 - [/',^-' - m»'-'f ff'-]Fo/3, (40) 

and the problem proposed in Art. 1 is solved. 

It is evident that the right side of this result is, in form, not symmetrical 
in the two functions <p and 0, while the left is so. Therefore, if wc had 
interchanged ^ and throughout the investigation, we should have found 

VfaOfi* VBa^ii = [l,<f,'-' - p<p'-<9'<i>'-']Fa0, (41) 

where /, is Joly's invariant defined by 

/.&A^r = :£,S<t>X<)>^0y. (42) 

and p stands for the third invariant of ^. Since the two quantities in brackets 
in (40) and (41) must W equal, we have the interesting identity connecting 
li and /'i 

, = r,e-' - }<>e-^4,e-' = /.«-' - p<t>'e<t>-'. (43) 

As a check on thi^ work, we may note that (40) and (41) are generalisa- 
tions of Hamilton's relation already mentioned in Art 1. Therefore if, as a 
special case, 9p - p, identically, i.e.. tf = 1, Iwth (40) and (41) must reduce to 

V<t>aii - Va<t>ti = [p" - «-] Vali. (44) 

In the case of (40) this is all but evident; in (41) the reduction follows by 
the use of the cubic in <f,. The proof is left to the reader. 

Hitchcock — A Study of the Vector Product V(^ad^. 35 

5. Proof hy direct tran>\formntion . 

Thoi-e is lofifical satisfaction in piovinti; identities by the direct trans- 
formation of one side into the other. While it would not liave lieen easy to 
foresee at the start how to do so, we may now, as a recapitulation of the 
main steps of the reasoning, prove the identity (40) in this manner. 

I'><.0f3 + Vda<p\i = O'-i^' [ V<i,ae^ + V{)a^\il, since d'HY = 1, 

= 0'-' [9' V,pad^ + «' r0«./,/3] by distributing 9' , 
= e'-i[- m F/3W-V" + "' ViS-'',^^] by 21, 
= B'-'[Vlo^+ F„e/3] by (27), 
= e'-iK- ?']^«/3by(30i, 

= ri[r.-r]F<./3by(;i6), 

= [/'#-' - mii'-'^'Q'-'] Fo/3 by (28). 

6. Symmetrical form of the function w. 

Since, as already indicated, the form of tt in (38) is not symmetrical, it 
must be possible to obtain this function by a method that shall treat ^ and 
alike. Doubtless we shall not expect so compact a result. Eeturning to our 
equation (14), we may develop both terms of the left side by Hamilton's 
relation, applying it to 0, thus 

Vnpii = ,i>' VpOji + 6' Vp<l>j3 by (14), 

= f [(«/' - h') Vpfi - V0p(5] H- m"Vp,l>(i - Vep<i.(i - Vpbfii 

= m" [,(,' Vpji + Vpft>fi] - [<p' vepfi + vopfji] - [<p'iy Vpji + Vpeffi], 

where the last line is a mere re-arrangement. Now Hamilton's relation may 
be applied to (p in the first two bracketed groups, and to ^'0' in the third 
group. The first invariant of the function cfi'f)' may be called t". Then 

Vnp(i = m"[p"Vp(i - Vfpji] - lp"V9p(5 - V<j>0pl5] - [rVpfS - ve<i>pi3i 

where all the terms are vector products of some vector i^ito /3. Hence, since 
/3 is any vector whatever, 

TT = m"p" - m"ip - 2^"Q + rbd + 0(p - t", (45) 

where ^ and enter in the .same manner. But, from Joly's paper already 
referred to, the scalar t" is the same as Mi, the first invariant of fit/., whence 
m"p" - t" = /j, another of Joly's new invariants, defined by 

hS\p.v = :S.S\{e,„i>v + .pudv). (46) 

"We may therefore write i'45i as 

TT = Z, - m"(tt - p"0 + (jiO + 0(p. (47) 

36 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

so that (11) now becomes 

V,padfi + VOa^fi = \_U - w'>' - i^'B' + &<{>' + <t>'9'] Voft. (-48) 

The function in brackets must, of course, be equal to the coiresponding 
expressions in (40; and in (41), and must reduce to p" - <(,' when = 1, as is 
easily seen 

7. Proof by use of V. 

In what precedes our work has consisted essentially in the solution of the 
equation (14) by two different methods, first by identities of the form (21) 
second by using Hamilton's relation for distributing <t, and d. A third 
method, oflering certain advantages, is afforded by Hamilton's operator V. It 
is known that if ;^ be any linear vector function, we have 

{xf,- ■^')^ = - VftV\'iP>T, (49) 

where V acts on a, but not on the constituents of \p. Now by comparing 
(14) with f9) we have 

li - r)^ - ./F,.fl/3 4 9'Vp<pi3. (50) 

whence by (49) 

0' V/.eii + d' Vpf^i = - Vji rv[^' FpOa . 0" Fp^a], (51) 

where V acts on a but not on p. Thus at onct- 

TTp = - rV[^' Vpea + 0' Fjo^-t], (52) 

which givfs TT more directly than the former methods, but leaves the operation 
V t<:i l>e perfonne«l. It is not difficult to obtain (45) by the application of tlie 
properties of V. 

8. Comparison iriih Cartesian methods. 

It is highly instructive tti compare identities obtained by the compact 
and elegant methods of Hamilton with their equivalent in the langui^e 
of ordinary scalar al;;ebra. Space forbids doing this in general, but as a 
single illustration let us see what (48) becomes when thus translated. 
Let (^ and fl be defined by the respective matrices 

P.u P... P» Qu. Qu. Qn, 

^ = P», P». /'» ^ = Qr.. <?«- e«. 

P,>. /'„, P. Q», Q», Q«, 

and let the components of a and /3 be a,, a,, a^ and b,, 6,, &> 
The vector ^a will then have the components 

Piifli + Piz"7 + ^i/'j ; ^»«i + ■Pjj^i + •Pi/'i; -Pii«i + Path + Paffj; 

and 0^ will have the components 

nric'iicoCK A Sludij oi' llie Vector Product V<l}aO/3. 37 

Joly's iin'aviaul /■., which is the siiuplesL ul' his new invariants, becomes 

Our identity i4Sj is equivalent to three scalar identities, of which the first 
must sullice. It is 

(Pairti + Piitti + Pistt,) (Qai&i + QA + QiA) - (/'aifti "I- /'32a2 + P-^/h) 
{QJh + Q,A + Q'Jh) + (0...,«1 + Q22«2 + Q.3«3) (P3,6, + PzA + P:M 

- (Q3,a, + Q,,a, + Q3aa3] (/^>&, + P22&2 + PrA) = [P.M.« + Q,2Pz:> + P33Q,, 

+ Q33P,, + PuQ.z+QuP.2- P^^Q,,- Q.J\,- P,.Q.,- QrJ\- /'2iQ,2- Q.J'n) 

{ajh - n-A) - [Qii + Q-n + Qx<]lPn{(iA - aA) + P'u {njj, - aA) + P^^MA 

- a-A)] - [Pu + -P22 + ^'33] [Qu [aA - aA) + Q2,{aA - a,h) + Q^iaA - aA )] 

+ Qn [Pu (aA - «3&2) + -^21 {aA - aA) + P.n {aA - a-A)] 

■^ Qii[Pn{aih- aA) + -P22 (rts&i - ffi&.i) + Pn{aA-aA)] 

+ ft, [Pi3 {aA - aA) + P23 («3&i - aA) + P-xi (a A - a-A)] 

+ ^u [Qn (a^h- aA) + Q21 {a A - aA^ + ft, (a A - a A)] 

+ P21 [Qn («2&3 - aA) + ft2 '\«3&. - a A) + Qi2 (aA ~ aj},)} 

+ -^31 [(3,3 («2&3 - «3&2) + Q-a (aA - aA) + Qii (aA. - aA)] 

Here tiie last three lines express in Cartesian form one componcnl of the 
vector ^'Q' Va(3. It is clear that vector language and processes justify them- 
selves not alone by tlieir compactness, bi\t by a two-fold lucidity : the 
vectorial expression for any quantity indicates both what it is and what 
may be done with it. 


[ 38 ] 




Uy rj;OFESS()l! J. .1. NOLAN, ,M.A., D.Su., 
University College, Dublin. 

Rend NovKMiiKU 8. I'liblislied Dbckmhkk ;!0, 1920. 

In an e.xaminatiou of the ionization produced by spraying water,^ the author 
obtained evidence of the existence of a j^rcat variety of ions, some of them of 
mobility much greater than that ordinarily attributed to the small ion in 
air. On a more complete examination it was found- that several groups of 
such mobile ions existed, some of very high mobility. In addition, aniinibcr 
of other groups were separated out, the mobilities of wliicli roughly 
correspondeil lo those observed for ions produced in air by the ordinary 
ionizing radiations. Four sucli groups were specially noted. These groups 
contained ions having for mobility in unit field (volt/cm.) the values 
1'94, 1-70, r49, and 1";34 cm/sec. respectively. It was suggested: (1) that 
all these ions consist of clusters of water-molecules of diflcrent sizes, the very 
mobile ions corresponding to the very small groups (one, two, three 
molecules, etc.), and tlie othere, such as the four mentioned above, consisting 
of hunger groups of a regularly graduated size ; (2) tliat the ordinary small 
ion in air and otlier gases is also a stable cluster of water-molecules, identical 
with one or other of the four forms mentioned above, the particular form 
prevailing at any time depending on the sign of the charge, and also on the 
degree of liuniidity. 

As a first step towards the testing of these hypotheses, the author 
considered it desirable to make some attempt at an accurate redetermination 
of the mobility of the ordinary small ion in air of different degrees of 
humidity. The method employed for the measurement of mobility was 
practically the .same as lliat devise<l for the measureiuent of llie mobile 

' Proc. Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxiii (A), p. 9(1916). 
* Froc. Royal Society, A, vol. xciv, p. 112 (1918). 

Noi.AN— Inni proilnced ill Air by Umlio-Aclu'c Bodies. 


Experimental Method. 

The apparatus (fig. 1) consists of a shallow rectangular box, measuring 
internally 125 cm. in length, 3 1 •! cm. in width, and 10 cm. in depth. Insulated 
metal plates are fixed flush with the top and bottom of the box. The lower 
plate is 45 cm. long, and is connected to a potentiometer by which it can be 
charged to any desired voltage. The upper plate, which is connected to an 
electrometer, is 25 cm. long and 15 cm. wide, and is surrounded by a guard- 
plate connected to earth. Thus the arrangement, as will be seen from the 
diagram, is practically that of a parallel-plate condenser, the distance between 
the plates being 10 cm. 'i'he ionization is produced at X, that is, directly 
below the edge of the upper insulated plate. A detailed drawing of the 
arrangement at ^r is given. It consists of a sort of trough of sheet lead, 
1 cm. in width and l"2cm. in depth, which is sunk in the lower plate through 





ff ■ Radioactive moltci 


Fio. 1. 

a slot 1 cm. in width. This trough extends across almost the whole width 
of the lower plate (approx. 28 cm.). A strip of lead 2-2 cm. in width is 
supported above it at a distance of 1 cm. from the surface of the plate, 'i'he 
radio-active matter is placed at the bottom of the I. rough. In these experi- 
ments the source of radiation was a number of thin glass tubes containing 
radium emanation. Thus a fairly intense local ionization is produced at the 
region marked X, the intensely ionized strip extending across the width of 
the lower plate, while the rest of the air-space is affected only by the 
more penetrating radiation which has passed through a thickness of approxi- 
mately 1'3 mm. of lead. A uniform current of air passes through the 
apparatus in the direction indicated by the arrows. Tlie lower plate is 


40 ProceedinffS of the Ro//al Irish Academy. 

charged to various potentials, aud the corresponding currents to the upper 
plate are read off by means of the electrometer. 

If all the ionization is produced at X, and if only one kind of ion is 
present, then, as the voltage is increased from zero, the electrometer will 
receive no charge until the field applied is sufficient to carry the ions across 
the vertical space between the plates, while the air-stream carries them 
through tiie horizontal distance of 25 cm. But, since all the ions are produced 
very nearly at the. same place, they will have almost identical paths, and they 
will all arrive at the upper plate for a certain small increase in voltage. If 
the voltage is still further increased, there will be no increase in the current, 
as all the ions are already captured. If the current-voltage graph is plotted, 
it should show a zero value for current up to a certain point, then an abrupt 
upward bend at a certain voltage, and then a horizontal part. Knowing the 
dimensions of the apparatus and the quantity of air passing through it per 
second, we are enabled by an observation of this "critical voltage " to calculate 
the mobility of the ions. 

But the form of curve described cannot be realized in practice. We have 
assumed that all the ionization is produced in a certain restricted region ; 
but thu more penetititing ladiations will cause a weak general ionization 
throughout the whole air-space. '1 he current due to this ionization will 
increase smoothly as the voltage increases, so that our experimental curve 
will really be iluo to the superposition of the step-like curve on this smooth 
curve. When these experiments were initialed, it was e.xpected, therefore, 
that the curves obtained would show a gradual upward slope, then an abrupt 
step correspiindiiig to the imlinary small ion, and then a resumption of the 
gradual rise. The actual curves obtained, however, were not of that simple 

Befoi-e discussing the graphs obtained, some further remarks are necessary 
as to the conditions of working, in the beginning, the ordinary air of the 
laboratory was drawn tiirough the apparatus. It was found, however, that 
the electrical readings, while frequently quite good, were occasionally 
unsteady, and the evidence seemed to point to variations in the humidity of 
the air as the source of the unsteadiness. It was decided, tlierefore, to use 
air of some definite degree of humidity; and, as the ditliculties involved in 
drying large volumes of air are veiy considerable, it was arranged to work 
with saturated air. The an-angement adopted then was to pass the air from 
one water-sealed gasometer through the apparatus into another identical 
gasometer. The gasometers were coupled together so as to move at the 
same rate. The results given in this paper, therefore, refer altogether to 
saturated air. 

Nolan — Ions prodvccd in Air hi) Rudio-Active Bodies. i\ 

'I'he type of curves obtained in lliis wink will be clear from an inspection 
of lig. '1 and fig. 3. Figure 2 is an example of the first part of the current- 
voltage curve, starting at zero voltage. Instead of a smooth slope upwards, 
we find a curve broken by four slight but unmistakable "nicks" or changes 
of direction. This indicates the presence, in small quantities, of four distinct 
classes of ions. The mobilities of these ions can be calculated from the 
formula Fw = QalLb, where V is the " critical voltage," ?t the mobility, 
Q the volume of air per second, a the distance between the plates, L the 
length of the upper plate, and h the width of the apparatus. In all the 
experiments for which graphs are given, Vu had the value 250. The critical 
voltages on this curve are 2, 3-75, 6, and 8-35, and these values correspond to 

Fig. 2. 

ions of mobilities 12'5, 6'66, 4'16, and 3'0 cm. /sec. The graph given refers to 
negative ions. Similar graphs ai-e obtained with positive ions, and, as far as 
investigation has gone, there seems to be no striking difference between the 
nature of ihe ionization of the different signs ; certainly the ion of the 
highest mobility (12'5) is present in the positive ionization. 

With regard to the curve given, it may be as well to state — and this 
applies equally to tiie other two curves— (1) that all the points plotted are 
direct experimental numbers, and are not the result of taking means ; and 
(2) that every observation taken has been plotted. 

In fig. 3 are given two examples, negative and positive, of the continua- 
tion of the current-voltage graph. Here, instead of the rather slightly 
marked "nicks" of the first part of the curve, we find in each case four dis- 
tinct and well-marked steps. This indicates the presence, in considerable 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

quantities, of four groups of ions. Observing the critical voltages, we can, 
as before, calculate the mobilities. We find for the negative ions the values 
2-0, 1-7S, lo4, and 1-36; and for tlie positive, the values 2-07, 1-78, 1-59, • 
and 1"45. Some of these steps are nuich more distinctly marked tluin others. 
For example, in the case of the negative ions, the steps corresponding to the 
two faster ions (20 and 1'78) are much greater than those corresponding to 
the other two classes. In the case of tiie positive ions, however, the slowest 
ion (1"45) comes out mucli more distinctly than the others. 



■ Volts. - 


Fio. 3. 

There can liardiy be any doubt as to the intei-pretation of these curves. 
They show that when ionization is produced in moist air by radio-active sub- 
stances the bulk of the ionization is carried by ions of four distinct classes, 
having mobilities 2-0, 178, r56, and 140 approx. That among negative 
ions the two faster groups tend to predominate, while among positive ions 
the slowest kind carries a large part of the ionization. 'J'hat, in addition, ions 
of mobility up to 12o are present in distinct groups, but in small quantities. 

Noi>AN — fons produced in Air hij Nadio- Active Bodien. 43 


Tlie foregoing results were obtained by the .lutlior early in 1918. Tt 
was ditticiilt, however, to believe that, if the ordinary small ion were in 
reality a mixture of what might be termed " isotopes," the fact should not 
have been detected by other observers. Efforts were therefore made to 
obtain confirmation of this result by an entirely different method. 'J'his 
has presented many difficulties, which have not yet, in fact, been completely 
surmounted. But some degree of confirmation has been obtained so far as 
concerns tilie four principal groups. It is hoped to give at a future date 
some account of these experiments ; their value so far lies only in the fact that 
they support the much more distinct evidence given by the method described 

General CoNsinEiiATiONS. 

These efforts to obtain independent confirmation liave delayed the 
investigation of certain points which at once present themselves as objecls 
of inquiry. For example, an inspection of fig. 3 shows that there appears to 
be considerable difference between the mobility of the slowest positive ion 
and that of the corresponding negative ion. It is important to finil out 
whether this is a real difference. Sufficient observations have not yet been 
made to decide the point. A table is given setting out the results of all good 
observations made so far on the four principal groups. The corresponding 
values found in the previous work on spray-ions are also given. 

'J'ABMi; OF Moiui.ri'Y OF Jons. 

Radio-activj'. SOUIICE. 



2-0 1-92 



1-78 1-6-1 



1-54 1-47 



1-3G 1-33 
















Tbe values given Ijy the graph \\\ fig. 2 for the nKirc nitibile inns, ihat is, 
12'5, 6'66, 4 16, and 3'0, are in good agreement with the other observations 
which have so far been made over that range. 

Another very important point is the question of humidity. All these 
observations have been made on moist air. An exaniinatinn of tlie changes 
in the distribution of the iuns produced by drying should be of great 

44 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

Again, it may be mentioned that the eight groups of ions dealt witli in 
this paper do not account for all the ionization. If the graphs are pushed 
on, further indications are found of the existence of other groups having 
mobilities still lower. These have not yet been fully worked out. 

If the evidence of these results be accepted, it would seem as if tlie 
theoi"ies which regard tlie small ion as an atom or molecule must be definitely 
abandoned. The small ion seems then to be a mi.xture, for the greater part, 
of groups of four dilferent sizes. The unit out of whicli tliese groups are 
built up is probably the ion of mobility 12'5, the smallest of the more 
mobile ions found present. Now, almost any method of calculating the 
mobility of an ion on the elastic collision hypothesis will ijivn for ihc 
mobility of a monomolecular ion something about this value. For example, 
in a previous paper* the author found that Sir J. J. Thomson's formula 
would give for a monomolecular ion of water the value 12'.'-!, ami fur an ion 
of oxygen or nilrogen the value 12. We are therefore justified in assuming 
that this fastest ion is a single molecule, and that the other ions are groups 
of increa.'^ing numbers of molecules. 'J'lie reasons given in the previous paper 
for believing that the molecular unit, of wiiieh the ions are biiill ii)i, is the 
water mi'lecule, rather than the oxygen or nitrogen molecule, still bold 
good; in fact, the whole argument of the i)re\ious paper is strengthened by 
the re.sults now presented. 

While the present paper ha.s been in jireparation, a paper by O. Blackwood 
on " The Existence of liomogcneous Groups of Large Ions"' has come under 
the writer's notice. I»lackwood claims to have proved that the existence of 
a distinct group system of large ions, as found by the present writer and 
others,' cannot be verified. " In other words, he finds a coivlinu^us spectrum 
of mobilities, and not a hand spectrum." He also holds that the evidence 
brought forward by Ihe author in favour of the existence among sjnay-ions 
of mobilities liiglier than the normal may be interpreted in some other way, 
without assuming such abnormal mobilities. 

Taking the latter point first, the author is of the opinion that the results 

.given in the present ])aper on ions of high mobility are a remarkable 

confirmation of those given previously. The grounds on which Ulackwood 

bases his criticism of the previous work (the validity of which criticism the 

' Proc. Royal Society, A, vol. xciv, p. 112 (1918). 

> Physical Review, Au;^.. 1920. 

> J. J. Nolan. Proc. R I.A., A, vol xxxiii, p. 9 (1916). M'ClellniKl and P. J. Nolan, 
Proc. R.I. A., A. vol. xxxiii. y. 24 fl91i;) : vol. jtxxiv. |.. .")1 (1918) ; and vol. xxxv, ji. 1. 

Nolan — Ions produced in Air h/j liudio- Active Bodies. 45 

preseiil writer tines imt admii) are entirely abisent in liie case ol the pu-sent 

As to the existence of separate groups of laige icns, woils vliicli is at the 
present time being carried out in the Physical Laboiator}' fif L'ni^•ersity 
College, using the method employed by Blackwood (the Zeleny method), is 
in complete confirmation, as far as it has gone, of the previous work. Not 
only does the Zeleny method indicate clearly the co-existence of sopaiate 
groups of large ions, but the mobilities deduced by it aie in complete agree- 
ment so far with those obtained by the M'C'lelland method. It is hoped to 
present this new evidence and to deal with the whole question of large ions 
in a future communication to the Academy. 

With regard to the small ions, the present paper is obviously incomplete. 
The main results are presented pending a complete examination of the many 
points which call for attention. 

The author wishes to thank Mr. F. E. Lewis, b.a., b.e., who prepared the 
diagrams for this paper. For help and inspiration in this and other work 
the author is deeply indebted to the late Professor M'Clelland. 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. XX.KV, SKCT. A. [6] 














Thk ACADEXry desires it to be understood that they are not 
answerable for any opinion, rep-csetitation of fads, or train of 
reasoning that may appear in any of the follomng Papers. TJie 
Authors of the several Essays are alone responsible for their 

Dublin : PHixmn at thii Umtfumtt Prku by Ponsonbt xxn Gikm6. 





COLGAN (N.) : 

On the OcciuTence of Tropical Drift Seeds on the Irish Atlantic 

Coasts. (Plate X), 29 

Eakland (A.) : — 

See under Heron-Allen (E.) and A. Earland. 

Flood (Margaret G.), B.A. : — 

See under Henry (A.), M.A., and M. G. Flood. 

Halbert (J. N.) : — 

The Acarina of the Seashore. (Plates XXI-XXIII), . . .106 

Henry (A.), M.A., and M. G. Flood, B.A. :— 

The History of the London Plane. (Plates IV-IX), ... 9 

The History of the Dunkeld Hybrid Larch, Larix eurole/ns, with 

Notes on other Hybrid Conifers. (Plate XI), .... 65 
The Douglas Firs : a Botanical and Silvicultural Description of the 

various Species of Pseudotsuga. (Plates XII-XIV), . . 67 

Heron-Allen (E.), F.R.S., and A. Earland: — 

An Experimental Study of the Foraminiferal Species Verneuilina 
polystroplia (Reuss), and some others : being a contribution to a 
discussion "On the Origin, Evolution, and Transmission of 
Biological Characters." (Plates XVI-XVIII), .... 153 

Pbaeger (R. Lloyd), B.A. : — 

On Species of Sedum collected in China by L. H. Bailey in 1917. 

(Plates I-III), 1 

Stephens (Jane), B.A., B.Sc. ; — 

The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. (Plates XXVI-XXVIII), . 205 

Stephenson (T.A.), M.Sc. : — 

The Genus Corallimorphus. (Plates XIX-XX), . . . .178 

Wright (Mabel C.) :— 

Limnestheria : a New Conehostracan Genus from the Kilkenny Coal- 

Measures. (Plates XXIV-XXV) 187 

Wright (W. B.), B.A. :— 

Minor Periodicity in Glacial Retreat. (Plate XV), .... 93 







IN 1917. 


Plates I-III. 

Read January 27. Published Makch 28, 1919. 

I HAA'E recently examined the plants belonging to the genns Sedum eompiised 
in the collections made in China in 1917 by Mr. L. H. Bailey, of Ithaca, 
New York. The area traversed by him lay in the provinces of Kiangsi, 
Hupeh, and Honan. The portion of Kiangsi which was explored had 
previously been worked over by E. H. Wilson, but the northern border of 
Hupeh and part of Honan, wliere large collections were made, had not been 
explored previously by a botanist. The Sedunis enumerated below were 
obtained in latitude 29° to 32° N. and at no great elevation — from near sea- 
level to some 3.500 feet. The collection is of a more lowland character than 
most of those which have yielded the many new species of Sedum described 
in recent years from China, which have come largely from the high ranges 
of Yunnan and the great gorges of the Mekong and Yangtse, over by the 
Tibet border. 

The collection, though small, is of considerable interest. The eleven 
numbers include eight species, three of which are new. Of the species 
previously described, *S'. lineare Thunli.. long known fnim Jajian. is hitherto 
unrecorded from China. Of the new species, one plant is related to a 
small and well-marked group which, as hitherto known, was con lined to the 
Caucasus and Asia Minor, while another is a remarkable species with leaves 
which are unique in the large genus to which it belongs, and witli other 
unusual characters showing interesting affinities. 

Chinese Sedums are now so many in number, the type specimens are so 
widely scattered in herbaria and the descriptions in botanical literature, that 

n.I.A. PKOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. B. ['1,1 

2 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

illustrations ot the species are highly desii-able, especially as in this genus the 
species are often difficult of diagnosis, and dried material mostly poor. In 
addition to tlie three new species, I have given therefore figures of S. Alfredi 
and S. drymarioidis. Tlie well-known S. Aizoon has already been figured 
several times ; figures of S. linearc and of S. riscosum (as well as of S. Aizoon) 
will be given in an account of the Sedums known in cultivation, which I 
have prepared for the Koyal Horticultural Society of London. 

Section AIZOON. 

Sedum Aizoon Linn. 

Hills, Koshan and vicinity, province of Honan. I.At. about 33°. June 23, 
1917. (li. H. Bailey, Sedum no. 4.) 

var. scabnun Maximowicz. 

Chiktingshan, border of the provinces of Hupeh and Honan, on the divide 
between the Yang-tse and Hwai-lio rivers. I^t.about32°. Alt.l500-2o00 feet. 
June 13, 1917. (L H. Bailey, Senium no. 7.) 

S. Aizoon is widely distributed over north-central and nortli-eastern 
Asia. The variety has also a wide range, and is stated by Ma.ximowicz 
to be commoner about Pekin than the type. 

Sedum limnloides sp. nov. 
Hfrba perennis (vel fortasse biennis '(}, rosulata, glabra. Radices 
angu.ste fusiforraes, radiculas multas fil>ratas emitt«ntes. (W Wf,*; brevissimus, 
dense foliosus, ramuni tioriferum erectum terminalem et ramos floriferos 
axillares extrarosulares a<lscendent€s eniiltens. Kami floriferi simplices, foliosi, 
4-6 cm. longi. Fidin rosiilae exteriora atque media glabra, angiu'^te oblonga, 
confcrtissima, viriilia, marcescentia, l-l.'i cin. longa, 3-5 mm. lata, integra 
nisi ad apicem semiorbicularem spinoso-marginatum albescinti-corneuni (ut est 
vagina); spinae 7-13, spina media recta 1-5-2 mm; longa, caeterae dimidio 
minores falcatae deflexae. Folia rosulae interiora lineari-oblanceolata, integra 
acuminata, 1-2 cm. longa, 2-^5 mm. lata, rubropunctata, spina unica subulata 
albescente 2 mm. longa armata. Folia ramorum floriferomm altema, inter- 
nodiis longiora, 4-7 mm. longa, inferiora apice 3-5-.spinosa, siiperiora 1-spinosa. 
Infloreseentia racemosa, terminalis, 2-25 cm. longa, 6-12-flora. Flore-f 45 mm. 
longi, albi ? vel rubescenles ?, pedicellis 5 mm. longis. Srpada ovato-deltoidea, 
fere ad imum libera, acuta, 1 mm. longa. Petala lanceolata, acuminata, 
4'0 mm. longa. Stamina 4 mm. longa, antheris ovate- conicis. Squamae 

Pkakger — On Species of Sediim collected in China. 3 

iniiiutae, cuneato-triuicatae, '6 mm. longae. CarpeUa 4 mm. longa, erecta, 
rubi'opunctata, in stylos erectos attemiata. 

Kiosliaii and vicinily, on l)ills, province of Honan. about 33'. June 23, 
1917. (L. 11. Bailey, Sedum no. 5.) 

This is a very interesting plant, both on account of its peculiar foliage 
and its relationships. Its fantastic leaves are without parallel in tl:e genus 
to wliich it belongs. The white liorny spined sheaths which envelop the leaf- 
tips are very persistent, and clinging to the old rotting leaves, are strikingly 
suggestive of small white Crustacea or arachnids crawling on the plant. 

In its dense rosette of well-developed leaves producing lateral leafy 
flowering stems the plant is very exceptional among Sedunis. But a similar 
arrangement is found in S. Balfouri R. Hamet from the Yangtse-Mekong 
divide, in <S. Durisi E. Hamet from Zumutch 'J agh in Central Asia, and 
also in <S'. orichalcum W. W. Sm. from mountains north-east of the 
Yangtse bend. 

I have endeavoured elsewhere^ to show that a continuous series of forms 
connects the typical members of the Bhodiola section of Sedum (such as 
roseum Scop., cvassipes Wall., himalense I). Don), which possess an elongated 
caude.x crowned with scales from the axils of wliicli leafy Hower-shoots arise, 
with such forms as Balfouri, in which a dense rosette of linear caudex-leaves 
produces tall axillary flower-shoots. The scales which crown the caudex of 
the one are analogous to the leaves which crown the caudex of the other, all 
intermediate stages being observable among the different species, and seedlings 
of the scale-bearing species producing leaves (which early degenerate into 
scales) exactly analogous to the leaves of the leaf-bearing species. One of the 
strongest links in the continuity of this series lies in the mode of attachment 
of the leaves. In most Sedums, although the base of the leaf or leaf-slalk 
may be (and often is) broad, the actual attachment is very contracted, and 
little more than a point. In the Ehodiolas, however, while the attachment 
of the leaves of the flower-shoots is as just described, that of the caudex- 
leaves is very broad, the leaves clasping the caudex and being attached by 
their whole breadth. Precisely the same arrangement occurs inS. limuloidcs 
(PL I, h, c), and its leaf also agrees generally (except for its peculiar apex) 
with that of S. Balfouri (Plate I, h). 

On the other hand, S. limuloides produces, in addition to its axillary flower- 
stems, a terminal flower-stem, following the maturation of which the whole 
shoot, incliiding the basal leaf-rosette, appears to die, the life of the plant being 

' On the affiuitios of Sedum Fraeyeria)iutn W. W. Siii., with a tentative clasBitication 
of the section Mhodiula. Pioe. Bot. Sue. Ediub. 27, pi- -, I'JIT. 

4 Proceedings of the Roiial Irish Academy. 

apparently continued by oftsets on short liorizontal shoots arising from near 
the base of the rosette. These featui-es are not found in Ehcdiolo, and would 
place the plant in the Seda Gcnuina, its rosettes, slender offsets, and divei-se 
spiny leaves strikingly recalling & pyramidah Praeger from Kansu, which, 
however, has a dense pyramidal compound inflorescence. The evidence for 
this perennial character due to lateral branching is not complete, only one 
such shoot haNing been seen, which was not actually attached, though- 
apparently it liad Ijeen so. If the growth-form of S. limuloides is as suggested, 
tlie plant appeai-s to be unique among the Stda Genuina in the liroad attach- 
ment of its leaves. 

As regards S. oricliakum, though in its leaf-rosettes and lateral tiower- 
stenis it resembles .Si. Hnniloidfs, yet it diflere materially in its leaves nan-owed 
at the base and joinefl to the caudex in the usual Sedum manner by a very 
constricted attachment' : also in the apparently indefinite duration of its 
shoots, the flower-stems l>eing lateral only and the leaf shoot continuing 
perennially as in JUmdiola. 

Horny leaf-tips somewhat resembling those of .S. limvlimUa are found in 
i'olijUdon spiiiaio L. in which, liowever, only a single terminal spine is present. 
This plant comes close to Sedum, but diHers from the present species in its 
stent, tall, single terminal flower-stems Itearing elongated very dense racemes. 

.■\nother C'liinese Sediim, of which I have not seen the tyjie. which 
appears to resemble in some resi)ects the group of species discussed above, is 
S. Sfhocniaudi K. Haniet. It has leaves arranged in rosettes, and racemose 
inflorescence, as in S. fimuioides. But wliether it possesses the characters 
which point to affinity with the Bhodiol" group, or is rather allied to the 
biennial rosetto-bearing .Scni/xrriroirf/^Ji group (which has characteristically 
a paniculate in florescence >, cannot be detenuined definitely from the descrip- 

It is clear that in 5. hmuloidfs and S. orichalcnm and possibly in some of 
the other specie.s mentioned, we have plants which possess some of the 
characters which distinguish Blif'dioia. and others belonging to the Seda 
O'cnnino ; further study will be needed to show wliere their affinities lie. 


Sedum Baileyi sp. nov. 

Herha pereniiis, pusilla, glabra. Conies sterik^ filifoiiues, repentes, epigei 
vel hypogei, 2-4 cm. longi, internodiis 6-8 mm. longis, nodis folia opposita 

' I have to thank Professor I. Bayley Ba)foar for giriDg me an opportunity of 
ezaiuining the type specimens of l<. Balfonri and S. orichalcum. 

I'kaiooiou — 0]i Species of Setluni collected in China. 5 

subsossilia i^liina iutegia orbieiilaiia 2 nun. diametro et radices etsacpe ranios 
Ijiuos eiuitteiilibus. Caitks jlorifai ereoti, .siiujilices vel laro i-aiiius Ijinos 
axillares medio emitlentes, pavee folios!. i'^Z/Vr cauliiui. Ilnrit'eroruni '1 \e\ -J-, 
opposita, plana, integra, intevnodia aequantia, obovato-cuneata vel rhomboideo- 
cuueata, apice rotiindata, basi attenuata sed vi.x petiolata, 10-15 mm. longa, 
4 ti mm. lat.a, lubio-punctala, calearata ; calcar obtusum, deltoidenm. In- 
florescentia terminalis, cymosa, pauciflora, simplex vel diciiotoma, ex Horibus 
1-5 composita. Flores sessiles, 6-7 mm. longi, lubri. bracteis foliis consimili- 
bns et aequilongis praediti. Sepulu, deltuidea, paene libera, 2 mm. longa. 
Petaln lineari-lauceolata, acuminata, erecto-patula, 6-7 mm. longa, libera, 
basi non angustata. Stmniim 4 mm. longa, antheris oblongis rubris. Squamae 
miiiutae, quadratae, paullo longiores quam latiores, '7 nnn. longae. Carpella 
lanceolata, attenuata, suberecta, 4'5 mm. longa, sLylis longis graeilibus coro- 

Kuling, province of Kiangsi. Lat. about 29.y-. Alt. 2500-3500 feet. 
July 9, 1917. (L. H. Bailey, Sedum no. 2.) 

A very interesting little plant, closely related to the species constituting 
the InvolucrcUa group of Maximowicz, of which 6'. &puriuin M. Bieb. and 
*S'. sloloniferum S. T. Gmel. are the best-known species, and which, as hitherto 
icnown, was confined to the Caucasus and Asia Minor. It has tlie broad 
opposite leaves and red flowers which characterize the group. Its elongate 
semi-erect petals come close to those of >S. spiirium ; and its most unusual 
feature, the epigeous or slightly subterranean stolon-like barren shoots, is 
in Sedum found very seldom — in two species of the Involiicrata group and in 
one of the Telephium section. As regards the former, the shoots of S. Listoniac 
Visiani are above, and those of S. proponticii'm Azuavour below ground. In 
both these species the barren shoots are short and congested, while in the 
present plant tliey have relatively long internodes. Both agree with S. Baileyi 
in having erect annual flowering shoots. In iS'. cauticolum Pi'aeger (the 
Tehphium referred to), a Japanese plant, the shoots are subterranean and 
very slender, as in 8. Baileyi. A few of tiie RhocUola section, notably -S'. cras- 
sipes, can on occasion produce similar underground stoloniferous shoots, but 
this is abnormal. 

Series Japonica. 

Sedum Alfred! Hance. 

Shanghai, on the grounds of St. John's University, May 2, 1917. 
(L. H. Bailey, Sedum no. 3.) 

Agrees fairly well with Hance's description as amplified by Maximowicz 
(Bull. Acad. Imp. de St. Petersbourg, 29, 152.) The flowers in the present 

6 Proceedings of the Royal Trish Academy. 

specimens are, however, distinctly stalked (not sessile) ; the petals would be 
better described as obloiig-oblanceolate than as ligulate acuminate (Hance) ; 
and the scales as broadly spathulate than as truncate-rotund (Hance). 

A graceful little plant, which in its fibrous roots, stems procumbent and 
rooting at base. Hat glabrous leaves, and cymose yellow flowers is typical of 
the series Japonica as establislied by Maximowicz. It appears to be a low- 
land species, spread along the coastal regions of eastern Asia from Canton to 
Yokoliama, and is doubtfully recorded from Yunnan (Notes K. 6ot. Sec. Edinb., 
8 183, 259). 

Sedum lineare Thuuberg. 

Chikuugshan, border of the provinces of Hupeh and Honan, on the divide 
between the and Hwai-ho rivers. Lat. about 32'. Alt. 1500-2500 
feet. June 12 aud 16, 1917. Covering banks with long decumbent shoots 
(L. H. Bailey, Seduni nos. 6 and 8.) 

One of the earliest known of Japanese Sedums, and long in cultivation in 
Europe, mostly in a variegated form under tlie name S. cnnieum vanegatum 
but not hitherto reported from China. In the Kew Herbarium among 
unname*! material 1 find two Cliinese specimens of tliis species labelled 
repectively Kewkiang, Lushan Mts., 22 May, 1892 (Bullock); and Kocks, 
Yangtze bend, 5/03 E. H. Wilson, no. 3631). Its occurrence in these stations 
tends to confirm the doubtful record from the Luchu Archipelago. 

Sedum quatematum sp. nov. 

Herba perennis, humilis, glabcr. C(nd<« crassitisculi, ad 2 runi. diametro, 
radicantes, ramo.s sieriles procumlientes vel adscendentes et ranios floriferos 
adscendentes vel erectos emittentes. Kami simplices vel ramosi, foliosi, 
tetrapteri ; floriferi 4-6 cm. alti, steriles breviores. Folia ramorum sterilium 
et floriferorum -1-verticiIlata, internodiis longiora, anguste lanceolata, acuta, 
sessilia, breviter obtuseque calcarata, 8-10 mm. longa, 1*5-2 mm. lata, 
carnoAa, pulchre viridia, ea ramorum sterilium apicibus ramorum conferta. 
Injlcrescenlut teiininalis. cymosa, dichotoma, 2-3 cm. diametro, ramis simpli- 
cibus vel dichotomis divaricatis. Floos sessiles, pauci, 9 mm. diametro, aurei, 
bracteis linearibus vuidibus praediti. Sepahi oblongo-lanceolata, obtusa, 
inaequalia, libera. 3-5 mm. longa, viridia. Pelalo. lanceolata, acuminata vel 
acuta, 5 mm. longa. Stamina 4 mm. longa, filamentis aureis, antheris rubes- 
centibus. Squamae minutae, "4 mm. longae, quadratae. Carpella sub anthesi 
erecta, gracilia, 5 mm. longa, in stylos longos graciles attenuata. Fructus 

Chikungbhan, border of the provinces of Hupeh and Honan, on the divide 

Praeger — On Species of Sedvm collected in China. 7 

between the Yang-tse aiul Hwai-ho rivers. Lat. about 32°. Alt. 1500-2500 ft. 
June i:'. If>l7. (Ij- H. Bailey, Sedum no. 9.) 

These navrow-leaved Sedunis of the Japonica series, which often recall 
the moss I'olytrichum in appearance, now constitute quite a large group; 
they range from the Himalayas to China, and are closely related and difficult 
to diao-nose. Pi. Hamet, to whose careful work our knowledge of most of 
them is due, at first^ placed importance on the erectness or divergence of the 
fruitino- carpels, thus separating from the rest S. nmdticaule Wallich and 
S. Heckeli R. Hamet (both with divergent carpels), which he placed with a 
series of mostly broad-leaved stellate-fruited species which belong to eastern 
China, Japan, and the Philippines. More recently,^ however, he unites these 
two species with their Sino-Himalayan narrow-leaved congeners. 

From all Asiatic Sedums the present species can be distinguished by its 
combination of lanceolate acute verticillate leaves and divergent fruit. The 
leaf-character separates it from S. dri/'nianoides Hance, S. filipcs Hemsley, 
and S. Silvestrii Pampanini, which are white-flowered, broad-lea-\'ed species 
of the series Cepaea ; also from S. Bergeri R. Hamet (with linear-spafhidafe 
verticillate leaves), and S. Yvesi Pi. Hamet (with obovafe-linear blunt verticil- 
late leaves), to both of which S. cpiafernatum appears closely related ; while 
its divergent carpels distinguish it from all its allies except S. multicanh and 
S. Heckeli, which have alternate leaves. It comes nearest to S. Tvesi, in 
which, however, in addition to the difference of leaf, the flowers are stalked 
(not sessile), the sepals linear (not oblong-lanceolate), the petals ovate (not 
lanceolate) and the scales obovate-cuneiform (not quadrate;. 


Series Cepaea. 

Sedum di'jrmarioides Hance. 

Kuling, province of Kiangsi. Lat. about 29i\ Alt. 2500-3500 feet. 
July 20, 1917. (L. H. Bailey, Sedum no. 1.) 

This appears to be a very variable species. The present specimens belong 
to the southern race as described by Maximowicz (Bull. Acad. Imp. de 
St. Petersbourg 29 155), with large opposite lower leaves and truncate scales. 
The sepals in Bailey's plants appear to be unusually short (■^, not ^ or ^- the 
petals) and are deltoid rather than ovate, the petals lanceolate rather than 
ovate, and the pedicels 3-4 times (not twice) the flowers. Of the articulation 

> BuU. Geogr. Bofc. 23 (1913), 68-70. 
- Journal of Botany, 1916, Supplement, 

8 Proceedings of the Ro//fd Irish Acudemji. 

on the pedicels, described by Hance, but omitted by Maximowicz, there is no 
trace. The leaves, as seen by transmitted light, are densely dotted with red. 
Widely spread in Eastern China, from south to north. 

Sedum viscosum Praeger. 

Chikangshan, bor<ler of the provinces of Hupeli and Honan, on the divide 
between the Yang-lse and Hwai-ho rivers. Lat. about 32°. Alt. 1 500-2500 ft. 
June 13 and 30, 1917. L. H. Bailey, Sedum nos. 10 and 11.) 

Quite recently descrilied from Yunnan specimens (Journal of Botany, 
1919, p. 57). Tiie plant comes near the northern race of S. drymarioides 
as described by Ma.\imo\vicz {/.<■.), but dill'ers from that species in its inflores- 
cence simple (not bilid), corolla flat (not campanulate) and nearly twice as 
large, and other characters. It is also nearly related to S. steUarwefolium 
Franchet, but the (jnwers are iu>arly twice as large as described fur that plant, 
and there are otlier dillerences. 


Plate 1. 

Sedvm limidoidfi sp. no v. 

f, plant, X li ; h, leaf, x 5 ; r, ditl« by transmitted light, showing venation and 
•lotting, X 5; d. young fruit; '•. petal;/, scale; </, stamen: all x 5; 
/(, leaf of a. Balfoari, x 1. 

Plate 11. 

Sedinn qito/eniatinn sp. nov. (upper figure). 

II, plant, X 2 ; ft, leaf, x n ; c, llowcr, x 3 ; d, sepal ; r, petal ; /, stamen ; 
If, scale : li, cftvi>el ; all x .'i. 

Srdum BnUeifi sp. nnv. (lower figure). 

II, plant, X 2 ; h, Hower, x 3 ; c, sepal ; d, petal ; r, stamen ; ./', carpel ; 7, scale ; 
all X 5. 


Sidinn dr;/niarioides Hance (left-hand figuie). 
a, plant, x 1 ; t, flower, x 3 ; c. sepal ; d, petal ; e, stamen ; /, carpel ; ;/, scale 

all X 5. 

Sedum Alfredi Hance (right-hand figure). 

a, plant, x 1 ; 6, leaf, showing venation, x 3 ; c, flower, x 'd; d, sepal ; e, petal, 
/, stamen ; g, carpel ; h, scale ; all x 5. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 


Prakgkr. — Chinksk Sedums. 

Pkdc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Skct. B. 

Platk II. 

Praeger.— Chinese Sedums. 

Pkuc. K. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate III. 

Praeger. — Chinese Sedums. 

9 ] 





Plates IV-IX. 

Reail Feiiruauy 10. I'ublislied April H, 1919. 

In an article on the " Artificial Production of Vigorous Trees,"^ published in 
1914, I drew attention to certain well-known trees, like the Lucombe Oak) 
Huntingdon Elm, Cricket-bat Willow, and Black Italian Poplar, which owe 
their vigour and botanical characters to the fact that they are of hybrid 
origin. Such hybrids arose as chance seedlings, due to cross-pollination of 
two trees of different species growing together. The introduction into Europe 
during the seventeenth century of North American trees which grew along- 
side similar but distinct European species in parks and gardens, was the 
occasion of considei'able hybridization. Trees like the Black Italian Poplar 
and the London Plane, which have never been seen anywhere in the wild 
state, are intermediate in botanical characters between an American and a 
European species in each case, and are undoubtedly first crosses. 

The London Plane, Platanus acerifolia, W., has all the peculiarities which 
are met with in a first cross. It is intermediate in fruit and leaves between 
tlie supposed parents — the Oriental Plane, which is indigenous in Greece and 
Asia Minor, and the Occidental Plane, which grows in a wild state in the 
forests of the eastern half of the United States. Its vigour is exceptionally 
great, as is usual in hybrids of the first generation ; and its seeds when sown 
produce a mixed and varied crop of seedlings, in which are variously combined 
the characters of the two parents. Several supposed forms of the London 
Plane which are not uncommonly cultivated, appear to be chance seedlings 
of this tree, being hybrids of the second generation. 

The vigour of the London Plane is remarkable. It is extensively used 
for planting in the streets of towns in Europe and North America, as it has 

' Juiu-n. Dept. Agiic, Ireland, xv, pp. 34-52. (Oct., 19U.) 


10 Proceedijigs of ihe Eoi/al Irish Academy. 

been found to surpass all other trees in its powers of resistance to drought, 
smoke, and other unfavourable conditions of soil and atmosphere. In the 
cities of New England, Ohio, Pennsylvania, etc., the London Plane is much 
more successful as a street tree than the Western Plane, notwithstanding the 
fact that the latter is the finest and largest native broad-leaved tree in the 
forests of these states. The selection as a street tree of the London Plane in 
preference to the native species in the regions where the latter flourishes, 
depends on the ^^gour inherent in the foi-mer tree on account of its hybrid 

The London Plane, being undoubtedly a hybrid, must have originated as a 
chance seedling in some botanic garden, where an Occidental Plane and an 
Oriental Plane happene«i to be growing close together. Such a seedling, by 
the vigour of its growth and the novelty of its foliage, would attract atten- 
tion and l»e propagated by an observant gardener. The ease with which the 
London Plane can be raised from cnttings would much facilitate its propaga- 
tion. I shall try to show that it possibly originated in the O.xford Botanic 
Garden abo\it 1670, though this surmise cannot be definitely proved. 

l"he Occidental Tlaue was introduced from America into England by 
Tradescant in 1636, about a century later than the earliest record of tlie 
Oriental Plane in this country. By 1670, there would have been trees of the 
American species old enough to bear pollen. The connexion with Oxford is 
as follows: — Jacob liobart, junior, who succeeded his father as curator of the 
Botanic Garden at Oxford in 1680, left in MS. an "Enumeration of Trees and 
Shrubs,"' in which for the first time there is mention in any record of the 
London Plane, This MS. is unfortunately without date ; but a similar MS. has 
1666 on the fly-leaf. In the " Enumeration " the planes in cultivation are 
di8tinguishe<l as follows: — 

No. 475. Platanus orientalis, pilulis amplioribus. 

No. 476. P. inter orientalem et occidentalem media. 

No. 477. P. occidentalis aut virginiensis. 

Corresponding to the diagnosis. No. 476, of the London Plane, as inter- 
mediate between the Oriental and the Occidental species, there is a dried 
specimen, undoubtedly P. aceri/olia, in the Sherard Herbarium at Oxford, 
labelled "Platanus media," 

The first published description of the London Plane was by Plukenet in 
1700, in his " Mantissa," p. 153, which reads as follows :— " Platanus orientalis 
et occidentalis mediam faciem obtinens, Americanus, globulis grandioribus, 
foliis splendentibus atris." The type specimen of this description is in the 

■ This U printed by Vin«s and Druce, " Account of Morriaonian Herbarium," p. 261 

HeNrt and Flood — The History of the London Plane. 1 1 

British Museum, Herb. Sloaue, No. 101, folio 112. In addition there are two 
sheets of specimens, collected by Petiver about the same period, one of which. 
Herb. Sloane, No. 149, folio 237— two fine leaves of Platanus acerifolia — is 
labelled " Platanus media, n.d. Bobart, Ox." 

It is possible that the original tree, from which this specimen was taken 
by Bobart, was then living in the Oxford Botanic Garden. As Plukenet 
describes this plane as bearing large fruit-balls in 1700, it may have been 
then thirty years old, which would give the date of origin of Platanus 
acerifolia as 1670. 

This history synchronizes well with the date of the magnificent London 
Plane,' probably the oldest in Europe, which is living in the Palace Garden 
at Ely and now measures 110 feet high, the trunk being 2o feet in girth at 
5 feet above the ground. It was planted by Gunning, when he was bishop 
there between 1674 and 1681. Bishop Gunning spent some time at 0.\ford 
before his appointment to the Ely diocese. 

The splendid London Plane at the Eanelagh Club, Barnes, is precisely of 
the same size as the Ely tree, and is probably of the same age, both these 
trees being apparently cuttings of the original tree, which is postulated in 
this account to have been in the Oxford Botanic Garden. There is no record 
of the age of the Eanelagh Club tree. There are two other immense London 
Planes, probably coeval with the Ely tree, namely, one at Peamore, near 
Exeter, and the other at Woolbeding, Sussex ; but no particulars of their 
history can be obtained. 

On the Continent there are no examples of the London Plane approaching 
in size or age the fine trees at Ely and Barnes ; and no mention is made of it 
by any Continental writer before 1703, when it was briefly described by 
Tournefort. Since the latter date, the cultivation of the London Plane has 
spread over the Continent, and it is now common in towns in France and 
Germany. In the United States, as stated above, it is widely cultivated as a 
street tree, but almost invariably under the erroneous name of " P. orientalis." 
The true P. orientalis is very rare in America, and is never used for planting 
in streets. 

Various seedlings of the London Plane have been selected from time to 
time; and one of them, P. piiramidalis, which originated on the Continent 
about 1850, is now as commonly planted in the streets of our towns as the 
true London Plane. Another seedling, /'. hispanica, a beautiful tree resem- 
bling the Occidental Plane in foliage, was known in England before I7o 1 , 
and must have come from seed of one of the earliest Loudon Planes. Tiie 

' Owing to an unfortunate mistake, the Ely tree is erroneously identified with 
P. orientalis in Ehves and Henry, "Trees of Great Britain," iii, 021, plate 174 (I'JOS). 

12 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

history of the peculiar trees, here regarded as hybrid seedlings of the second 
generation on account of their botanical characters, is obscure. They may 
ultimately prove to be identical with young seedlings of P. acerifolia, which 
are now growing at Kew and Glasnevin, when these in after years acquire 
adult foliage and bear fruit. This would be a positive proof of their liybrid 

In the present paper the results of an investigation into the botanical 
differences of the two parent planes and their various hybrids will be detailed. 
Before doing so, it is desirable to give some account of the genus Platanus. of 
which six living species are known, concentrating our attention on the foliage 
and fruit, the chai-acters mainly studied by us. 

Chamcifrs of the gouts Platanus. — In all planes, the leaves are alternate, 
simple, stalketl, pahnately o-o-7 lobed : mai-gin entire or with minute or 
coarsely sinuate teeth ; venation pseudo-palmate with three or five main 
nerves ; base of the blade cordate, truncate, or cuneate. Buds concealed in 
the funnel-shaped base of the leaf-stalk. Stipules two, united into a tube 
embracing the twig above the insertion of the leaf, thin and scarious on 
flowering shoots, broad and leafy on vigorous barren branchlets. Flowei-s 
monoecious, in uni-sexual heads. Fruiting heads globose, each bull made up 
of numerous closely jacket! achenes ; style persistent or breaking ofl' from 
the top of the achene. 

Tlie differences in the species are not great. Each occupies a distinct 
r^on of the earth's surface ; and the modifications exhibited by the leaves 
and fruits are prol>ably adaptations, fitting each species to the climate and 
soil of the territory in wliich it grows. 

The leaves show specific diflerences as regards the woolly mat of hairs on 
their surface, and in respect of the depth of their lobing. In all the species, 
the leaves, on opening, are densely coveretl with wool ; but as the season 
advances, the wool either disappears completely or pei-sists to a lesser or 
greater extent. In P. orienialis, it practically vanishes, while in P. occidtntalis, 
it persists along the main ner\'es, and on the stalk. The hybrids resemble 
one or other species as regard.s this character. The Oriental Plane, the leaves 
of which become bare and unprotected, gi-ows in the wild state as a rule in 
wet places beside streams or springs, and is amply supplied with water. In 
the four species which are natives of the arid climate of Arizona, California, 
and Mexico, the woolly covering remains on the surface of the leaf. In other 
words, the greater the demand of the tree for water, the more complete 
is the protection afforded against transpiration by the pubescence of the 

IIenrv and Flood — The Hislory of the London Plane. 13 

111 all species and varieties of planes, the leaves are remarkably inconstant 
ill the outline ol: the lobes, which are sometimes entire in margin, sometimes 
minutely toothed, and at oiher times with large sinuate teeth or lobes. The 
leaves, two to five in number on a single branch, are all somewhat different 
in outline. The variation in the occurrence, size, and number of the teeth 
does not seem to constitute even a varietal character, and is due to unknown 
causes. The Oriental Plane, judging from numerous cultivated trees iu 
Britain and from dried specimens of wild trees preserved at Kew, is singularly 
variable in this respect; and no satisfactory division of this species into 
geographical forms is possible. Peculiar entire small leaves characterize 
some planes in Cyprus, but other trees in the island have very dentate leaves. 
The plane of Kashmir has very large leaves, while that of Greece and Asia 
Minor is intermediate in size between the Kashmir and Cyprus forms. In 
P. occidentalis there are several types of foliage which cannot be correlated 
either with the age of the tree or with the region of distribution, or with any 
known cause. Some adult trees, for example, bear small leaves, with three 
distinct lobes, entire in margin except for the terminal point of each lobe. 
Other adult trees bear large leaves, with indistinct lobes, having numerous 
small teeth on the margin. 

The base of the leaf, which may be cordate, truncate, or cuneate, cannot 
be relied on for the discrimination of species, as it is an inconstant character, 
apparently dependent on the vigour of the branch or of the tiee. In some of 
the hybrids the form of the base is comparatively fixed ; thus in P. pyrami- 
dalis it is scarcely ever cordate, while iu P. acerifolia the terminal leaf has a 
very cordate base. 

What is really specific in the shape of the leaf is the depth of the lobes. 
The significance of lobed leaves in the life of a tree is obscure; but lobing 
may have some relation to the demand of the foliage for light, as the gaps 
between the lobes allow illumination of the layer of leaves beneath. A study 
of the habitats of variously lobed planes, maples, &c., might elucidate this 
subject. Three species of Platauus with deeply lobed leaves — P. orientalis, 
P. racemosa, and P. Wrightii — appear to grow habitually on the banks of 
streams in full sunlight. The species with the shortest lobes, P. occidentalis, 
grows in the midst of the broad-leaved forests of the I'niled States, where it 
seems to be able to bear a considerable amount of shade. 

The extent of the lobing of the leaves being an important character in the 
discrimination of the various species and hybrids, its accurate measurement 
is desirable. This is affected by the use of a significant number, referred to 
as A, which is fixed for any given plane figure, with perimeter jy and area a, by 

the formula A = — • For a circle, which has the minimum perimeter of all 

14 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

plane surfaces, X is 4Tr or 12'56 : for a square, A is 16 : for lobed and indented 
plane figures, A becomes a large number. Eepresentative leaves of aU tbe 
species and hybrids have been accordingly measured, the area being obtained 
by the use of squared paper, and the perimeter by an opisometer or map- 
measurer, which is run round the edge of the leaf. 

The significant numbers obtained by the measurements of the leaves of the 
London Plane, of its descendants, and of the two parent species, eonfinn in a 
striking way the hybrid theor}', and may be tabulated thus : — 

Parents :— 





orien talis. 




1st cross : — 





2nd generation : — 
















( 1 


, 28-36 







The first cross is thus seen to be intermediate between the two parents ; 
and the second generation ranges from one extreme to the other. 

The fruit afTords good specific characters. The number of fruit-balls on 
each peduncle is characteristic, solitarj- in P. occidenialis, and numerous, 3-6, 
in P. orieniaJii. It is rather variable in P. acerifolia, 2-3 in some trees, 2-5 
in others. Of the second generation hybrids, P. hispanica is most like the 
Americau species, the fruit-balls being usually solitary, occasionally 2, and 
rarely 3. In P. pyramidalis they are predominantly 2, but are often solitary. 
The size of the fruit-balls is also a specific character, as they are considerably 
larger in P. occidentalis than in P. orienlalis ; while those of P. aceri/olia are 
intermediate. The fruit-balls are very large in P. pyramidalis. The surface 
of the fruit-ball in P. occidfiUalis shows on examination the heads of the 
achenes tightly packed toirether, and not separated visibly by hairs. In 
P. oricntalis the tips of the achenes are plainly separated by pubescence. In 
P. acerifolia, hi^xpanica, aintata, and parriloba the achenes, though tightly 
packed, are separated by a slight pubescence. In P. pyramidalis, cantahrigen- 
sis, and digHaia the surface of the fruit-ball is like P. orienlalis. 

The achene (Plate IX, fig. 9) shows specific characters in the presence or 

Henky and Flood — The Ilislory of the London I'lane. 15 

absence of pubescence, in the shape of the enlarged head which surmounts the 
elongated body, and in the persistence or fall of the style. In P. orientalis 
the fruit-ball is very bristly on the surface, as the style persists. In P. occi- 
denialis the fruit-ball is comparatively smooth, as the style at an early period 
breaks off close to its insertion on the summit of the achene. In P. acerifolia 
and some of its descendants, the influence of the American parent is shown in 
the irregular breaking off at a late period of many of the styles either close 
to or at a little distance from their insertion ; but as some of the styles persist, 
the ball remains more or less bristly on the surface. 

The achene in all the species is surrounded at its base by a ring of rigid 
unbranched hairs. The body of the achene is bare of hairs in P. occidentalis, 
but covered with medium-sized matted branched hairs in P. orientalis, and 
also in P acerifolia ; but in P. hispanica these hairs are very sparse. At the 
junction of the body with the head of the achene a band of minute matted 
branched hairs exists in all the species. The shape of the head of the achene 
is specific ; cap-like, flattened, and bare of hairs in P. occidentalis ; conical and 
covered with minute branched hairs in P. orientalis. The influence of the 
American parent is shown in the glabrous head of the achene of P. acerifolia 
and some of its descendants. The achene is perfect, containing an embryo, 
in the two species and in most of the hybrids ; but in P. cantahrigensis and 
P. dvjitata the embryo is not developed. 

These numerous minute differences in the achenes, fruit-balls, and leaves 
of the various planes are exactly of the same kind and range as occur in 
hybrids artificially produced, and afiford strong presumptive evidence that 
from P. acerifolia, an accidental cross between two wild species, the other 
planes, such as P.pyramidalis, P. hispanica, &c., only known in the cultivated 
state, are descended. 

When the seed of a first cross is sown the seedlings produced constitute 
a mixed and varied crop, in which are variously combined the characters of 
the two parents. The best proof then of the hybrid nature of P. acerifolia is 
the fact that it does not come true from seed, which appears to have been 
known' to Lorberg in 1875. Two sowings made in recent years establish this 
very clearly. There are now eight seedlings planted in the Queen's Cottage 
grounds at Kew which were raised from seed of P. acerifolia that was sown in 
April, 1911. These range in height from 4 to 10 feet, and are very diverse 
in foliage, some closely resembling P. orientalis and others resembling P. 
occidentalis, a few being intermediate. One of them appears to be identical 

' Gadeceau (1894) quotes a, note of Jules Biuneau, the celebrated horticulturist, that 
on sowing P. acerifolia (commonly known to French nurserymen as P. occidentalis) there 
is obtained a mixture of planes, the leaves of which are of diverse shapes. 

1 6 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 

with P. his-panica, and anotlier with P. cuneata. There are also two seedlings 
at Glasnevin which are the only suvivors of a set raised for me at Cambridge 
in 1910 from seed of a large London Plane growing near the main gate at Kew. 
The rest of the set died from drought, having been transplanted into a field 
in that dry year. These two seedlings are extremely imlike in foliage : one 
has leaves indistinctly lobed resembling those of /'. occidentalis. The other 
has deeply lobed leaves, and differs little from P. cuneata. See Plate YIII, 
fig. 8. 

Several unsuccessful attempts have been made since 1910 to raise a 
numerous set of seedlings of the London Plane with the object of studying 
the botanical characters of the various classes which are wont to occur in the 
second hybrid generation. Space for such experiments is scarcely available, 
as planes do not assume for several years their adult foliage, and do not pro- 
duce fruit till they are twenty or thirty years old. 

The artificial production of a cross between P. orientalis and P. occidentalis 
has not been possible in thiscountry, where there exists no adult living tree 
of the latter species from which pollen oould be obtained. An attempt to re- 
produce /'. acfrifolia by cross-pollination of the Occidental and Oriental 
Planes might be made in the United States, using the native tree as the 
female parent 

A descrii)tion of the two parent species, as well as of P. aceri/olia and its 
descendants, will now be given in detail, supplemented with some information 
concerning the occurrence of the latter in cultivation. 

1. Platanus orientalis, L. Oriental Plane. 
Plate V, fig. 1. 

A large tree, with wide-spreading branches. Leaves moderate in size, six 
to seven inches across, with five distinct lobes extending at least half way 
to the base of the blade, oblong-triangular, entire or toothed; base of the 
blade usually truncate, with a central cuneate part ; main nerves arising at 
some distance above the junction of the petiole with the blade ; tomentum 
usually falling off, so that the blade and petiole are glabrous at the end of the 
season. Fruit-balls 2-7, bristly, averaging one inch in diameter ; achene with 
a short tomentose body anrl a conical tomentose bead, prolonged into a per- 
sistent style. 

The above description applies to trees indigenous in Greece and Asia 
Minor. Most of the trees cultivated in England are of this origin. The leaves 
of the trees cultivated in Kashmir and Persia are much larger, with broad 
oblong-triangular segments, indicating perhaps a distinct race. A small- 

Hknky and Flood — Thr Ilisfriri/ of thr Lnnihni I'lunr. 17 

leaved form exists in Cyprus, possibly a peculiar geographical variety. Culti- 
vated trees in England show an apparent great diversity in the furni of the 
leaf ; but the range of variation is ehietiy confined to the width of the lobes 
and the dentation of the margin. 

No attempt is made in this paper to deal with the possible varieties of 
this species in the wild state, for which a study in the field is requisite. 

The Oriental Plane, which is not readily pi'opagated from cuttings, is never 
used for planting in streets in Europe or North America. It is much less 
hardy on the Continent than the London Plane. 

2. Platanus occidentalis, L. Occidental Plane. 
Plate V, fig. 2. 

A very large tree, variable in the size and shape of the leaves, which in 
some cases are 5-6 inches across, in others 8-10 inches wide ; either obscurely 
or plainly 3-lobed ; lobes short and triangular, the sinuses separating them 
not reaching one-third the length of the blade ; base cordate, rarely showing 
a central cuneate part; main nerves three, normally arising at the junction of 
the petiole with the blade ; margin rarely entire, usually with few or many, 
small or large sinuate teeth ; tonientuni persistent on the nerves and petiole. 
Fruit-balls solitary at the end of the peduncle, smooth, large, averaging 1^-1| 
inches in diameter ; composed of closely packed achenes, and not showing any 
hairs between them. Achene with a glabrous flattened head, bearing in a pit 
on its summit the remains of the style, which breaks off early ; body elongated, 
glabrous except for the ring of long hairs at the base and the narrow tomen- 
tose ring at its junction with the head. 

P. occidentalis is the most massive and tallest deciduous tree of the great 
forests of the eastern half of the United States, where it usually grows on 
alluvial soil. It is an extremely rare tree in cultivation in Europe, and is 
difficult to keep alive, as it puffers much when young from the continued effect, 
year after year, of spring frosts on its tender shoots. It is easily raised from 
seed, and is said to be readily propagated by cuttings. It is unsuccessful as a 
street tree in the towns of the United States. The Superintendent of Parks 
Washington, says that young trees of this species are very promising in streets 
for ten or fifteen years, when they almost invariably begin to die. The cause 
of death is obscure, but is generally attributed to the attacks f>f a minute 
fungus, Glocosporiam verviscqvium, which kills the young leaves in May or 
June, though a second crop of leaves clothes the branches in .Inly. Platanvs 
accrifolitt is less subject to this disease. Whatever be the explanation, it is 
very remarkable that this magnificent forest tree is qiiite unsuitable for street 
planting in its own country, where the London Plane is so useful for this 


18 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

purpose. This has long been the case, as Parsons, the well-known uursery- 
mau at Flushing, Ohio, wrote in 1877, that " it is vastly inferior to the London 
Plane in outline, durability, and health." 

P. fflahmta, Fernald (1901), appears to be a form of P. ocndenfalis occur- 
ing in north-eastern Mexico, with more pubescence than usual persisting on 
the petiole and under surface of the leaf. 

?<. Platanus acerifolia, AVilld. London Plane. 
Plate VL fig. 3. 

A hybrid between P. orieiUalis and P. ocddcntalis, of which the history is 
given above. A lai"ge ti^ee, wide-spreading in habit, with pendulous lower 
branches. Leaves large, often 10 inches in width, usually cordate at tiie base- 
with five distinct triangular lobes, the main nerves arising at the junction of 
the petiole with the blade ; tomentum persistent on the petiole and main 
nerves. In vigorous trees the terminal leaf on the branch has long lobes, and 
the base is deeply and narrowly cordate, so that the point of attachment of 
the petiole is not far from the centre of the whole blade. The lobes are either 
entire in margin or with one, two, or more short teeth. Fruit-balls, usually 
2 or 3, in some trees 2 to 6, rarely 1 ; large, 1} inch in iliameter ; bristly. 
Achene with a short conical glabrous head and a tomentose body ; style often 
during winter breaking ofifat a variable distance from its insertion. 

This ti-ee is very vigorous, and it produces good seed from which seedlings 
can be easily raised ; but in nurseries it is invariably propagated by cuttings. 
The seedlings, which are described above, are not unifonu. 

There are two planes with variegated leaves, whicli in shape resemble the 
London Plane : — (1) \'ar. Suitnei-i, leaves large, white over most of the sur- 
face, but the centre with green spots; and (2) Yar. aureo-vnriajata (var. 
Kflseiinna, Schneider), leaves spotted in the centre with yellow, margin green. 

These are probably seedlings of P. actrifolui, as variously coloured sports 
are .apt to occur iu the midst of a crop of hybrid seedlings. 

4. Platanu* hispanica, Muenchhausen (1770). 

l'iate.s IV and VII, fig. 5. 

Platanus orirntalis hi.Hjwnim, I>oudon (18:^8). 
Platanus oceidtntnlU hispanic/t, Wesmael (1867). 
Platanus cali/m^nica, Hort. 
Platanus macrophijlla, Hort. 

A tree with a tall straight stem and moderately wide crown ; leaves larger 

iiicNUY AND Flood — The History ot the London I'lane. 19 

than in the other hybrid planes, often 10-12 inches in width, readily distin- 
guished by the persistent tomentum on the nerves and petiole, and by the five 
distinct short broadly triangular dentate lobes ; base shallowly cordate or 
truncate, with or without a central cuneate part ; main nerves arising at the 
junction of the petiole with the blade or rarely at some distance above it. 
Fruit-balls usually solitary, occasionally 2, rarely 3, bristly, moderately large, 
1-^ inch in diameter. Achene : body glabrous, except for a few scattered 
hairs ; head not so flattened as in P. occidentalis, and not so conical as in P. 
orientalis, glabrous ; styles variable in persistence, some breaking off about 
the middle, others near their insertion. 

The history of P. hispanica is as follows: — Miller, in his "Dictionary," 
edition 7, published in 1759, mentions in all four planes. The Occidental and 
Oriental Planes, he says, " are undoubtedly distinct species, but there are two 
others in English gardens which I suppose to be varieties that have acciden- 
tally risen from seed ; one is titled the Maple-leaved Plane {P. acerifolia) and 
the other is called the Spanish Plane tree." He considered P. acerifolia to be 
a seminal variety of P. orientalis, as seeds of a large Oriental Plane in Chelsea 
Garden produced plants of this sort several times. His description of the 
Spanish Plane is unmistakable : — " It has larger leaves than the other sorts, 
more divided than those of the Occidental Plane, sharply indented in the 
edges, light-green, foot-stalks short and covered with a light down. It grows 
faster than the other sorts, but I have not seen any very large tree of this 
kind." He further states that he planted four planes, one of each sort, in 1731, 
of which P. acerifolia had made the greatest growth in 1765. 

It would appear from this evidence that P. hispanica originated some time 
before 1731, and was probably a seedling of one of the early London Planes, 
which by this time had been bearing seed for many years. This beautiful tree 
has always been rare in cultivation. It is cited in Loddiges' nursery catalogue 
of 1836 under the correct name P. hispanica given to it by Muenchhausen in 
1770. Eivers imported it from France in 1856 under the name P. macrophylla, 
and says it is very hardy, growing freely from cuttings. There are several 
examples at Kew, notably two fine trees beside the Azalea garden, which 
were procured in 1878 from Van Houtte under the name P. californica. 
These have tall, straight stems, with ascending branches above and pendulous 
branches below, bearing magnificent foliage. P. hisijanica has been considered 
by many authors to be a variety of P. occidentalis ; but the achenes clearly 
show it to be of hybrid origin. 


^ Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

5. Platanus pyramidalis, Eivei-s, in " Gardenei-s' Chronicle," 1856, p. 86. 

Plate VI, fig. 4. 

P. vnlgorix pyramidolis, Petzold anil Kirchner (1864). 

P. oricntalis pi/ramida/is, Bolle ^^1875). 

P. occidentidi.s pyramidalis. .Taeunicke (1890). 

A tree compact in habit when young, but with wide-spreading branches 
when old, which, however, do not di-oop. Leaves modei-ate in size, about 
6-7 inches wide, glalnous, with usually only three lobes, which are short, 
broadly triangular, and slightly toothed ; base truncate, with a short cuneate 
centre, the main nerves arising a short distance above the junction of the 
blade with the i>etiole. Fruit-balls, one or two, very large, li-1} incli in 
diameter, bristly: acliene with tomeutose elongated body and nearly glabrous 
conical hea<i, terminating in a persistent style. 

This tree is now mucli used in street-planting, having been imported on 
a large scale from the Continent during the last forty yeai-s. It is probably 
a see<Ilin2, which ori'inated in France about 1850, as it was fir.'st mentioned 
by Kivers as an introduction from that country in 185G. He described it as 
" fasiigiate when young, becoming more diffuse as it increases in age, but not 
spreading at all to the extent of P. acrri/olia." It is very satisfactory in 
streets on account of its form ; but it is scaicely so vigorous a-s P. aeeri/olia. 
It was state*! in 1875 to have been widely distributed in France on account 
of its bright green colour and the ease with which it could lie propagated 
from cuttings; and tiiese qualities have contributed to its popularity in 

G. Platanus cuneata, Willd. 

I'laU; VII, tig. G. 

P. orieutalit ruiuata, Loudon (1838). 

P. lupidauis, Morren (1848). 

P. orirntaiii nepaUnsit, Wcsmael (1868). 

A tree, motlerate in vigour, with deeply five-lolled leaves, which are 
conspicuously dental*, becoming practically glabrous when adult, diftering 
mainly from P. uritnialii in the very cuneate base ; main nerves arising a 
considerable distance alx)ve the junction of the petiole with the blade. Fruit- 
balls small, rarely exceeding \ inch in diameter, 2. ;}, or 4 on the peduncle, 
composed of relatively few achenes, often imperfect, with a tomentose body 
and a glabrous conical head ending in a persistent style. 

Young trees of ordinary P. orvenialis, and certain wild forms when adult, 
as liie «'yi>rus plane, l-ear cuneate leaves, tscai-cely, if at all, distinguishable 

Henky and Flood — Tkc History of the Loivlon Plane. 21 

from /'. cunrata. The latter is recognizable by its peculiar fruit, which seems 
to stamp it as of hybriil origin, dating from some time previous to 1789, when 
it was known to Alton. Tlie fruit-balls are small, and often made up of 
imperfect achenes, in which the embryos are wanting. Such imperfect fruit 
often results from liybridity. Loudon describes P. cunmfa as a stunted- 
looking low tree ; but it grows well at Kcw, and there are trees of moderate 
size in various parks and gardens. 

7. Platanus digitata, Gordon, in " Tlie Garden," 1872, p. 572. 
Plate Till, fig. 7. 

A small tree, like P. orienialis in foliage ; Imt the leaves are considerably 
smaller, not exceeding 5 inches broad, with wider and deeper sinuses between 
the elongated and toothed live lobes; base truncate with a short central 
cuneate part ; main nerves arising at some distance above the junction of the 
petiole with the blade ; tomeutum persisting on tlie petiole and at the origin 
of the main nerves. Fruit-balls, two or three on the peduncle, bristly, very 
small, about | inch in diameter, composed of a few imperfect achenes, no 
embryos being developed ; achene with tomentose body and nearly glabrous 
short conical head ending in a pei'sistent style. 

In the Kew herbarium there is a dried fruiting branch taken from a tree 
in the Chiswick Garden of the Eoyal Horticultural Society, which is labelled 
P. dyjitata by Gordon and agrees with his description. It is rare in cultiva- 
tion, and we know of only' two living trees, one in the Cambridge Botanic 
Garden and the other at Bictou. Both are slow in growth and stunted in 
habit, and are identical with P. digitata, though they have been erroneously 
labelled P. cuneala. Gordon's account of the tree being introduced from the 
Caucasus is unreliable ; and is due to Koch's statement that P. cuneata was 
a native of the Caucasus. There appears to have been at the time considerable 
coufusicyi between P. cuneata and P. digitata. Though there is no direct 
evidence for it, in all probability P. digitata is a seedling of P. accri/olia. 

S. Platanus cantabrigensis, A. Henry, Hghrida nova. 

A tree in the Cambridge Botanic Garden of unknown origin, and without 
a label. Leaves small in size, not exceeding 5 inches in width, with five 

' The Mall, London, is largely planted with a nii.xlure of the true London Plane and 
of the Pyramidal Plane. There are also a few planes of a third sort growing much more 
slowly than either of these. It has deeply lobed leaves, and may be identical with 1'. 

22 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

distinct, short, triangular lobes, entire or with one or two teeth ; base triuicate, 
with a euneate central part ; main nerves arising at the junction of the 
petiole with the euneate part of the blade ; glabrous except for a tuft of hairs 
at the origin of the nerves. Fruit-balls, three on the peduncle, small, about 
J inch in diameter, composed of relatively few imperfect achenes, in which 
no embryos are present ; acheue dome-shaped, flatter than in P. oriendxlis, 
which it otherwise resembles. 

This rare tree resembles P. occidental is in the form of the leaves, except 
as regards the peculiarly nerved euneate base ; but the fruit sc^ircely differs 
from that of P. iiri>n(i(lis. It is like one of the two seetUings of P. acerijolia 
which were raised at Cambridge and are now at Glasuevin, and may be of 
similar origin. 

9. Platanus parviloba. .V. Henry, Hijbritla nora. 

A grafted tree at Kew, of unkm-wu origin and witliout a label, devoid of 
the vigour of /'. urerifolia. I>eaves varialile ; the larger terminal ones, about 
6 inches bnuid, with five short slightly dentate oblong-triangular lobes, and a 
truncate liase, with the main nerves arising at the junction of the petiole 
with the blade ; smaller leaves with three entire triangular lobes and a 
rounded base, the fourth and fifth lobes being represented by a tooth ; 
tomentum persistent ai tlie l>ase of the nerve and on the })eliole. Fruit-balls, 
3-6, small, about J inch in diamelvr, made up of relatively few achenes, some 
of which are imperfect, while othei-s contain an embryo. Achene with 
touientosti Ixnly ami conical nearly glabrous head ; style often breaking off 
neur its insertion. 

This )N3culiar iree, while closely resembling the London Plane, is clearly 
distinct, and is probably a seedling of the second generation. 

Vtin-iilfti. — An attempt was made to discover the ages of the different 
hybrid planes by nieasuring the " vein-islets" of their leaves. H. M. Benedict, in 
a study' of the senile changes which occur in the wild vine, Vitis vulpina, found 
the relative proportion of the soft (photosynthetic) tissue to decrease as the 
plant grows older, owing to the encroachment of the fibrous tissue. On holding 
up a leaf t<j the light, the veinlcts are seen to form a network of fibrous tissue, 
with meshes of soft tissue l^etween, which are called "vein-islets." The older 
the plant, the smaller Ijecomes the average area of the vein-ielets, as is well 
shown in the following table : — 

' Coniell Univ. Agric. Exp. SUtion, Memuir No. 7 (1916). "Senile Changes in I^wives 
of Vitia vulpina." 

Hknky and Fi-oou — The Hutorn of the. London Phnie. 23 

Age of vine. 

Average iige of the vein 
islets of tlie leaf. 

3 years old, 

. 0-515 


, mill. 


. 0-394 


. 0-330 


. 0-204 


. 0-173 


. 0-137 

Benedict was thus able to determine the age of a plant, by the average 
area of the vein-islets of the leaves which it bore. The progressive diminu- 
tion of the soft tissue with age indicates senile decay. Benedict believes that 
a twig cut from a mature tree, having uiidei-gone senile cliange, will not 
produce when propagated a new tree endowed with tlie youthful vigour of a 
seedling. It will possess merely the lessened vigour of the adult tree from 
which it was taken. Tliis agrees with the view held by practical gardeners, 
that varieties which are propagated vegetatively (by cuttings, etc.) ultimately 
lose their vigour and gradually die out. If this view is correct, it is important 
to renew varieties of seed. Even the most vigorous lirst cross would eventually 
require to be produced again by cross-pollination. The plant breeder is 
obliged, when old varieties, whether hybrids or sports, become enfeebled, to 
develop new varieties from seed to take their place. 

Measurements of the vein-islets of the different planes have perhaps con- 
firmed Benedict's views to some extent ; but further research is required. 
The results obtained, though not capable in many eases of satisfactory 
explanation, are now given for what tiiey are worth. 

1. In a series of leaves from trees of /'. occidentalis growing in the United 
States and in no case originating from cuttings, the average areas of the 
vein-islets (PI. IX, fig, 10) were: — 

Average area of the vein- 
P. occidentalis. islets of the leaf. 

Seedling, 1 year old 0-26 sq. mm. 

Seedling, 2 years- old, ..... 0-17 „ 

Two trees, 5 feet high, and probably 5 years old, 0-07 „ 

Tree, 10 feet high, 0-05 

Tree, 30 feet high, 0-03 

Tree, 50 feet high, 0-03 

Other trees, size not stated, .... 0-03-0-05 sq. mm. 

It would appear from these figures that the size of the vein-islets is of 

24 Proceedings of the Royrd Irish Academy. 

value in iudicatiiig \vl\ethei' an occidental plane is a young seedling or a small 
tree; but is useless for the determination of the comparative ages of trees 
over 20 feet high. 

2. A series of leaves from trees of P. orkntalis growing in this country 
showed areas of vein -islets as follows : — 

Average area of the vein- 
P. orientalis. islets of the leaf. 

Tree from Kashmir, said to be 19 years old, from seed, 0-05 sq. mm. 

Tree from seed of plane at Ephesus, 44 years old, . O'Oo „ 

Tree at Weston Park, probably 2o0 yeai-s old, . . OOG 

Tree at Kew, about KJO years old, .... 0'07 „ 

Tree from seed of plane at Thermopylae. 114 years old, 010 „ 

Tree fi-om seed of Bujiikdere plane, 50 years old, . 020 „ 

Cutting raised from last tree, 15 years planted, . 014 „ 

These measurements are too discordant to yield any satisfactory results. 
The age of the trees of this species cannot be determined liy the size of the 

3. The leaves of various trees of P. aeerifoUa gave the following measure- 
ments of the veiu-islet-s : — 

Average nrea iif the vein- 
P. acerifoliH. islets of the leaf. 

Tree at Ely, planted 250 yeara 012 sq. nun. 

Tree at Ranelagli, same age and size 012,, 

Tree at reamoip, probably of the same age, . . .011 „ 

Tree at Kew, planted 150 yeare 0-12 „ 

Tree at Kew, planted 120 yeai-8 012 

Tree at St. (Tenrge-in-tlie-East, I>ondon, planted 90 yenr.s, 012 „ 

Cutting from the latter tree, planted 12 years, . . 013 „ 

IJooted cutting from Slocock's nui-seiT, planted 1 year, 0-12 „ 

The aiea of the vein-islet« in the leaves of these different individual trees 
is practically constant. This is some presumptive proof, if lienedict's views 
are accepted, that all London Planes are of the same age, being ultimately 
cuttings from one original tree. The large size of the vein-islets, correspond- 
ing to that of P. ocridciitalui, about three years old, shows the extraordinary 
vigour of /'. acfri/olia, if its great age, 250 years, is taken into account; and 
confirms to that extent the view that it is a hybrid of the first generation. 

Hknry and Flood — The History of the, London Plane. 25 

4. Tlie leaves of the planes of the second generation show the following 
measurements of the vein-islets : — 

Average area of Uie vein- 
islets of the leaf. 

P. hispanica, . . . 0-10-0'13 sq. mm. 

r. pyramidalis, . . . 0-14-OlG 

P. ciineata, . . . 0-08-0-13 

P. digitata, . . . 0-14-0-16 

P. pai-viloba, . . . 0-14-0-17 

P. cantabrigensis, . . . 0"14 „ 

The oldest of these, judging from its liistory, is P. hispanica ; and it is 
practically identical with F. accrifolia in the area of the vein-islets. The 
other planes originated later, and except one [F. cuncata) show larger average 
areas. This is what might be expected, if Benedict's view is correct. 

Synopsis of the species of Platanus. — A synopsis of the six living species, 
showing the main differences in the character of the leaves and fruits, is now 
given : — 

A. Adult leaves glabrous or nearly so, and as a rule conspicuously 
toothed in margin. 

1. P. onentcdis, L. See p. 16. Greece, Cyprus, Crete, Ehodes, and Asia 

Leaves with five elongated lobes. Fruit-balls, '2-Q on the peduncle, bristly, 
the styles persisting. 

2. P. occidentalis, L. See p. 17. Eastern North America from Toronto to 

Leaves with three or five short lobes. Fruit-balls solitary, smooth, the 
styles falling off early. 

B. Adult leaves with dense tomentum persisting on the lower surface ; 
usually entire in margin, rarely with minute teeth. 

* Zohes of the leaf, 5 or 7, elongated, extending beyond the middle of the blade. 

3. P. Wrightii, Watson. Arizona, Mexico. 

Leaves variable at the base, often deeply cordate ; sinuses between the 
lobes narrow. Fruit-balls, 2-4 on the peduncle, comparatively smooth, the 
styles breaking off near their insertion. Achene ^■ery tomentose, as in P. 
oricntalis, but with the apex more rounded and flattened than in that species. 

K.I. A. PKOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. B. [•/'] 

26 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

•4. P. racemosa, Xuttall. California. 

Leaves similar to those of P. Wrujhtii, but base less deeply cordate and 
lobes broader. Fniit-balls, 3-7 on the peduncle, very bristly, the styles per- 
sisting. Acheue glabrous except for the basal ring of long hairs and a trace 
of tomentum at the junction of the elongated body with the shortly conical 

** Lobes of the leaf, 3 or 5, short, not extending to the middle oftlu blade. 

5. P. .Vexieana, Moricand. Xorthern Mexico. 

Leaves, 3-5-lobed, densely white tomentose beneath. Fruit-balls solitaiy, 
bristly, the styles persisting. Achene similar to that of P. orifntalis. 

6. P. Lindeninna, XIartens and Galeotti. Southern Mexico. 

Leaves with usually three very short lobes, ending in bristle-like points, 
and covered beneath with a dense rusty tomentum. Fruit-balls, 2-5 on the 
peduncle, bristly, the styles pereisting. Achene with tomentose conical style 
aud short glabrous body. 

NoTE-s nv pROFE-sson A. Hexry. 

The numerous measurements of the lobing and vein-islets of the leaves, 
and the drawings and descriptions of ihe fniits, have been earned out by 
Miss Flood. For the rest of the paper I am mainly responsible. 

A full account of the genus Platanus, with details of the distrilmliun, 
cultivation, remarkable trees, itc, of the variotis species, is given by Elwes and 
Henry, " Trees of Great IJriuin," iii, C11-G29 (1908). In this work, p. 620, 
I did not accept as correct the hybrid origin of Platanus acerifolki. The 
researches on elms, poplars, and other cultivated trees which I subsefjuently 
carried out, led me to reconsider this view, and to undertake the investigations 
which are the subject of this paper. In my opinion the evidence establishes 
beyond doubt that the London Plane is of hybrid origin. 

Hknuy and Flood — The Hishrij of the London Plane. 27 

Plate IV. 

Platanus Jiispcmica, Mueiich. Tree 60 feet high, at Bayfoidbury, Herts. 
Photograph kindly sent by the owner, Mr. H. Clinton Baker. 

Plate Y. 

1. Platamis orientalis, L. Branches with leaves and fruit from a tree at 

Jesus College, Cambridge, raised from seed brought from Thermopylae 
in 1802. 

2. Platanus occidenialis, L. Branch with leaves and fruit from a wild tree 

in United States. A seedling, one month old, is also shown. 

Plate VI. 

3. Platantis aceri/olia, Willd. Brancli with leaves and fruit from an old tree 

at Kew. 

4. Platamis 211/i'aniidalis, Elvers. Branch with leaves and fruit from a tree 

at Kew. 

Plate VII. 

5. Platanus hispanwa, Mueuch. Branch with leaves and fruit from a tree 

at Kew. 

6. Platanus ciincata, Willd. Branch with leaves and fruit from a tree at 

Kew. A seedling of P. orientalis is also shown. 

Plate VIII. 

7. Platanus digitata, Gordon. Branch witli leaves and fruit from a tree in 

Cambridge Botanic Garden. 

5. Two seedlings at Glasneviu, now 7 feet high, raised in 1910 from seed of 
a Platanus acerifolia at Kew, showing the diversity in foliage of tlie 
second (Fj) generation. 

28 Proceedings of the lioyal Irish Academy. 

Plate IX. 

9. Platanus : acheues (x 5), with basal tuft of hairs removed, except on the 

right hand, to show the tomentiuu. 

Parent species: — 1. P. occidcnfalis ; 2, P. onentalis. 

First generation hybrid: — 3, P. axerifolia. 

Second generation hybrids : — 4, P. hispanica ; 5, P. cuneata 
6, P. jxirviloha ; 7, P. pyraniidalis ; 8, P. cantabi-u/ensis ; 9, P 

10. Platanus occidentalis; vein-islets of the leaf (x 10). 

n. Seedling, 1 year old. 

b. .Seedling, 2 years old. 

f. Tree, .30 feet high. 

d. Tree, 50 feet high. 

Pkoc. K. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Srvcr. h 

I'l.AlK IV. 

Plat^uiiis liibpanici. 
Hk.nkv and Flood. — Tmc London Plank. 












Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sk.ct. K. 


Ficj. 5. — Platanus liispanica. 

Wdl.v ( 

Plata rvu.S cuAC<u"a 

Fig. 6. — Platanus cuneata. 
Henry and Flood. — The Lo.n-don Piank. 

pRoc. R. I. Acad., Vol.. XXXV, SKrx. R. 

Platf. VIII. 

Fig. 7. — Platanus digitata. 

I'ig. 8. — Platanus accril'ulia seedliii^:-. 
Henry and Flood. — The London Plane. 

Proc. K. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Skct. B. 

Plate IX. 

SkrfQCC yj/y 

b. 7- 

Fig. 9. — Achenes of Platanus. 

Fig. 10. — Platanus occideiitalis : veiii-islets. 
Henry and Flood.— The London Pl.<ne. 

[ 29 ] 




(Plate X.) 

[Read February 10. Published SEpiiiMiiER 29, 1919.] 

I'owAUDS the end of October, 1916, my attention having been drawn to the 
discovery of a tropical bean, the seed of Entada scandcns, on the shore of 
Galway Bay, near Inveran, I was induced to mal^e inquiry into the present 
state of our knowledge of Irish oceanic drift. It very soon appeared that 
the stranding of strange seeds on the sea beaches from Donegal to Kerry 
was a fact quite familiar to the dwellers by our Atlantic coasts. These 
stranded seeds were known as Sea-Beans. They appeared usually after a 
spell of westerly or south-westerly winds, and were generally supposed to be 
wafted to our shores by the Gulf Stream. But no specimens were forth- 
coming; and the accounts given of the nature of the seeds, and of the 
precise tiiiie of their discovery, were disappointingly vague. A diligent 
search, moreover, through a large body of Irish topographical literature was 
so unfruitful of any definite result as to convince me that the field of 
inquiry was untrodden, and might well repay exploration. The search was 
accordingly continued ; but before I had gone much further I learned that 
Dr. H. B. Guppy, well known for his researches into the insular floras of the 
Pacific, and into plant distribution in general, had in the press, and almost 
ready for publication, an exhaustive work on " Plants, Seeds, and Currents 
in the West Indies and the Azores."^ Tiie scope of this work, I had reason 
to believe, would embrace a full discussion of the oceanic drift of the shores 
of Europe, inclusive of the Irish western seaboard, so that any further 
investigation on my part would probably be unnecessary. On writing to 
Dr. Guppy, however, he assured me that tlie field was still open, as his 

1 London : Williams and Norgafce, 1917. 


•30 Proceedings of the lioyal Irish Acadtmy. 

search for Irish material liad yielded so little rfsnlt that he had beeu 
obliged to touch but very briefly on this braueh of the subject when 
discussing the tropical drift of the Eui-opean shoies. Dr. Guppy's book 
appeared early iu 1917. and his refereuc-es to Ireland in his chapter dealing 
with "West Indian Drift on Eurojiean Shores" were so meagre as to 
encourage me to pursue the inquiry, the fruit of which is embodied in the 
present paper. While making use in many ways of Dr. Guppy's work, a 
storehouse of erudition indispensable to all who study plant distribution, 
I have endeavoureil to supplement his historical references so far as they 
relate to the British Isles, and more especially to Ireland, and to show that his 
e.\pectalion of a rich yield of tropical s€e<is from our Atlantic shores is 

Before entering on a discussion of the Irish oceanic drift it may not be 
altogether unnecessary to point out that the subject owes none of its iuterest 
to any possibility of an increase in our island flora through the agency of 
stranded tropical seeds. Climatic conditions are utterly opposed to any 
such result, even granting, as we must, that drift seeds from the tropics are 
from time to time cast up on our beaches in a gcrminable condition. But if 
our Irish drift can claim none of the interest arising from such wide-spread 
effects on plant distribution as are produced by the far more voluminous 
drift of tropical seas, it has an iuterest of its own wliich it is hof>ed will 
sufficiently aj'j<ear when we come to ojnsider its origin. 

For convenience of treatment these notes on Irish drift have been 
roughly divided into three sections, dealing, respectively, with its history and 
eonifnt-t, its origin, and its bolamieal ckaradtritiict, 

1. Tub lliSTOKY and Costexts of Tire Inisu Sk.\ Drift. 

In the " .\ ' : I Nova " of Mathias de I»bel, a I>atiii Flora or 

Herbal, public; i,:>ndon in 1570, we find what appears to be the fiiBt 

reference to the stranding of tropical seeds on the shores of the British Isles, 
a reference which ante-dates by a century and a quarter the earliest usually 
made in C' : with thi- It oc-curs in a chapter ou I'haseoli or 

Beans (pi'. >, in wh writer, having mentioned that he had 

obtained from ship-masters many different kinds brought from the New 
World and from West Africa, proceeds in a passage which, translated, runs 
thus: — 

"But we have received as a gift from that most distinguished lady. 
Dame Catherine Killigrew, excellent in learning and of family illustrious in 

CuLOAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 31 

England, many other very rare beans which are said to be found in great 
l^lenty on the shores of Cornwall, and, what is no less wonderful, no one 
renienibereth of any vessel being cast ashore in that quarter, nor of the 
happening of any shipwreck there, and yet year by year they find fresh 
beans, some floating, others of them digged up from where Hiey lay buried 
in the sands by the shore, as if they had been drifted from the New World 
by favouring southerly or westerly winds, as is the faith of the Cornish folk 
that dwell by the English sea."^ 

No description or plate of these New World beans is given by Lobel ; 
but there can be little doubt that Ihey were the large bean-shaped seeds of 
Entada scandeiis, which are slill cast up on the Cornish and Devonshire 
coasts, and are the most conspicuous and most frequently occurring of all the 
drift seeds found on European shores. 

In the "Philosophical Transactions" of September 26th, 1675, the British 
drift seeds make their next appearance in literature in a paper entitled 
" Some Observations made in Scotland by that Ingenious Knight, Sir George 
Mackenzie." In the coui-se of these observations the writer remarks : — 

" 'Tis very ordinary to find Molucco Beans on the shoar of the Lewes or 
other of our Western Isles. They are found fast to the stalks which the 
Common People supposed to be Sea-Tangles, and laughed at me when I said 
they were Land-Beans, which made me to write to the Earl of Seafort whilst 
he lived in the Lewes, that I supposed these apparent tangles were the ham- 
of the Beans, whicli by long lying in the sea might acquire the likeness. His 
Lordship examined the matter, and found it so, and he likewise sent to nie a 
piece of a cabbage-tree that was found on that shoar. It is observable that 
the kernel of these Nuts will be fresh and sound, and the people make boxes 
for snuff of the Bean-husk." 

Here again it is evident that the beans spoken of are the seeds of Entada 
scandens. These were frequently made into snuff-boxes in Scotland ; and 
now that snuff-taking has fallen out of fashion, are made into silver-mounted 

' I am iudebted for this interesting reference to the kindness of Dr. B. Daydon 
Jackson, our leading authority on the literature of botany. The Catherine Killigrew 
mentioned liere was a learned lady, proficient, it is said, in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, 
and wife of Sir Henry Killigrew, returned member of Parliament for Launceston in 1552, 
and afterwards employed by Elizabeth in many diplomatic missions. See Appendix .\ 
for original text. 

-Provincial for the " haulra " or stalk of certain plants, such as potatoes, peas, or 
beans. "Tater hams" and '" pease hams" are used in Gloucester dialect. 


32 Proceedings of the Itoyal Irish Academy. 

match-boxes wliich one occasionally meets with in the shops of curio 

Tweuty-one years later Doctor, afterwards Sir Hans, Sloane, famous as the 
founder of the lUitisli Museum, iniblished in the 'Thilosopliieal Transactions " 
for September:, 1696, a paper entitled " An Account of Four Sorts of Strange 
Beans frequently cast on Slioar on the Orkney Isles, with some conjectures 
about the way of their being brought tliitlier from Jamaica, where three sorts 
of them grow." lu this well-known paper, usually tlic earliest to be quoted 
in connexion with this subject, we have the first positive identification of the 
Molocco IJeans and the first mention of their discovery on the Irish coast. 
Sloane, who, in common with later writers, appears to have overlooked the 
earlier references of Lobel and Sir George Mackenzie, is the first to identify 
these beans, liaving recognized them as belonging to species growing in 
Jamaica, wliere he had gathered them wiiile preparing his Catalogue of 
Jamaica Plants, tlien just published.* Amongst the three beans identified 
was the large chestnut-coloured seed of Enlaila scmuhn.i, the " Cocoon " of 
Jamaica. Of the Eut-ada bean Sloane says : — " This, I am told, is cast uj) on 
the coast of Kerry in Ireland." He gives no authority for this statement, 
and I can only throw out the suggestion that his informant may have been 
Dr. Vaughan, of Kilkenny, who about this time was in correspondence witii 
John llay on the subject of Dillisk-ealing in Ireland, and in this connexion 
refers to the use of the seaweed in Kerry.' 

About thirty ycai-s later Sloane in the second volume of his " Natural 
Historj' of Jamaica," published in 1725, records the appearance on the Iri.'ih 
coast of the seeds of aiioihcr tropical species, Ouilandina Bond%uxlla, the Grey 
Nickar of Jamaica. These, he tells us (page 41), "are often cast ashore by 
the sea on the north-west coast of Ireland and Scotland." 

Tlie next reference to tropical drift seeds on the Irish coast, which occurs 
nearly a cent my later, is from the pen of the famous Kobert Brown — 
Botanicorum facile princrps, as he has been styled by Humboldt. In a footnote 
to page 168 of his Appendix to Tuckey's Congo Expedition,* published in 
1818, Brown tells us that Sir Jo.seph Banks had identified a drawing of a 
plant grown from a seed found stranded on the west coast of Ireland as being 

' I luve seen one of these match-boxes mounted in chased silver in a bric-a-brac shop 
in Nassau Street, Dublin. It was made, not from a drift seed, but from an Entada bean 
brought home frr>m the East Indies by a military man. N. C. 

' " Catalogus Plantarum rjuao in Insula Jamaica 8|Kinte provcniunt aut vulgo colun- 
tur." London, lfi96. 

' " Correspondence of .John Ray." Ray Society, 1848, p. 305. 

• '* Miscellaneous Botanical Works," vol. i. Ray Society, 18t>0. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 33 

indisputably a representation of the Linnean species Giiilandina bondac, the 
Yellow Mkar of Jamaica. This is the first recorded instance of a tropical 
drift seed having reached the Irish coast in a germinal condition. Xo 
particulars are given as to tlie name of Sir Joseph's Irish correspondent, as to 
the precise part of our west coast on which the seed was stranded, or as to the 
date of the finding. Brown merely tells us that Banks received the drawing 
from Ireland " some years ago," that is, some years previous to 1818. 

Seven years later in the second edition of a popular work entitled "Letters 
from the Irish Highlands of Uunnemara by a JFamily Party ,"^ a gossiping 
volume in which one would little expect to find precise details, an account of 
the appearance on the Galway coast of no less than fom' distinct kinds of 
"Sea Nuts" is given. Jn a copy of these letters in the library of this 
Academy there is a manuscript note by an anonymous scribe, who, while 
qualifying the work as contemptible and prejudiced, attributes the authorship 
to H. Blake, of Eenville, and his family. Internal evidence confirms this 
attribution. The passage referring to Sea Nuts occurs on page 867, in a letter 
dated September (1823), and signed " A." The material part runs thus : — 

"Our Sea Nuts are another marine curiosity, having very much the 
appearance of horse chestnuts, but of various shapes and sizes. They contain 
a kernel, white .and bitter to the taste ; some are small and round like 
marbles; others oval with a handsome black or yellow baud round the 
middle ; others again with an impression like a stamp on one side. On showing 
some of them to a nursery man near London he pronounced them to be South 
American, all diadelphous and siliquosus. The largest, a Hymenaea, a forest 
tree, with the fruit enclosed in pods about two feet long and six or eight 
inches broad." 

From the context it would appear that these Sea Nuts were found on the 
beach somewhere between Eynville and the southern shore of the Killery, 
and the descriptions given are precise enough to make tlie following identifica- 
tions probable : — Chdlandinct Bonducella, the Grey Nikar- ("small and round 
like marbles"); Mucuna, sp., the Horse Eye Bean'' of Sloano's "Jamaica" 
(" oval with a handsome black or yellow baud round the middle ") ; Ijwmoea 
luherosa (" with an impression like a stamp on one side ") ; and Entada 
scaiidens (" the largest . . . with the fruit enclosed in pods about two feet 
long "). The last of these is a woody climber which ascends lofty forest trees,* 

' Longmans, Hurst, Reeves, & Co. London, 1825. 

2 Sloane's Cat. PI. Jamaica, pp. 144-145. 

= Ibid., pp. 68-69. 

* "Plants, Seods, and Curreiita," pp. 140-141. 

34 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academ//. 

where its huge poils may easily be mistaken for the fruit of the tree which 
supports the climber. So far as Dr. Guppy can discover, there are no records 
of the stranding of Hymenaea seeds on the European shores, although one 
species, IT. Courharil, is native and widespread in the West Indies and along 
the neighbouring mainland shores of Central and South America. 

For almost three-quarters of a century literature appears to remain a 
blank ou the subject of Irish drift seeds. In 1897 the "Irish Naturalist" 
(vol. vi, page 11.'?), in its report of the Dublin Field Club meeting of 
Februaiy 9th of that year, records the exhibition by Professor Johnson of 
specimens of a drift seed, Slitruna 7trens, picked up on the shore of Kilkee, 
Co. Clare, and sent to him for identification. Two years later Mrs. Emily M. 
Tatlow records in the same journal (vol. viii, page 236), the finding by her of 
seeds of Hnlada scandfnt and Cuesidpinia Bonducfllti^ on the Donegal coast at 
Narin, the seeds having lieen identified by Professor Johnson. 

The last record of Irish drift seed.s appears in in] 7 in Dr. H. B. Guppy 's 
" Plants, Seeds, and Currents in the West Indies and the Azores," already 
referred to. On pj^e •■>!. in a chapter dealing with " West Indian Drift on 
European Shores," he records the finding by the Kev. S. O'Connell in a cave 
at Kilkee, Co. Clare, of two drift seeds, EiUada ncandcns and Mncuna urens, 
which were sent for identification to Miss Knowles, of our National Museum. 
The finding of an Entada l»ean by Miss Knowles hereelf at White Park liay, 
Co. Antrim, is also rec«riled on the same i>age. 

To sum up thi.s historical survey, a careful seareh through a large body of 
literuture has established the occurrence on our Atlantic coasts of four sixjcies 
of tropical drift seeds. Entadn scnndrns, Mncuna urens, Guihndivn Boiulitc, 
and G. Bonductlh, all conclusively identified, and suggested the probability of 
the occurrence of the fifth, Ipomoea tuberosa. 

Seeing that our Atlantic coasts are no less? favouralily siluat^l for the 
reception of oceanic drift than the west coast of Scotland, where the stranding 
of nine distinct species of tropical seeds or fruits had been placed on record,- it 
was obvious either that the western beaches of Ireland had been insufficiently 
explored or that tlie results of such exploration had not Ijeen fully published. 
So the present writer entei-ed on a course of correspondence with residents on 
our Atlantic coasts, and in other ways endeavoured to arouse interest in a 
subject which had not hitheito received a proper share of attention. It soon 
appeared that one of the seeds, the conspicuous bean of Entada .icandens. was 
quito well known along our west .Tud norih-wost coasts, though specimens 

' h Bynonym for Ovtinmlina BoruiiieeOn. 

• See Dr. Ouppy's ** Planu, Hceda. and CurrentB," pp. 26-27. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Driff SrrcJx on Irish Alldiilic Couals. 35 

were not often forthcoming. Other less conspicuous seeds have been noticed, 
too, but the descrii)tions given were too vague in tlie absence of siieeiniens to 
permit of even conjectuuil idcnlilicaliun. Jn [he case of one ciinvspondunt, 
however. Miss M. Delaji, (if N'alcntia Island, Cd. Koi'i}-, well known for lier 
studies in the development of the Medusae, the results obtained were most 
satisfactory. She kindly placed at my disposal two distinct sets of drift 
seeds, one of six examples collected on various dates up to 1870 on the 
beaches of Maghery and off Rutland Island, in AVest Donegal; the other of 
seven examples collected by her and her sisters on the shores of Valentia 
Harbour between 1878 and 1916. These collections included no less than five 
distinct species, of which three, EnUida scandcns, GvAlavdina BonduceUa, and 
Mucuna [nltissima ?), had been found both in Kerry and Donegal, and two, 
J Hoc/ea reflexa a,nd Ipomoea tuber osa, in Donegal only. It will be seen that 
Miss Delap's collections add three species, Jllucuna (cd/issima ?), iJioclca rcfcxa, 
and Ipomoea tuberom, to the Irish drift seeds previously recorded. Tbe third 
of these, Ipomoea tuberosa, was probably found on the Galway coast, without 
being identified, as eai'ly as 1823. 

From another correspondent, the late Eev. W. Spotswood Green, C.B., of 
West Gove, Caherdaniel, Co. Kerry, retired Chief Inspector of Irish Fisheries' 
I have received welcome aid as well as keen disappointment. Writing to me 
on the 1st March, 1917, he says: — "At various times 1 have picked up palm 
nuts of various species, fronds of palms and pieces of bamboo . . . i have moved 
house so often that such things as I had collected were periodically aban- 
doned." These abandoned palm nuts and other drift objects collected b}' a 
scientific observer who had unrivalled opportunities for inspecting our Atlantic 
coasts and interviewing west-coast fishermen, would certainly, if preserved, 
have made important additions to our knowledge of Irish tropical drift. 
Although Mr. Green could show me no specimens of his own gathering, he 
kindly undertook to arouse interest in the matter amongst his friends and 
neighbours. One of tiiese was Mr. Daniel O'Coiniell, D.L., of Derrynane 
Abbey, and from him I received through Mr. Green on the 8th March, 1917, 
two specimens — one of Untada scandens, the other of Mueicna nrens, both 
found some years previously on tiie strand at Derrynane. In 1916 the 
Entada seeds had Ijeen found again on the same strand, where at one time 
they came in in considerable numbers and in a germinable condition, as a 
friend of Miss O'Connell's had sprouted and grown them in a greenhouse. 
These Entada beans Mr. O'Connell iiad at once recognized when cast up on 
the Derrynane beach, as he had seen them at Barbadoes in the West Indies 
when serving in the Navy in his young days. 

From the head of Galway Bay, ]Miss Matilda Eedington, of Kilcoraan, 

36 Proceedings of the Rot/al Irish Academy. 

Oianuioie, kfudly seut me in the same luonlh, March, 1917, three other drift 
seeds — two of Entada, and one of the larger Mucima {M. altissima ?), which 
had formed part of a collection of curios made by an old man li\ ing by the 
seashore in tiiat neighbourhood. These seeds, she had little doubt, were found 
stranded there. From the Mayo coast 1 had received in February of the same 
year, from my friend Miss Amy Warren (a keen student of the Marine 
MoUusca of the district), another A)ean of Entada found stranded on the shore 
of Bartra Lsland, Killala Bay, about the year 1890. More interesting still 
was Miss Warren's positive identiticatiou as a constituent of the drift found 
by her on tlie Bartra strand of the cliaracteristic fruit of Saccoglottis amazonica, 
a native of the Amazon and Orinoco estuaries. Unfortunately, she had not 
preserved specimens ; but, on showing her the excellent photographic repm- 
duction of the fruit given in the frontispiece of Dr. Uuppy's "Plants, Seeds, 
and Currents," she at once recognized it. 

In July of tlie same year Mr. H. Kichards of Barnagh, Belmullet, Co. Mayo, 
sent me another Entada l>ean from the shore of the Mullet, where he told me 
the bean was at times cast up in considerable numbers. He added that some 
of the old people there lielieve tlie Sea Nuts to be good for the liver when 
ground up and Iwilcd. Professor.]. Mangan kindly sent me for inspection 
still another Entada bean, deposited in the Museum of University College, 
Galway, by the Kev. William Allman, M.D., who appears to have found it 
on the iMjach near Horn Head, Donegal, many years ago. And finally, to 
conclude the long series of records and reports referring to this conspicuous 
tropical sea-waif, Mr. T. J. Westropp, President of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland, wrote to tell me that he had heard of nuts of a rich, 
reddish-chestnut colour being washed up on the beach at Dunbeg, Co. Clare, 
some time before 1875, the description here pointing evidently to the Entada 
liean ; while Mr. E. W. L. Holt, the present Chief Inspector of Irish Fisheries, 
informed me that he had similar beans, making part of a collection of alleged 
antiquities bought by him from an old women at Tawin, Galway Bay, where 
they had probably been found on the shore. A correspondence with Mr. W. 
K. Hart of Kildeny, Lough Foyle, like my i)revious correspondence wilh the 
IJev. W. S. Green, brought me keen disappointment, as his letters assuring 
me that Sea Beans of three different kinds were found on the shores of 
Donegal, Derr)', and Antrim, added that specimens which he had kept in the 
house at one time had vani.shed " into the limbo of some spring cleaning." 

The naming of the various specimens received from correspondents was 
much facilitated by the set of West Indian drift seeds presented to our 
National Museum by Dr. Guppy in 1915, when he endeavoured, without 
success, to arouse Irish interest in this subject. Though not included in this 

CoLC.AN — Tropical Drift Seeds on frish Atlantic Coasts. 37 

West Indian set, Ipomoca liilnrosn was easily idontiiled from llic plates and 
description given by Dr. Henisley in tlic " Annals ol' ISotany " for 1892 
(vol. vi, p. 369), where he for tlu; lirsL tinn' dotenniiu'd ilie species from a 
specimen fcnind on the shore of North Uist in Ihe lielirides. As for llie 
JIucuna species, marked with a i[nery, the seed in this case is one which 
differs in form and size from the seed of M. urcns. This large seed Dr. Guppy 
finds to be much more frequent in the drift of the Scottish west coast and 
on the West Indian beaches than the seed of M. urcns, and he is inclined to 
assign it, though not with certainty, to M. cdtissima of De Candolle. 

The results of this correspondence and of the preceding literary survey 
are set out in the following table in such a way as to show the comparative 
frequency of the occurrence of the various tropical drift seeds and fruits on 
our Irish Atlantic coasts. The county headings to the columns .show the 
position of the beaches on which the specimens were found : — 



Gal way. 




Entada scandens, 







Mitcmw urens, 







M. {aUUsima ?), 







Dioclea reflexa. 







IpoDioea tuberosa, . 







SaccogloHis amazonica, . 






Giiilandina Bonditcella, . 






G. Boiidiic, 

West coas 

t. County unknown. 

All of these seeds and fruits, with the exception perhaps of Saceoglottis, 
belong to species either native or fully naturalized in the West Indies ; all 
are more or less frequent there in beach drift, and all are highly buoyant, 
several of them having been experimentally proved by Dr. Guppy to be 
capable of Heating for upwards of twelve months. As a constituent of the 
Irish drift, Entada scandens comes easily first both in extension of range and 
in frequency of occurrence. The published records taken together with reports 
received from correspondents show that this conspicuous seed has been 
gathered on the Irish western coasts no less than fifteen times, and occa- 
sionally in considerable quantity, at dates ranging from 1696 to 1916, or for 
more than two centuries. 



38 Proceedings of the Eoynl Irish Academy. 

2. The Origls of the Ikisu Tropical Drift. 

The stranding of tropical seeds and fruits on the Irish Atlantic coasts in 
considerable variety, and over a long series of years, having been established 
beyond all doubt by the evidence just given, the question arises — by what 
means did they reach our shores ? Were they introduced by human agency, 
direct or indirect ? or was their transport over some 4000 miles of ocean 
effected solely by cuiTents and drifts. 

Taking first the hypothesis of human agency, it must be admitted that 
some of the seeds, notably those of Entada and Guilandina, are objects of 
curiosity, and are not infrequently collecte'd by travellers and sailoi-s, so that 
their presence, at least in small quantity, on board of vessels engaged in the 
West Indian and Brazil trades, may be assumed. Moreover, these particular 
seeds, as well a.s the seeds of Xlucuna, were at one time articles of com- 
merce, for use either as drugs or in the arts. Thus Sloane, speaking of 
Entada in the first volume of his "Natural History of Jamaica," 1707, tells 
us that the bean is a drug, "and, therefore, merchandise," and that the 
" mealy pjirt, being taken out at the hilus, tliey are tipt with silver, and 
made into snuH-boxcs." In the same volume he tells us that ihe Hoi-se-Eye 
lieans (Mucuna) are made into coat-biittons, and sometimes tipped with 
silver. Again, in the second volume of the same work (1725), speaking of 
the hard polished seeds of GuUnndina Bonducella, called the Asli-coloured 
Nickar in Jamaica, from its resemblance to "a Niokar,' such as boys play 
withal," he says the seeds are brotight "very plentifully into Europe for 
making buttons." Charles de I'Ecluse (Olusius), the famous scholar and 
botanist, describing these seeds in 1605,* says that hardly a ship comes back 
from Africa, America, or other of the warmer countries, but brings home 
these nuts. Their medical virtues are set out at great length by the Italian 
botanist, Giovanni Pona, in his description of Monte Baldo, published at 
Venice in 1G17. Here they are said to be an antidote against all poisons, a 
cure for epilepsy, for twisting of the mouth ((oHnra ddla bocca), for scorpion 
bite, and for quartan fevers ; and when worn by children assure them against 
ill-fortune (portato a dosso da' fanciidli ffli prescrva da mali cvenli).' As for 

' A provincial word for the marble or ' ' taw " which boys ' ' nick " or propel by a fillip 
of the upper thamb-joint in the game of marbles. 

* " Rxoiicorum Libri decern,'" Lib. iii, cap. xv. 

* I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. A. F. Wilmott of the British Museum for a 
tnuiacript of this pa.<»age (see Appendix B for original t«xt). The rcpntation of the 
nut has travelled with it to the Scotch Hebrides. Martin, in his " Western Islands," 
telLs us that it is hong about children's necks in the Harries as an amulet .igainst witch- 
craft or the evil eye. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drift Seeds ow Irish Atlantic Coasts. 39 

the virtues of EntacLa, it is placed by Daleclianip in 158? aiiionyst the Fahax 
■purgntriccs, and Ipomoca tuberosa appears in Oviedo in 1526' under the Spanish 
name Avellana pur[/aiiva. 

We may then assume the presence on board ships trading between the 
Western Tropics and the British Isles of at least four of the Irish drift seeds, 
and an occasional wreck amongst such vessels off our Atlantic coasts might 
account for the stranding of these seeds on some of the beaches from Donegal 
to Kerry. Such a view as this has been suggested or expressed, not merely 
by ignorant cavillers, but by men of science. Thus Lobel in 1570 considered 
the stranding of foreign beans on the Cornish coast as all the more wonder- 
ful because no shipwreck was knbwn to have occurred on the spot. Again, 
John Ray, the father of English botany, whose fame is perpetuated by the 
well-known Eay Society, when written to by Hans Sloane in 1696 for his 
opinion as to the origin of the Scottish drift seeds then engaging Sloane's 
attention, replied: — "It is very unlikely to me that they should be brought 
so far by any current of the sea. I should rather think they came from 
vessels cast away by shipwreck near these parts." ^ John Flygare, a pupil of 
Linnaeus, in a paper on Plant Colonies, read at Upsala in 1765, discussing 
Gunner's account, published in the same year,^ of the stranding of American 
seeds on the Norwegian coast, says that no one yet knows how tliese seeds 
are carried by the ocean and stranded with vitality so unimpaired that they 
grow when sown.^ Three years later Henry Tonning, another pupil of 
Linnaeus, in a paper on Norwegian Earities, read at Upsala, makes a further 
reference to Gunner's drift seeds. These, be says, reach Norway either by 
the ocean, which offers a way of transport from America, or sometimes, 
though more rarely, by shipwreck. He proposed to the whole learned world 
(a ioto literato orhe) the problem of how these seeds, indigenous in South 
America, could be carried by sea to Norway, since they do not float. " They 
are so recent that they grow when planted, yet come in plenty year after 
year." (Cum nan natent, cum aclco rcccntia sint ut gcrmincnt, et quotannis adve- 
niant?) The problem, as so stated, is indeed fit to battle the whole learned 
world. But Tonning was wrong in his premises; for most of Gunner's 
seeds do float. 

Thomas Pennant, the acute author of " British Zoology," may be taken as 

^ " De la Natural Hyatoria do las Iiulias." Toledo, 1526. 

° "Correspondence of John Ray." Ray Society, 1818, pp. 306-7. 

^ Trondhjemske Selskabs Skviftcn, vol. iii, 17<).">. 

"* OceauMs mmhi nuiidiim r.uiijtiam coijnUn soiiiiui (Jassiac Pislulae, Anacardi occidetitalis 
MimosoescaiifUnleset Cocos uuciferae adlittura usqui: Norveiiuix votvit, caijue, qnudviirtiifrh, 
adeo cegeta «< lerrae maiidata ijerminent (tc crescant. "Amoeuit. Acadom.," Tom. ii, 
supp. cli. 

40 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

our last exponent of the sceptical attitude towai-ds the Gulf Stream or ocean 
current theory. Wien travelling in the Hebrides in 1772 he was presented 
in the Island of Islay wnth a set of Molucco Beans found stranded on the 
shore there. Having mentioned the general belief that the seeds were carried 
by currents from the West Indies, he proceeds : — " I was for resolving the 
phenomena into shipwrecks, and supposing that they might have been flung 
on these coasts out of some unhappy vessels, but this solution of mine is 
absolutely denied."' 

It might be further urged in favour of the human agency hypothesis that 
no one has ever seen these drift seeds in mid-ocean, rari nantcs in <jurgite 
vasto, on their 4,000 miles voyage across the Atlantic from the western tropics 
to the shores of Europe, and that scientific authorities have maintained 
that the results of oceanic investigations carried on of late years show that 
the Gulf Stream, so far from washing the European shores, ceases to be 
recognizable as a distinct current iu mid-Atlantic at about 30° of west 

This is the case for human agency put as strongly as possible. What are 
ita weak points, and what is the evidence in favour of the competing oceanic 
hypothesis ? first of all it should be noted tliat although some of the tropical 
seeds found in our Irish drift were formerly used in medicine or in the arts, 
they have long since ceased to be so used, and consequently are not now to 
be found on board sliip in quantity as articles of merchandise. And even 
were tliey so used at present, the frequency of their occurrence, not only on 
our Atlantic beaches, but over a wide stretch of the western shores of Europe, 
could not reasonably be attributed to such an occasional cause as shipwreck. 
The seeds have been found stranded all along the Norwegian coast up to the 
North Cape. Some, indeed, have made their way into the Arctic regions, 
remote from any trade routes. For instance. Mack in his circumnavigation 
of Nova Zembla in 1871 found a bean of EiUa^la scandeiis off the north-west 
coast in north latitude 76' 10', on one of the islands known to the Norwegian 
sealers and whalers as the Gulf Stream Islands (Golfstromsoarna).* Torrell, 
during the Swedish Polar Expedition of 1861, found another Ijcan of the 
same species on the north coast of Spitzbei-gen,' and Nathorst in 1871 found 
a seed of &uUnndina Bon<iuc stranded at Advent Bay on the west coast of 
the same island.' Even the remotest oceanic islands receive these tropical 

' " A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides." 4th ed. Dublin, 1775, p. 232. 
' " Petcrraann's Mittheilungen," 1872, p. 375. 

' " Oin Drifveden ia Norra lahafret," af Fredik Ingvarson. Kongl. Svonska 
Vctensk. Handl. Band 37. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drifl Seeds on Jrish Atlantic Coasts. 41 

waifs, though not always by the same currents and drift as waft them to the 
shores of Europe. Seeds of Guilandina liave been stranded on St. Helena, 
on tlie Bermudas, on the Azores, and even on the shores of the remote and 
inhospitable Tristan d'Acunha.^ 

Again, the drift of our Irish beaches is not confined to these tropical 
seeds ; for the same beaches that yield them yield also from time to time such 
pelagic organisms as Salpa, Velella, lanthina, and Physalia, the Portuguese 
Man-of-War. Quite frequently, after spells of westerly winds, the Blue Ocean 
Snail, lanthina, and the "Velella are wafted to our western shores from Kerry 
to Donegal. I myself have watched a fleet of Velella {V. spircms) sail in 
with the tide on the shores of Clare Island in July, 1909. Miss Warren has 
found both Velella and Physalia stranded on the beach of Bartra Island, 
Killala Bay; and Miss Delap tells me that she has taken several living 
Physalias at Valentia Harbour towards the end of October, 1916. Here, too, 
she found cast up on the shore many floats of the Gulf Weed, Sanjassum 
bacciferuvi, encrusted with a Polyzoon, no doubt the white Membranipora 
witli which Moseley during the Challenger voyage found these floats so 
conspicuously overgrown in the Sargasso Sea.'^ A recent Danish writer on 
the Gulf Weed, F. Borgesen, tells us that he has had this MembVanipora 
identified as M. txiherculata Buslv from specimens encrusting Sargassum floats 
which he himself gathered in the Sargasso Sea. The very same species, he 
adds, is found investing the floats of Linne's original type specimen of the 
Gulf Weed in the possession of the Liunean Society.^ Now none of these 
oceanic waifs, all of them inhabitants of warmer seas, are objects of trade ; 
they are all most certainly wafted to our Atlantic beaches by natural agencies, 
and, applying the maxim noscitur a sociis, the character of the seed-drift 
may be known by the company it keeps. The stranding of the seeds, of the 
pelagic animals, and of the Gulf Weed floats makes but a single phenomenon, 
and is the effect of one and tlie same agency or chain of agencies. 

As for the objections that no one has ever seen a drift seed crossing the 
Atlantic en route from the West Indies to the shores of Europe, and that 
the Gulf Stream as a current cannot be recognized farther eastward than 

' H. N. Moseley : " Notes of a Naturalist on the Voyage of the Challenger." 1892, 
p. 15. 

- "Numbers of the detaclied air vessels of tlie weed arc to be seen floating al)Out 
amongst the living weed-beds coated entirely with the white Membranipora, and tliey 
look at first like small globular pelagic animals." H. N. Mosely : " Notes of a Naturalist 
on the Voyage of the Challenger." 1892, p. 15. 

^ "The species of Sargassum found along the coast of the Danish West Indies, with 
Remarks upon the Floating Forms of the Sargasso Sea." Kjobouhavn, 1914. I am 
indebted to Mr. R. Lloyd Praegor for a reference to this interesting paper. 

42 Proceedings of the Uoijal Irish A cadetny. 

the 30th meridiau of west longitude, there is ample proof that floating objects 
do somehow make the passage. For instance, a vessel abandoned off Baltimore 
in March, 1888, was found ten months later stranded in the Hebrides about 
3,200 miles to the eastward.^ During this passage the derelict was observed 
at intermediate points, and for the greater part of its course was water- 
logged, with the decks awash. One of the earliest of many similar instances 
is that given by Pennant, wlio tells us that the mast of the Tilbury man-of- 
war, burnt in Jamaica, was found stranded on the west coast of Scotland.^ 
Again, numerous test-bottles and floats thrown overboard at various points 
iu the Atlantic have been picked up on tlie western shores of Europe, several 
of them on the west coast of Ireland. An early instance of tliis bottle drift 
is given by Kennel in his work on the Atlantic currents, wliere he records 
the discovery off tlie Island of Aran in Donegal on the 20th May, 1820, 
of a bottle thrown overboard, 300 miles south-east of Cape Cod, on the 
20lh June, 1819.' 

How these floating olijects make their passage from mid-Atlantic to the 
European shores is not quite clear. A wide-spread drift or slow translation 
of warm water, efTected at a rate which has been «stimated at about four 
miles a day, sets north-eastward from mid-Atlantic towards tlie European 
ahorcs, and, passing along the Norwegian coast, penetrates into tlie Arctic 
rcgious as far as the northern extremity of Nova Zembla. Tlirougbout its 
course Ibis great drift, the European Stream, as it has been called, maintains 
a tempeiuturc many degrees above that of the supeiincunibent air. Whetiier 
this alow drift bo due to the pressure of the Gulf Stream, to the prevalence 
of the westerly winds known as the Anti-trades, or to a great oceanic circula- 
tion whereby the cold watei°s of the Polar seas are exchanged with the heated 
water of the Equatorial regions, or whether it be due to all of these causes 
combined, is still, and will probably long remain, matter for discussion. This 
much, however, seems clear, that in the Gulf Stream, supplemented by this 
diift and by spells of westerly winds, we liave an agency fully competent to 
effect the transport of floating bodies across the 4,000 jniles of ocean from 
U»e West Lidies to the Atlantic shores of Ireland. 

Further support to the hypothesis of natural transport by currents, drifts, 
and winds as opposed to introduction by human agency and shipwreck may be 
drawn from the fact that the tropical seeds and fruits under discus.sion have 
never, so far as I can discover, been recorded from the drift of the eastern shores 
of the Isles. And, to conclude this train of cumulative evidence in favour 

■ "PlaDts, Seods, and Currents," p. 473. 

'' "Voyage to the Hebrido*," p. 232. 

' " lavostigation of the Ourroata of the Atlantic Ocean." 1888. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drift Srr(h on Jrif/i Afhtv/tc Coasts. 43 

of natural trail sport, I may cite Gumiar Aiidcrseii, the wcll-liiiowii investigalor 
of the early botanical history of Scandinavia, who in 1893 recorded the finding 
of the Entada bean in two distinct stations in tlic jjoat-bogs ol' 'i'j(ii n, an island 
which lies off the coast of the Skager-Eack in the Sv/odish Ian or county u( 
Bohus.i From the nature of these peat deposits and their comparatively 
small elevation above sea-level, he considers it probable that the beans had 
been carried thither at a time previous to the post-glacial subsidence in tliat 
region ; and in subsequent papers he found in the occurrence of these tropical 
waifs proof that a branch of a warm ocean current had washed the coast of 
southern Sweden in the period known to geologists as the Littorina Age.- 
Whatever date may be assigned, in accordance with this view, to the deposi- 
tion of these seeds in the peat of Tjorn Island, we may safely assume that it was 
long anterior to any trade intercourse between Scandinavia and the Tropics.'' 

The evidence in support of each of the two conflicting views as to the 
method of transport has now been set fortli at full length ; and few, I think, 
who weigh it will hesitate to give a verdict in favour of the natural method, 
of that co-operation of current, drift, and wind commonly, though, it would 
seem loosely and inaccurately, spoken of as the Gulf Stream. For those who 
accept as sufficient the alternative method of transport by human agency plus 
shipwreck the occurrence of tropical seeds on Irish sea beaches must remain 
a matter of indifference, since the interest which attaches to these ocean 
waifs is inseparable from the belief that they traverse vast ocean spaces, 
impelled by natural forces whose nature and origin still remain largely 
mysterious. The evidence available appears to show that the agencies whicli 
effect this transport are not all of them persistent or subject to regular 
periodicity. The latter stage of the transit from mid-Atlantic, where the 
permanent Gulf Stream ceases to act, to the shores of west Ireland, or, at all 
events, a portion of that latter stage, is probably effected by irregularly 
recurrent spells of westerly or south-westerly winds, since the finding of the 
seeds on our Atlantic beaches occurs at irregular intervals. 

It may be asked at what rate the passage of these waifs is effected from 
the West Indies or from the estuaries of the Amazon or Orinoco, whence not 
improbably some of them are derived via the Gulf of Mexico. Dr. Guppy has 
collected and discussed a large body of evidence on this point afforded by the 
behaviour of numerous experimental battles and floats droppeil overboard at 

' " Viixtpaleontologiska uiKlersoIoHiigiir .if Svenska torfmoasar." Biliang Svensk. 
Vefc. Akad. Haiidl. Bd. 18 Afd. iii, No. S, .sid. 40, lcSri3. 

2 "Svenska V.^xtvevldeiis Hisloria." Bot. .Jahrliuchor. Bd. 22, j). 474, 1897. 

3 " Die Veranderungoii des Kliiiias seit dem Ma.xiimim der lotzton Eiszoit." Iiitcrnat. 
Geol. Kongress, Stockholm, 1!)10, p. 293. 

44 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

various j)omts iu the Atlantic by the Ignited States Hydvogiaphic Office, by 
the Prince of Monaco, and by many other investigators. An obvious and 
unavoidable source of error iu s'uch experiments lies in the uncertainty as to 
the lenglli of time whicli may elapse between the straiuliiig and tlie Kudiiig of 
a test bottle or lloat on the European shores. This source of error Dr. Guppy 
largely eliminates by selecting in the cases of recovered Hoats or bottles those 
intervals between throwing ovei'board and recovery which are the shorter by 
20 or 25 per cent. An average of these sliorter intervals he righdy considers 
as most closely approaching to the real duration of the passage, and so treatnig 
the considerable body of available material, he arrives at an average rate of 9-^ 
miles per day for the 4000 miles drift from the West Indies to the shores of 
Europe, or about fourteen months for the wliole transit. The shortest passage 
recorded is one of about eleven months for the 4100 miles from Hispaniola 
to the Irish coast. In all cases the rate varies greatly in different sections of 
the route travelled, and, as Dr. Guppy points out, the system of oceanic 
currents is such as to make it possible for a West African Guinea Coast seed 
to reach the European shores by crossing the South Atlantic to Northern 
Brazil, and passing liience by tlie Carribean Sea and Gulf of Mexico into the 
Gulf Stream. Tliis voyage of upwards of 10,000 miles would be accomplished 
in about two yeare ; and as Enlada scandcns occurs in West Africa, it is 
possible, if by no means probable, that some of its many higlily buoyant 
beans found stranded on the Irish coast may have once grown on the banks 
of the Niger or the Congo. 

In most of the earlier records of the discover)' of exotic drift seeds on the 
Scottish coast, for iustance, iu Mackenzie's account, already cited here (1675), 
in Sibbald's "Scotia Ulustrata" (1G84),' iu Wallace's " Description of the 
Isles of Orkney " (169."^), and in Martin's well-known " Description of the 
Western Islands," the seeds are sjioken of as Molucco Beans, and this name, 
however originated, gave rise to tlie theory that the beans had travelled by 
sea fiom the famous Spice Islands of the eastern tropics. Mackenzie in his 
1675 paper discusses in these words the probable path travelled by the 
beans : — 

" Now, considering the sctuation [sic] of these isles (Hebrides) witli respect 
to any place where Molucco Beans grow, let the observers of Tydes consider 
what reciprocations must be imagined to adjust the Eastern and Western 

' Pars secuncU, p. 55 : — In littore Maris DeitcaiedoHxi tb in Orcadibiis cum Alga 
Marina inreniutiltir Phnscoli Molucatii <t- iS'tijc Indica tx qua Pyxides pro Piihere aUr- 
nnatoris pnrani. In this passage it will be seen that Kntada is called an Indian Nut, 
while the name Molucco Beans is applied to other sea- borne seeds, probably to those of 

Cor.GAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 45 

(■nn.sfciuil ouiToiits of tlio Main vvitli the wafting of these beans on places that 
lie so fai- out of the road of any of llu^ direct Tydes. And if tliey grow only 
aJiout the Molucco Isles, nr in no iilaee on this side of the Equator, it would 
seem more probable that thoy uaiiio by the Northern i)assage than in any 
other way. And their freshness in the kernel seems rather to have been 
kept in the cokl conservatory than in the warm batlis of the other progress." 

It will be seen that the idea of a northern, tliat is to say, a north-easfc 
passage, from the East Indies was suggested to Mackenzie by the name 
Molucco Beans nsed in the Hebrides, and obviously indicating a belief that 
the beans had originated in the Moluccos. Sloaue, in his "Voyage to 
Jamaica," 1725 (vol. ii, p. 41), erroneously inverts the mental process wheu 
he says that the seeds " are called Molucean Eeans by the inhabitants [of 
N.W. Scotland], they snpposing them to have come from these islands by an 
inniginary north-east passage." That rumours of the discovery of a north- 
east passage to the East Indies were current long before tlie date of 
Mackenzie's paper is shown by a Spanish report brought to Lisbon from 
England in 1587 by Francis de Valverde, of San Lucar, while the Armada 
was being fitted out. This report, as published by the Spanish author Dure 
in his excellent work on the Armada, shows that A''alverde, who had been 
captured off Cape St. Vincent, on board of a ship homeward bound from 
New Spain, and kept prisoner many months in England, advised his Govern- 
ment that it was quite openly said in England that they (the English) had 
discovered a navigable way to the Moluccos round by the North, and that 
this would be most inconvenient for the service of His Majesty (Philip II).i 
How the seeds came to get the name Molucco Beans is a mystery which 
even Dr. Guppy's erudition has failed to unravel. I can only make the 
suggestion that the Portuguese name, Fava de Malaffiia, Malacca Bean, 
applied to the kidney-shaped nut or seed of Anacardinm, which, in form and 
colour, as described by the old herbalists, resembles the Entada Bean, was 
somehow transferred to the latter, and then by an easy corruption changed 
to Mohicco Bean. This Portuguese name for Auacardiuni is given in 
Dalechamp's " Historia Generalis Plantarum " of 1587, and re-appears in 
1640 in a much better known work, " Theatrum Botaniciuu," in the section 

■ ' " La Armadii Invenciblo," 1S84-S.5, vol. ii, p. 512. Documentos no. 86 — "Queen 
InglateiTa se decia mui publicamente que habian desoubierto la navegacion de las 
AFoluccas por detras del Norte, y qiLB siendo asi es de gran inconveniente para servicio 
de S.M." This long-desired passage, so ice-bound as to be useless for trade purposes, 
was not finally accomplished until 1879, when Nordeuskiold's famous Swedish circum- 
navigation of Europe and Asia was eft'ected in the ship Vega. See Vega's Fiird Kring 
Asien och Europa. Stockholm, 1880-81. 

R.I, A. PKOC, VOL. XXSV, SEAT. B. [ff] 

46 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

on "Strange and Outlandisli Plants." The Anaeardiuni seed is amongst 
those mentioned by Gunner in 1765, and afterwards referred to by Flygare 
and Tonning, as having been stranded on the Norwegian coast. 

Alongside the wide-spread popular belief in the exotic origin of these 
drift seeds there existed in certain quaiters a notion that they were native 
products, fruits of the mysterious and inexhaustible fertility of the sea. As 
we have seen from Sir George Mackenzie's paper of 1675, the islanders of 
the Lewes believed the drift beans to come from the Sea-Tangle or Laminaria, 
and Moselcy tells us that in the i Bermudas and Tristan d'Acunlia the sea 
beans found there are supposed to grow at the bottom of the sea.' But the 
most interesting account of such a belief, and one that appears to have 
eluded the notice of previous inquirers, is given by Clusius in the tenth book 
of liis "Exotici" of 1605. Speaking of the Entada Bean, he shows that 
the men of the Fiiroes held a belief similar to that of the Lewes islanders at 
least seventy years earlier than Mackenzie's record. 'I'lu' passage, whicli 
occurs at page 336 of Clusius, may be thus rendered : — 

" A most learned friend of mine wrote to me to say that the Norwegians 
were altogether persuaded these were Sea Beans, and that they grew up 
from deep water amongst sea-weeds in the Islands of the Faroes, so that the 
very cods that hcM them were brought up to view as they fabled. But in 
truth these cods, for I have seen one that lie sent me, were nothing other 
than the egg-cases of the I»ay From the shape of these beans some 
call them Sea Kidneys, others Lucky Stones, because they believe that if one 
possessed them they would fend off calamity from his house or enchantments, 
and 1 know not what, of hurt or damage from his cattle."' 

Contrary to expectation, I have not been able to discover in Ireland any 
current beliefs as to the occult virtues of the Sea Beans similar to those 
found prevalent by Martin in the Hebrides when he wrote his "Desciiption" 
in 1703. The only literary reference to such beliefs as existent in Ireland 
which I can find occurs in "Letters from the Irish Highlands of Cunnemarra," 
already quoted from, where the writer tells us that the " unlearned natives 
of Cunnemarra have found a fanciful use for these nuts by laying them under 
the pillows of their straw beds as a charm against the nocturnal visits of the 
fairies." No doubt a fund of folk-lore still lingers round these mysterious 
sea-waifs in the minds of the wise women of our western coasts. Such lore, 
however, is not to be extracted without patient and skilful manipulation. 

' " Notta of a Naturalist," J8!»2, p. 15. 

' The familiar sea-shore objects known as Mermaid's Purses, 

' For original text see Appendix C, 

CuLGAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 47 

Botanical Characteristics ok the Iiasii Sea Drift. 

To complete this account of our Iiisli tropical seed drift, it may be well 
to add a few details as to the nature and botanical Ijistory of its components. 
Of the eight species set out iu the list given in the first section of this paper 
no less than six — Entada scandens, Guilandina Bonduc, G. Bonducella, Mucuiia 
wens, M. altissima, and Diodea reflexa — belong to the order Leguminosae, 
one of the largest divisions of the vegetable kingdom. The seventh species, 
Ilionwca tiibcrosa, is a member of an extensive genus of Convolvulaceae, and 
the eighth, Saccoglottis amazonica, belongs to the order Humiriaceae which is 
related to the Ericaceae or Heath family. All of these eight species produce 
highly buoyant seeds or fruits. These have been tested by Dr. Guppy in the 
course of his exhaustive experiments on the buoyancy of tropical drift fruits 
or seeds, and several of them have been found to tioat for upwards of twelve 
months. This buoyancy, he has shown, is not a constant character, but 
depends on variable factors, such as station, stage of development, presence 
of a vacant space between the cotyledons or, in the case of composite fruits, 
abortion of ovules. All of these seeds and fruits he has found to be more or 
less frequent or abundant in the beach drift of the West Indian Islands, 
amongst which they are freely dispersed by sea currents in a germinable 
condition, so that, with one exception, Saccoglottis, the species form a 
characteristic feature in the strand flora. 

European knowledge of these exotic species began with a knowledge of 
their seeds, which the enthusiastic botanists of the late sixteenth and early 
seventeenth century eagerly collected, chiefly from Spanish and Portuguese 
seamen engaged in trade with the Guinea coast or the Spanish Main. Fore- 
most amongst these enthusiasts was the scholarly Charles de I'Ecluse (Clusius), 
a native of L'Ecluse on the Sensee river in Artois, who in the course of an 
enterprising botanical exploration of Spain and Portugal in 1546 had a leg 
broken b}' a fall from his horse near Gibraltar, and was ever after condemned 
to the use of crutches. His botanical ardour was not quenched, howevei", 
for he continued his explorations and paid three visits to England, where he 
obtained exotic seeds and fruits from his Loudon correspondents, James Garet, 
perfumer, and Hugh Morgan and John Eizzio,^ apothecaries to Queen Elizabeth. 
Here, too, he contrived to interview Drake on his return from his famous 
circumnavigaticn of the globe, and to procure specimens of the much-prized 

' I have failed to ti-ace any relationship between this John Rizzio and the ill-fated 
David Rizzio, French Secretary to Mary Queen of Scots. In the "Calendar of SUitc 
Papers, Elizabeth, Domestic," p. 448, two Italians settled iu England, Justiniano and 
Francis Ritzo, am mentioned as executors of the will of Sir Horatio Palavicini. 


48 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Winter's Bark from the Straits of Magellan. Of most of Llie seeds and fruits 
obtained from these and other correspondents, he had drawings made which, 
alonw with his descriptions, were brought together and piiblished in 1605, 
when the author was in liis eightieth year, in his " Exotkoni.m IJbri Decern." 
From certain passages in this work Clusius would seem to have anticipated 
by three centuries the seed-buoyancy experiments of Sehimper and Dr. Guppy. 
Thus, on page 58, speaking of Critilandina Bonduc, he tells us that the seed is 
solid and of stony hardness, and tliat it sank in water {in aqua suhsidchai), 
and of G. BonduceUa lie remarks that the seed is hard as stone, though it floats 
in water {saaxi duritie, lied in aqiiam siipemataret). Again, on page 95, he 
speaks of seeds of two different species sinking to the bottom when placed in 
water {in aqua suhsidcns Sf imum pdens). What precise object Clusius may 
have had in thus testing his exotic seeds I have not been aljle to discover. 
There seem to be no grounds, however, for suspecting that he liad in his 
mind a possible dispersal of seeds by ocean currents. 

Entada scandens Bentl). 

This species of almost world-wide distribution in the tropics is a vigorous 
climWr, which, as Sloane tells us in his "History of Jamaica," 1707, is found 
" creeping up the trees and covering their tops for many acres." Tlie bent or 
twisted seed pods, amongst the largest known fruits of tlie kind, often measure 
up to six feet in length by four inches in breadtli and enclose numerous seeds 
from two lo two and a-half inches in diameter, of a rich mahogany colour, 
with hard, smooth surface, and varying in outline from reniform or kidney- 
shaped to cordiform or lieart-shai>ed. Tatrick Brown, a native of Mayo, in 
his " Histor)- of Jamaica," published in 1756, proposed for tlie plant tlic name 
Gigaldbium scandens, suggested by its huge pods; Linnaeus named it Mimosa 
scandens ; subsequently De Candolle, adopting for the genus Adanson's name 
Entada, called the plant Entada fji/jalohium; and, finally, Bentliam gave it 
the name Entada scandens, by which it is now most generally known. 

Tlie seeds of this species appear to have been first brouglit to Europe from 
the New World. They are included amongst the Falac jJurgairiccs in a work 
on drugs, published at Seville in 1569 by Nicolas Moiiardes, a Spanisli botanist 
and pliysician.* A Latin version of this Spanish treatise was produced by 
Clusius in 1574, and in this the seeds are figured and fully described. The 
plant is set down as a native of the Island of St. Thomas, and for this 
reason, and because the seed resembles the heart as it is usually figured, the 

' " Hiatorin Mcdicinnl du laa Cosas que se traen dc nueatras Indias OccidenUles que 
sirren en Bledicina." Duas partidas. ScviUa, 15G9. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 


bean, \vc aie told, is kiidwii as SI. Thomas's Heart.^ Tlie large bean sent me 
.by Miss Warren from Killala liay, as well as one of those fonnd by Miss Delap 
on the beach of Valentia Islanil, is of tiiis shape, though tlie leniform siiape 
is much more common in the Irish specimens I have seen. This ajipears from 
Dr. Guppy's ilotation experiments to be one of the most buoyant amongst 

3 x:tium^^^ 5 

Fig. 1. — E;uly Jiuwings o£ West Indi:m Drift Seeds. 

1. Saovo(jloUis iimiKonicd, from Clusiiis £xot., lOOo, p. 45. 

2.' JJiov/ai rcjlcxn, from J. Bauhin, Hist. Plant., torn, ii, 1651, p. 273. 

3. Entculu scaiidcits, from Cliisiiis' '2nd Lntin Ed. of Moniirdes, 157-1- 

i. Ipoiiioea liibciosa, from Clusiiis E.xot., pp. 40, 41. 

5. Gulliindimt liondiiccUa, from Dalecliimip, Hist. Phmt., 1586, p. ISC'). 

European drift seeds, this buoyancy, as he points out, being derived from an 
iiiternal cavity caused by the shrinkage of the cotyledons, unequal shrinkage 
in different seeds giving rise to varying degrees or complete absence of buoy- 
ancy. The, tough integument preserves the embiyo throughout its 

' Nuscitv,r in Insula D. Thomae dicta c6 cordis effigiam qiiale milgo pingi solet imUiiUir ; 
idcircu a (luibusdS, Cor D. TKomae nuiifiupaUir. 

50 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

long sea passage of 4000 miles, so that plants have frequently been raised in 
greenhouses from seeds of this species found stranded on the shores of Europe. 
In frequency of occurrence and widespread dispersal as a drift seed on the 
western shores of Europe, Eulada comes easily first. The records range from 
South Kerry to Spitzbergen. 

Mucuna urens Medic. Ti. (altissima ?) DC. 

Lilve EnUula scandois. both of these species are climbers, M. urcns being 
widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, including the Pacific 
Islands ; while M. aitisshna appears to be confined to the New World, where 
it occurs in the West Indies, Central America, and Brazil. Dr. Guppy has 
found tlie seeds of botli species in the beach drift of the West Indian Islands,. 
those of M. unm being much rarer there, as they are in the drift of the 
European shores, than those of M. altissima. The seeds of the two species 
are not easy to discriminate. Both are of rounded outline, more or less 
flattened ; brown in colour, and almost completely surrounded by a broad, 
black, sharply defined baud— the liilum or scar formed by the cord which 
attaches the seed to the seed-case. The seed of M. urens is the smaller, not 
exceeding an incli in diameter. It is more swollen or approacliing to a 
globular form tlian the seed of M. altissima, which attains a diameter of an 
inch and a-Iialf. As in Entada, the buoyancy of the seed is duo to an inter- 
cotyledonary cavity. 

The firet mention of this genus I can find is in the Latin version of 
Monarde.s, pubii.sJied by Clusius in 1574. Here a figure of a young plant is 
given along with a few seeds, showing fairly well the characteristic broad 
hilum. This figure, as Clusius tells us, was drawn from a plant which he 
grew in Belgium from a seed brought from I'ernambuco, and procured by him 
in Lisbon in 1564. He succeeded in growfiig this plant to a heiglit of two 
cubitvs (about o feel 6 inches), but failed to flower it. A better figure of the 
seed is given by J. Bauhiu in Vol. ii, p. 271, of his "Historia Plantarum," 
published in 1651. The generic name Mucuna is derived from the native 
Brazilian name, Macouna, under which the seeds were first introduced into 
Europe. It is not jjossible to determine to which of the two drift siJecies 
of Mucuna the figures and descriptions of Clusius and Bauhin should be 

Ooilandina Bondnc Linn. G. Bondncella Linn. 

The distribuliun of bolii of these .species is as wide as that of Entada and 
Mucuna, and the hard, round, sliining seeds have attracted attention from 
early times. The Liiineau specific name Bouduc, witii its diminutive 
Bouducella, is derived from the Arabic word Bondog, signifying a necklace, 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 51 

tlie seeds being made into necklaces and bi-acelets in llie East. T'.y nmdein 
systenialisLs Uie genus Cluilamliiia lias been niergc<l in (Jaesaljiinia, under 
which name the sjiecies are now l'r('i|uently spoken of. Dr. Gu)Ji)y has shown 
that tlie buoyancy of the seod.s is due to an internal cavity, usually 
intercotyledonary, as in Entada and Mucuna. The earliest plate of the seed 
which I can find is given at page 1859 of Dalechamp's " Historia Plantarum," 
1586, where it is entered under the heading Variifrudus 2Jeregrina Glusii, and 
incorrectly named Nu.\ Faufel, this name being ])roperly applicable to the 
Areca nut, the fruit of what Gerard calls the "Drunken Date Tree." The seed 
figured is said to have been obtained by Clusius from John Eizzio, apothecary 
to Queen Elizabeth, while Clusius was on a visit to London in 1581, and is 
described as being smaller than a sparrow's egg, almost round, of stony 
hardness, and looking as if ic had been turned in a lathe (lunquam torno 
elaboratus). The description is most accurate, for the stony test is encircled 
by faint parallel ridges suggesting the use of a lathe tool. In all but colour 
the seeds of both species are similar, those of G. Bondiic being yellow, those 
of G. Bonducella grey or leaden-coloured. The plants, however, are distinguish- 
able by the size of the leaflets and by the presence or absence of foliaceous 
stipules. Wiiile G. Bonducella is widespread as a drift seed on the shores of 
western Europe, there are but two records of G. Boiiduc, one for the Irish 
coast by Eobert Brown in 1818, the other by Pennant for the Hebrides 

in 1774. 

Dioclea reflexa Hook. f. 

The seed of this leguminous tree-climber, which is widespread in the- 
tropics of both hemispheres, appears to be of quite rare occurrence in the 
drift of the European coasts, tiiough it is a common ingredient in the drift 
of the West Indian Islands. Dr. Guppy suggests that the infrequency 
of records for the European shores may be due to a failure to distinguish the 
seeds from those of Mucuna. He accepts but two records, one for tlie 
Orkneys, the other for the Shetlands ; and in Ireland it is known only from a 
single station on the west Donegal coast, where, as already mentioned, it was 
found by Miss Delap along with Entada, Mucuna, Guilandina, and Ipomoea. 
The earliest figure and description of this seed which I can find are in 
J. Bauhin's " Historia Plantarum Universalis Nova," 1651, at page 273 of 
the second volume. The figure is good, showing the squarish outline of the 
seed; and in all points save the colour of the liihuu the description which 
follows agrees closely enough with Miss Delap's specimen : — Phaseolus 
Brasiliunus toius nif/cr splcndens. Corticc obtectus est duro atquc sjjlendciitc . . . 
Hilns ciinm tolus niger, trcs fructus partes ambit qjsoque J'ructu clalior est, 
Uotwidus esset, nisiioars sessilis rotunditatem cavcret. In Miss Delap's specimen 

52 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the Iiiluni is brown, not black. The buoyancy of this seed has been shown by 
Dr. Guppy to depeml, not on the presence "-f an internal cavity, but on the 
intrinsic lightness of the kernel. 

Ipomea taberosa Linn. 

As a drift object it is hard to say whether we have to deal with a seed or 
a fruit in the case of this species, which is a lofty climber, wide-spread in 
the West Indies and in the tropics of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 
fniit or seotl ixcurs as a hard, ebony-black, polished object, depressed, glolx)se- 
or slightly s«iuarish in outline, about an inch in diameter, marked with fmir 
transverse grooves on one side, and with a C-shaped or crescentic hilum ok 
the other. Though normally a four-seeiletl fruit, often but one embryo is 
develoi>e<l. while the envelope retains its four-partite character. To this 
arrest of development of a portion of the embryos the high buoyancy of the 
one seedetl fruit is due. The seed or fruit is veiy well figured and described 
by Cluains' as one of si.x fruits received by him at various times fi-oni James 
tlan-t, a l/indi>n aj»othecary and j)erfuuier, who practised tulip-growing. 
Two figures are given by Clusius, one on page 41, showing the chai-acteristic 
C-sha{)e<l hilum; the other, on page 40, showing the quadripartite division 
of the fniit, which he descrilies as apparently consisting of four nuts joined 
together (pr/i(/i «■ yMrt/Mor rtr<//«>its »(i/u// ronnfxis cotiManx), &ni[ so hard in 
texture as almost to resist the file. Clusius believes the fiuit to be. iden- 
tical with the Arfllana imnjativa. previously desciibcd by Ferdinand Oviedo 
in 1526. 

I»ng known from the drift •■i tiie >tittish west coast, ii was not until 
IS92 that the species was iiientified. As a constituent of the West Indian 
drift Dr. Guppy finds it to be quite rare, and on the European shores it i& 
by no means so fre«iuent or so wide-sprea<l as Kntada, Mucuna, and 
Guilandina. It is recorded with certainty only fmni the Hebiides. the 
Orkneys, and the Shetlands. T<> this i^ng»'. Miss Dt^lati'.s Donearal record 
gives a considerable extension. 

Saccoglottis amazonica ^fari. 

This is the largest of the European drift fruits, and its origin is almost, 
certainly the Amazon and Orinoco basins. As a drift fruit. Dr. Guppy finds, 
it to be wide-8piea4l on West Indian beaches, where it was ot»served by 
Sloane in Jamaica two centuries ago, and identified as one of the fniits cast* 
up on the n>>rtii-west islands of Scotlaml. Good figures of the fruit are 
given by Clusius at page 45 of his " Exotici," 1605. Here we are told 

' " Exotici," lib. ii, cap. iri. 

CoLGAN — Tropical Drift Seeds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 63 

that Jacob Plateau, hearing that Cliisius was engaged in the preparation of 
his worlv on Exotics, sent him several fruits. Amongst them was this, which 
290 years later was finally identified as Saccoglottis, and traced to its home 
in the Amazon basin.* It is described by Glusius as being two inohea long 
by four inches in girth, marked into five segments by longitudinal ridges, 
the surface lubercolated witli blister-like protuberances, whicli, when opened, 
were found to be empty. It is to these closed cavities, or resin cysts, that 
tlie higli buoyancy of the fruit is due. 

Saccoglottis is of infrequent occurrence on the beaches of western 
Europe. In addition to tlie Hebrides, the only records are those for the 
Devonshire coast, where it was picked up in 1887, and for the Mayo coast, 
where we have felt justified in accepting its occurrence on the evidence given 
by Miss Warren. 

In concluding this account of our Irish tropical drift seeds it is my 
pleasing duty to have to acknowledge kind aid i-eceived in many ways from 
the following, in addition to those already mentioned : — Miss M. C. Knowles, 
of the Herbarium, National Museum ; Mr. T. W. Lystei', Librarian of the 
National Library; Professor A. Henry, of Eoyal College of Science; 
Mr. E. W. Scully, author of the "Piora of the Co. Kerry"; Mr. E. Lloyd 
Praeger, of the National Library ; and last, though by no means least, 
Dr. H. B. Guppy, of Salcombe, South Devon, whose sympathetic correspon- 
dence carried ou witli me during the progress of the work was most fruitful 
in suw^estion. 



(A) Dame Killigrew sends Sea-beans to Loljel from Cornwall. Lobel, 
Adversaria, Londini, 1570, 395. 

Permultas accepimus a nauclerus fabas Phaseolosve ex Americae novo 
*orbe, eque Hesperia Aphrica allatas, quae mixtae naturae videntur, sed 
propinquioris Phaseolo . . . sed aliaa perquam raras liabemus nos munere 
lectissimae literata virtute et familia in Anglia illustri Heroinae Catherinae 
Killigreae quas ferunt repertas magna copiae ad Cornubiae littora & quod 
non parum mirum, eo loco nullum merainit nllus navem illisam, nullumve 
naufragium factum et tameu quotannis novae inveniuntur, partim tluitanles& 
partim eftbdiuntur inimersae sabulis littoreis, quasi ut putant Cornubiensis 
maris AngUce accolae, secundis Austria aut Zephyris e nova mundo appulsae 

' " Nature," Nov. 2>St, 1895. A Jamaica Drift Friiit, D. Morris. 

It. I. A. PROC, VOL. XSXV, SECT. B. [B.] 

54 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(B) Giovanni Pena on the virtues of Bonduch Indiano {Guilandina Bondtich) 

" Monte Baldo descritto da Giovanni Pena, Veronese." In Venetia 
MDCXVii, pp. 22-33. 

Questo frutto, per quanto rillustrissimo Contarini me ne scrisse, e venduto 
iu Alessandria d' Egitto da' Turchi con nonie di Bonduch, ascrivendole gran 
virtu ; ed iu particolare (come mi fu scritto dal Sig. Gio. Maria Danioto, 
uella cognitioue della plauta versatissimo) che portati adosso da' fanciulli 
gli preserva da mali eventi (Nel modo che Plinio scrive della Pietra Molochites, 
chiamandola ««<(/(/(« in/uatium); valere al morso de Scorpioni, toglie TEnii- 
cranea riceveudolo iu polve sottilissinia per le narici, et sana la tortura della 
bocca ; couferisce all'Epilessia, et la quautita sua esse il peso di due grani 
di Pepe ; bevuto nel vino alia quautita di uu cece, sanare il colico, la febre 
quariana, et resistere a tutti i Veueni : lequali virtu quauto di lui proprie 
siauo uou saprei dire, per nou haverue veduto esperieuza. 

(C) Tlie Faroe islanders believe tiie Sea Beans to be sea growth. — Clusius, 

•' Ejvtki," 1G05, p. 3.S6. 

Ceterum silentio miuiine preuiendaiu existiiuavi opinionem quam 
Nortuagos de lioc phaseolo habere intelligebam quam istuni Aromatum 
Uistoria ijiiintiim lypu e.xprinieretur : iilos euim prorsus sibi persuadere 
Bcribebat dociiss>imus vir mihi amicus marinum esse piiaseohim alque adeo in 
Karris iusulia uasci inter algam et ex profundoerui quin ct fuUiculos ostendere 
quibus coutiuere nugantur, quum tamen nihil aliud sint (nam unum quam 
luittebai conspe.xi) quam ovorum Kaiae piscis pulamina. Ijisa a forma Kenes 
Mariuos appellant, nonnulli etiam Bonae Sorlis calculos, sive quod cakmi- 
latcm a douio possessuri(> sive etiam quod i ncan tamen tailic uescioquamnuxani 
ab heri pecore arcere vel propellere credautur. 


Tropical Diui-t Seeu.s found vv on the West Coast ok IkelvVnu. 
sughtly uebuced in size. 

1. Enlfida scandcns, Bartra Is., Killala Bay. 

2. Maghery strand, Donegal. 

3. „ „ BelmuUet, Co. Mayo. 

4 and 6. Mticuna {allissimu 1), Valentia Harbour. 
5. Miicuna urens, Valentia Harbour. 

7. Jpomoca tubcrosa, Maghery strand. 

8. GuUandina Bonducdla, Maghery strand. 

9. IHrirlea rcflcjca, Maghery strand. 

Proc. R. I. AcAn., Vol.. XXXV, Sf.ct. B. 

I'l.ATR X. 

CoLGAN.— Tropical Dk.ikt Sekds on Irish Atlantic Coasts. 

( -55 ) 






Read Ji-ne 23. Piiblislie'l SEMEMiiER 25, 1919. 

I. — Hybrid Conifers. 

Instance.? of hybridisation between different species of conifers are not of 
common oceiurence. The fact that species of tlie same genus seldom gi-ow 
together in the wild state may explain the rarity of hybrids amongst conifers 
in natural surroundings; but it is difficult to account for their non-appearance 
in pineta, botanic gardens, and artificial plantations, where allied species 
often stand in close pro.ximity, and cross-pollination would seem to be 
inevitable. Most of the recorded cases are confined to the two genera, Abies 
and Pinus ; and scarcely any addition has been made to the short list^ of 
hybrid conifers drawn up by Masters in 1901. It is probable, however, that 
hybridisation in conifers is more frequent than is supposed, and possibly 
widespread amongst the other genera. Hybrids often escape recognition, and 
if observed are apt to be classed with so-called " varieties " or " sports." 

As an example of a hybrid conifer whicli has not yet been recognized in 
books as such, 1 may instance the puzzling^hemlock spruce, Tsuya VaUonmna 
var. Jeffrei/i, A. Henry.^ This supposed variety is undoubtedly a hybrid 
between the two wild species, Tmiga Pattoniana and Tsma Albei-tiana, and 
may now be named Tsuga Jefreyi, A. Henry. 

' In Journ. R. Hort. Soc. xxvi, 97 (1901). 

' In Elwes and Henry, "Trees of Great Britain," ii, 231 (1007). Another name for 
this tree is Tmqa Mertensiana, var. Jeffrey i, Silva Tarouca, " Unsere Freiland. Xadel- 
hiilzer," 294 (1913). The hybrid differs from T. Pattoniana in havinj,' green and not 
bluish foliage, and in the leaves being serrulate and not entire in margin, with a groove 
on the upper surface continued to the rounded apex. It diBers from T. Albert tana in 
the r.adial and not pectinate arrangement of the leaves, which, moreover, have broken 
stomatic lines on the upper surface, absent from the last-named species. 

B.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXSV, SECT. B. [/] 

56 Proceedings of the Roynl Trish Academy. 

This extremely rave tree, of which there is a living specimen in Kew 
Gardens, was originally raised at Edinburgli Irom seed collected in 1851 by 
Jelirey in British Columbia on Mount Baker, where tlie two species were 
observed growing together by Engleniann in 1882.' I'siuja Jcp'rcyi has turned 
up again, after an interval of sixty years. There is now growing in Mr. M. 
Hornibrook's garden at Kuapton, Abbeyleix, a young tree, identical with 
Jeffrey's plant, which was procured from Vancouver Island about four years 
ago. It was dug up as a wild seedling a few inches high in the mountains 
behind Cowichan Lake, where the two parent species probably intermix, as 
one is a characteristic tree of the lower altitudes of Vancouver Island, while 
the other is almost confined to the alpine zone. 

II. — HYRRin Larches. 

Hybrid trees, especially those of the first generation, are usually endowed 
with remarkable vigour, so that they not only produce timber rapidly and in 
great volume, but tliey also arc to a considerable degree immune from serious 
attacks of in.sects or of fungoid disease. Hybridisation between the dill'erent 
larclies is tlius a subject of economic importance, as the genus yields excellent 
timber in a short term of yeara, provided the plantations remain in a healthy 
state. The species most cultivated, L(irir airopaea, is unfortunately very 
liable to disease. 

Each of tlie dozen known species of larch is confined to a distinct territory, 
and natural hybrids have not been observed in the wild state. Three hybrid 
larches liavc, however, originated spontaneously in cultivation; and crossing 
has also been elfecled by artificial pollination. 

L Larix pendula. — One of tlic hybrid larclies, Larix 2)endula, Salisbury, 
which puzzled botanists for over a liundred years, may now be briefly referred 
to. Its liistory wa.s elucidated by I'rof. A. Henry* in 1915. It originated as 
a single seedling about 1739 ; and the original tree, a first cross between 
Lai'ix europaea and Larix americana, grew for many years at Mill Hill, near 
London, being uliimately cut down in 1800. Tiiis tree attiucted much 
attention on account of its extraordinary vigour. Lambert, tlie great authority 
of his time on Conifers, said : " It was the finest and largest tree I liavc ever 

' It waa describc<I accurately as rcgnrds the leaves and twigs by A. Murray, in Proc. 
R. Hort. Soc. iii, 20.5, fig. 1 (1S03), under the name Ahits FaUonuina, a minleading and 
untenable designation, as .Jeffrey's plant i.s ijuite different from the alpine wild hemlock 
spruce, previou-ily de.'<cribed u-ider this name by Balfour in 18ij3. The hybrid is some- 
times also wr.ingly called Ahia Hoohtriana, A. Murray, which is a synonym no longer in 
use, being a later name of the alpine wild species. 

'In "G-irdeners' Chronicle," 18th September, 1916, pp. 178-179, figs. 68-61, and 
9th October. 1915, p. 234. 

HiCNity AND I'^Loon — The Dunkeld Ihjhrid Larch. 57 

seen, bearing great quantities of cones with ripe seed annually." From its 
seed a good many descendants were obtained, some of wliicli are still to be 
seen in parks and botanic gardens in Great Britain. Tbe trees of the second 
and third generations differ amongst themselves in vigour, size, habit, bark, 
twigs, leaves, and cones. In fact, they show a range of variation that can 
only be explained as resulting from the diverse combinations of the distinc- 
tive characters of the two parent species. These peculiar larch trees were 
for a long time considered by foresters and botanists to be a second wild 
species in Eastern Canada, where, howev-er, Larix americana is the sole indi 
genous larch. Of late years, they were erroneously identified with Lariou 
dahurica, a native of Eastern Asia. The history and botanical characters of 
Larix pendula clearly establish its hybrid nature. 

It is noteworthy that none of the trees of the second and third genera- 
tions retains the remarkable vigour of the original first cross. In fact, they 
are as a rule inferior in growth to the European larch, one of the parents ; 
but a good number show greater vigour than the other parent, the American 

The Eussian botanist, Eegel,^ gives an interesting account of the remark- 
able differences in habit of the seedlings which he raised at St. Petersburg 
from the seed of Lari.v ijcndida. Some exhibited bizarre, prostrate, and 
pendulous forms. This is a striking example of mutations resulting from 

In Larix pendula only one tree of the first hybrid generation appears ever 
to have been produced. In the case, however, of the Dunkeld hybrid larch, 
as will be shown in the following pages, numerous first-cross individuals of 
great promise and vigour have been easily raised from seed. The seed is 
profusely produced by a few trees of one species, which are spontaneously 
cross-pollinated by trees of the other species in their vicinity. This abundant 
production of hybrid seed is a remarkable phenomenon. 

2. Larix Marschlinsi, Coaz.- This hybrid larch came only under our notice 
a few days ago. Like the Dunkeld hybrid larch, it has arisen from a tree of 
Larix leptolepis, which happened to be fertilized by the pollen of another 
species, growing close by. The mother Japanese larch tree, which is now 
about thirty-seven years old, stands in the forest garden of Tscharuerholz, 
near Morat, in Switzerland. Seed of this, sown in 1901, produced young 
trees, which are now growing at Marschlins in the comnnmal forest of Igis, 
in the Grisons canton. These seedlings are very vigorous, having attained, 

• In "Gartenauni," xx, 1U2 (187 1j. 

- In ''Schweiz. Zeitschrift fiir Forstweson,'' vol. Ixviii, p. J-', ligs. il iuul -i (J;inu:wy, 

58 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

when measured iu 1917, 27 to 33 feet in height, with a girth of 24 to 26 ins. 
at one metre above the giouiid. They produced cones in 1916, which ai'e 
unlike those of L. kptolepis. Dr. Coaz considered these trees to be the 
progeny of a cross between the Japanese larch and the European larch ; but 
the real soui-ce of the pollen he leaves in doubt. In the photograph, repro- 
duced with his description, of the mother Japanese larch tree at Tscharnerholz, 
there is standing near it a group of trees, which are said to be Larix europaea, 
var. sibirica ; and it is very probable that the pollen came from these Siberian 
larches, which were thirty-five years old in 1917. It would seem, then, that 
Larur Marschliiisi is a cross between L. leptolepis and L. sibirica ; but further 
investigation is required. 

The reverse cross, Laria: sibirica ? x Z. hploUpin J is said to have lieeu 
produced artificially in Kussia by V, Parashink, from an abstract' of whose 
paper tlie following is taken — " The liussiau larch is very severely attacked 
by Peziza Willkommii and by Colcophora laricclla, so as to render its cultiva- 
tion inadvisable. The Japanese larch, on the contrary, is almost imuiuue 
against fungi or insects ; its growth is, however, less rapid (in Kussia), aad 
the quality of timber obtained from it more liable to decay. Is it possible, 
by cross-breeding, to combine in a single subject the valuable characters of 
the two typos ? With this object he fertilized specimens of the Kussiau 
larch {L. sibirica) with the pollen of thu Japanese species. Tiio hybrids 
of one year old can be seen in a plot of the experimental station at Nova 

III.— The Dunkeld Hybrid Labcu, Laki.\ Eueolepis. 

The " Dunkeld hybrid larch " is the name given by foresters to seedlings 
that have been rei>oatodly raised from the seed of certain Japanese larch 
trees (Larix leptolepis), ten in number,- which aie growing near the road 
leading to the mansion at Dunkeld, Perthshire. These trees are fairly 
Nigorous, being about 50 feet high in 1916, when they had attained thirty- 
one years old. Near them are growing numerous European larches (Lai-ix 
europaea), from which pollen can easily be wafted by the wind; and cross- 
fertilization undoubtedly occurs. The seedlings of the ten trees differ 
considerably iu appearance from ordinary Japanese larch, such as is raised 
in this country from seed imported from Japan. 

' Interna*. Bull. Agric Intel!., iii, p. 2201 (1012). ISnmhink, rdyin!: im the 
lMilAnic»l n.tnto. L. tiiroffun var. tih\iifi, gpeiiks of the Kus-sian larch aa tiic " European 
Urcb at the eastern end (Ruasia) of its distribution " ; but it is a very distinct species, 
now always correctly named Zxirvr tibirxcn. 

' These ten trees were raised from scijd imported from Japan in 18tl4, and sown in 
1885. Cf. Trans. K. Scott. Arbor. Soc. iv, 273 (1898). 

Henuy and Flood — T'^c IhmkeU llijhrid Larch. 59 

The olilost of the hyluid seedlings wore phanted out at Invev, near 
JJunkehl, in 1904, and were aliout 25 feet liigli wlien seen in lOKi, heing 
reputed to be then sixteen years old from seed. They are narrow, witli upturned 
twigs at ttie ends of the ascending branches ; and are strikingly dillerent 
in habit from tlie wide-spreading true Japanese larch. Mr. D. Keir, the 
forester, in June, 1919, accurately measured the Inver hybrid larches as 
follows : — 

Height. Girth at 5 feet from the ground. 

No. 1. . . 27 feet. 18 inches. 



28 ,, 18 

27 „ 20 

26 „ 20 

39 „ 21i 

Five hybrids, planted at Ladywell Higli Park, in 1907, and three years 
younger from seed than the Inver trees, show much more even and better 
growth, being oO to 33 feet in height and 17 inches in girth at 5 feet 
from the ground. About 100 acres of hybrid seedlings, all of which are 
very thriving, have been planted out on the Blair Athol and Dunkeld 

Several of the Dunkeld hybrid larches have borne coues with fertile seed, 
from which seedlings of the second generation have been raiseti 

At the Ladywell Nursery, Dunkeld, one could see in L916 three beds of 
seedlings of different origin, all two years old, and under the same conditions 
of soil and treatment. These compared as follows : — 

1. Hybrids of the first generation, raised from one of the ten 
Larb: leftoleipis trees, a very uniform crop of seedlings, 12 to 17 inches 
in height. 

2. Hybrids of the second generation, raised from seed of one of the 
Inver hybrid trees. These averaged 12 inches high, and were very 
varied in size and appearance, suggesting Mendelian segregation. 

3. Pure LarU Icplolepis, raised from Japanese seed, a very uniform 
crop of seedlings, 6 to 8 inches high ; or about half the size of tlie 
first cross. 

We have obtained most of the material for the study of the Dunkeld 
hybrid larch from a plot* in the BulTalo Park plantatioi\ at Murthly, Perth- 
shire, which contains 300 trees of the same origin as those at Inver. Planted 

' This plot is described by John Murray, in Trans. II. Scott. Arbor. Soc. xxix, 152 
(1915). Plate xv, accompanying this interesting article, shows the habit of the Dunkold 
hybrid larch. 

60 Proceedings of the Boyal Irish Academy. 

out in 1908, the trees in this plot averaged 29 feet in height and 13f inches 
in girth at breast-high when measured in August, 1916. This astonishing 
vigour of growth is very evident when comparison is made with an adjoining 
plantation of pure Japanese larcli, the trees of which are considerably shorter, 
though they are two yeai-s older, having been planted in 1906. There seems 
to be no doubt that these first generation hybrids always exceed in vigour 
both the parent species. 

All the specimens obtained from Dunkeld and Murthly seem to be 
uniform in their characters, indicating a first cross between two pure species. 
It is possible that some of the seed of the mother trees may not be always 
cross-pollinated, and in that case the resulting seedlings would lie identical 
with L. Irptolepis ; but no instance of tliis came under our notice. 

It is now proposed to apply* to the " hybrid Dunkehl larcli," Larix 
Icplolcpis $ X Z. cHvopafa 5 , the name Larix eurolepis, A. Henry ; and to 
give in the succeedini; pages the results of a careful study of the material 
obligingly sent by Mr. A. Murray, forester at Murthly, and Mr. D. Keir, 
forester at Dunkeld. 

Hefore giving a description of the hybrid larch, it is necessary first to 
slate clearly and at considerable length how the two parent species plainly 
diller in their twigs, leaves, tlowere, and cones ; but it is convenient to 
postpone till later our account of the peculiar distinctions that are visible 
under tlie microscope iu the sections of the leaves of the parent species and 
of the hybrid. 

1. Parent Species («) Ticigx. In Larix europaea the twigs in tlieir first 
year are glabrous, green, and without waxy bloom ; becoming in the second 
year greyish-yellow with the tips of the pulvini tinted orange. Buds golden 
brown, not resinous ; axillary buds not oveilapped at the base by the apex 
of the subtendijig pulvinus ; terminal buds surrounded by mucronate scales. 

In Larix leptolepia the twigs in the first year are covered with a waxy 
bloom, and usually bear long brown hairs, either dense or scattered, but in a 
considerable proportion of individual trees entirely absent or cast early in 
the season. In the second year the twigs are red, brilliant in tint on tlie 
upper surface, duller on the surface directed towards the ground and in 
tlie shade. Buds reddish-brown, very resinous ; axillary buds overlapped 
at the base by the raised apex of the subtending pulvinus ; terminal buds 
surrounded witli partly acute, partly mucronate scales. 

' Larix eurolepu, A. Henry, hybrida nova inter Laricem ltptolepidem> et Laricem 
riiropoeaii): arbor rubuHtA .illvrius fuliis liujus raiiiulis: bracleis floruni femiii.irum rosci.s 
ut specioi ouro{>aeao, seel rotlcxis ut spociei japonicae : strobilis maturis etiaiii mcdiis, 
aioiilibus speciei earopi-jAe forma coaica ; squimts lazb, loviter reflexis : pedunculo 

Henuy and Flood — The Dunkeld Hjihrid Larch. 61 

{h) Leaves. In all larches Ihoie are two sorts of leaves — (1) those 
arising singly in sjjiral order on ilic long shoots ol' the cnrrent season ; and 
(2) those borne in clusters of lliirty to sixty, at tiie summit of the short 
shoots or spurs on the older twigs. 

In L. europaea the leaves are green without any ditlusod Mooni on their 
surface, and with few stomatie lines, and on that account are not glaucous 
in tint. 

In L. leptolepis the leaves are distinctly glaucous, being covered on both 
surfaces with a diffused waxy bloom ; while the two bands on their lower 
surface, having more stomatie lines, are very conspicuous. 

The number and arrangement of the stomatie lines are given in the 
concluding table. 

(c) Femcde flowers. The female flowers or very young cones of L. eureypaea 
are deep pink in colour, as the bracts, which are straight arid not reflexed, 
are brilliant red over most of their surface, except the green midrib and mucro. 

In L. leptolepis the female flowers are greenish in colour, as the bracts, 
the upper halves of which are reflexed downwards, are tinged pink only on 
their extreme edge, most of their surface being green. 

{d) Cones. The cones of L. europaea are dark purple before ripening, 
ultimately becoming brown, conical in shape, being broadest neai- the base, 
and tapering to the apex ; scales appressed, upper margin straight or 
incurved, basal half of the outer surface pubescent; bracts exceeding half 
the length of the scales, with their tips exserted and visible externally ; 
peduncle yellow. 

The cones of L. leptolepis are globose, being small at both ends, green 
before ripening, turning brown when mature ; scales loose, not tightly 
appressed, upper margin thin and reflexed, variable in pubescence ; bracts 
short, not exserted ; peduncle reddish. 

II. Larix eurolepis, A. Henry. This hybrid is remarkably intermediate 
between the two parents, as will be seen on comparing their descriptions just 
given, item for item, with the account which follows. The Dunkeld hybrid 
larch, as stated above, has ascending branches, and is considerably narrower 
in the crown than the Japanese larch, which it excels in vigour of growth. 

(ff) Tiriijs. Young shoots either glabrous or slightly hairy, always with 
some bloom on their surface, but less marked than in the Japanese larch. 
Twigs of the second year, closely resembling those of the European larch, 
being grej'ish-yellow with orange-tipped pulvini.^ Buds non-resinous, ligiit 

' The twigs of L. eurolepis are always greyish-yellow, with orange-tipped pulvini on 
the upper surface ; and are usually of the same tint beneath. Occasionally, however, 
the surface in the shade and directed towards the ground, is of a dull reddiah-hrown 


Proceedings of the Royal Triith Aeadenty. 

i-eddish-brown ; axillary buds very slightly overlapped at the base by the 
subtending pulvinus ; terminal buds surrounded with partly acute, partly 
luueronate scales. 

(b) Ijcaws always covered with a glaucous bloom, as in />. feptolepis ; but 
the two stomatic bands beneath are not so whit« as in that species. 

(c) Female ftotcfi-.-i, deep pink; in this respect exactly resembling 
i. rvrojtaea : but the bracts are reflexed, being similar in this respect to 
X. lejitolepis. 

(d) Cones, resembling in shape the European larch, being decide<\ly 
conical, but not ?n dark in colour before ripening as that species ; scales 
loosely appressed, upjier mai^in slightly letlexed, but not so much as in 
L. leptnlrpii;, ba.<4al half of outer surface pubescent as in i. europaea ; bracts 
muatly exserted, but the lips not projecting estemally so conspicuously as 
in L. mrojxKa ; f»cduncle yellow, as in the last species. 

The distinctive characters, vi.sible to the unassisted eye, of tlie two species 
and the hybrid, may lie tabulated as follows : — 

L. itnofmn. 

t. ItftolrpU. 

L. emolepi; 



pubcaeeot or glabrous 

glabrous or rery slightly 





nn wax 

nach vax 

fKglit wni 


gnlden browTi 

red brown 

light reddish-brawn 

no redn 


no rwin 

■Dales ■itmsd tarminai 
bud roucronute 

■eales araimd terminal 
bad mucronate and acute 

aralea around tenniniil bud 
mucronate and acul« 


ending at baie of axil- 
larr bud 

lary bud 

baw of axil- 

slightly orerlap|iing base 
of axillary bud 

Bracis of yonng 



green ith 






sr^ea straight or in- 

scales much reflexed 

scales slightly reflexed 

bracK long, exacrted 

biacts abort. 


bracU short, but a tew ex- 

peduncle yellow 

pedunrle rc^ 


pedunile yellow 

III. Kicroscopic characters of the parent species and of the hybrid. The 
young twigs and the leaves, when cross-sections, obtained by the microtome, 
are examine<l under a moderate power, show distinguishing characters : — 

(rt) Tiritjx, ill the fonn of the two resin-canals, which run longitudinally 
through each pulvinus that gives rise to a leaf. 

(h) Leave*, in the number and form of the stomatic lines on both surfaces, 
in the size and position of the two resin-canals, which are sometimes only 
feebly developed, and are then said to l>e indistinct ; in the absence or 

Hknkv and Flood — The Dimkcld Ilijbrid Larch. 63 

presence of papillae on the cells of the epidermis ; in the position and size of 
the fibro-vascular bundle. These characters are not always identical in the 
two kinds of leaves (those of the long shoots and those of the spurs). 

These distinctive microscopic characters are set out in the following 
statement : — 

(1) Eesin-canalsof the pulvini of the young twigs, circular in L.ev/i'opaea, 
oval in L. hptolejiis, oval in L. cnrohpis. 

{2) Eesin-canals of the leaves of the long shoots : — L. curopaea — well 
developed, situated at the extreme outer edge of the leaf, equidistant from 
the upper and lower surfaces, separated from the epidermis by one layer of 
lignified cells. 

L. leptolepis — well developed, situated nearer the lower than the upper 
surface, not quite at the extreme outer edge, separated from the epidermis 
above by two or three layers of cells, abutting on the epidermis beneath. 

Z. eurolepis — well developed, situated as in L. curopaea, but separated 
from the epidermis by either one or two layers of cells. 

(3) Resin-canals of the leaves on the short shoots : — 
L. europaea — minute and indistinct, or obliterated. 

L. leptolcpis — small but distinct, with a lining of large cells, and 
separated from the epidermis by lignified cells. 
L. eurolepis — minute and indistinct, or obliterated. 

(4) Epidermal cells of both kinds of leaves : — 
L. curopaea — aW smooth. 

L. leptolepis — all papillate. 

L. eurolepis — cells on the central part of each surface and on the outer 
edges, with papillae ; elsewhere the epidermal cells are smooth. 

(5) Fibro-vascular bundle of both kinds of leaves : 
Z. europaea ; small, equidistant from both surfaces. 

Z. leptolepis; large, nearer the lower than the upper surface. 
Z. eurolepis ; large, equidistant from both surfaces. 

(6) Stomatic lines of the leaves. These occur as two bands, one band 
on each side of the midrib, and are usually present on both surfaces. The 
position of the stomata are marked out by white wax; but the lines are 
rather irregular in number and arrangement, being seldom continuous from 
base to apex. In the subjoined table, the number of lines in each band is 

indicated : — 

Long shoot leaves. Short shoot leaves. 

Upper surface. Lower surface. Upper surface. Lower surface. 
Z. eurojjoca, 2 or 3 3 or 4 1 or 2 or 3 

Z. leptolcpis, 3 or 4 5 or 6 2 or 3 3 to 5 

Z. eurolepis, 2 or 3 4 or 5 1 3 to 4 


64 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

IV. Artificial crosses between the European and Japanese Larches. The 
reverse cross, Laric cirropaca ? y. L. Icptolcpis ^ , was artificially made by 
hand pollination at Murthly in 1914, and 37 cones were produced. These 
contained a large number of seeds, but only 6 seedlings were raised, which 
are for so far vigorous in growtli. Twigs sent in 1917, showed one of the 
seedlings to have yellow twigs like Z. curopaca, while two other seedlings had 
the reddish twigs of Z. hptohpis. 

The cross, Larir Uplolcpis $ x Z. curopaca J . artiKcially made by hand 
pollination in the same year, did not result in the production of any seedlings ; 
but in 1915, wlieu the cross was repeated, three seedlings were raised, which 
are reported to be not very vigorous. 

It is astonishing how difWcult it is to effect cross-fertilization artificially 
in the case of niDSt trees, and more especially of conifers. This lack of 
success is hard to e.\plain. 

The facile production of such hybrids is not possible without much further 
experimental work. This can only be carried out when the importance of the 
subject becomes recognized by those in authority. 

Function of Epidermal Papillae. — The remarkable difference in the 
epidermal cells of the leaves of the European and Japanese larches— the 
surface of the former smooth, of the latter rougliened with papillae — is no 
doubt connected wiili the fact well known to foresters, that the Japanese 
larch bears considerably more shade than the European species. Professor 
Henry Dixon, K.K.S., has kindly supplied us with the following note on the 
function of j>iipiIlose epidermal cells : — 

" Haberiandl' consideis that the papillose epidermal cells of leaves act as 
lenses causing the parallel rays of incident liglu to convei-ge within the cell 
and fonn a brightly illuminated disc on the screen formed by the protoplasm 
adhering to the internal surface of tlie back wall of the cell. He supposes 
that when this disc is centrally placed, as will be the case when the general 
surface of the leaf is at right angles to the rays of light, no stimulus is 
emitted for transmission to the motile tissues of the leaf ; if, however, it is 
displace*! from the central position, a.-? will happen when the incoming light 
is oblique, a stimulus is perceived by the screen, wliich on transmission to the. 
motor tissues evolves a response tending to bring the leaf surface perpen- 
dicular to the light. 

"Whether this theor)- is true or not, it seems to me that a papillose' 
epidermis must act in another important manner. Much of the light falling 
upon leaves must strike them either at the augl& of total reflection or of 

' '• Physiological PUnt'Aoatomy," pp. 016-631 (1914). 

Menuy and Flood — The Dunkcld Ilijbrid Lurch. 65 

glancing incidence, and is lost to the leaf as far as photosynthesis is con- 
cerned. Where tlie epidermis is papillose, liowever, much of tliis light is 
forced to penetrate the epidermis, and is deflected into ilie leaf, where it is 
available for pliotosyntliesis. The effect may be illustrated experimentally 
by allowing very oblique illumination to fall upon the ridged surface of 
so-called ' prismatic ' glass, used in basement windows, etc., when the slieet of 
glass viewed from its smooth surface appears to glow with light. If a piece 
of smooth glass be substituted for the ' prismatic ' glass, tlie oblique light 
fails to penetrate it, and no such effect is produced. 

" It seems probable that photometric measurements could be made of the 
gain of light in papillose leaves, and I hope shortly to make experiments on 
the subject." 


' The microscopical details and Fig. 1 are due to Miss Flood. For the rest 
of the paper, I am mainly responsible. For help in obtaining material I owe 
thanks to Mr. A. Murray, forester at Murthly, to his son, Mr. J. M. Murray, 
BSc, and to Mr. D. Keir, forester atDunkeld. 

Since the date of the reading of this paper, the Duukeld hybrid larch has 
been described and named x Larix Henryana, by Mr. Alfred Eehder in 
Journal, of the Arnold Arloretiom, vol. i, page 52 (July, 1919). Mr. Eehder 
had not seen cones of^this tree, and his description relates to the naked-eye 
characters of the twigs and leaves of young trees, about twelve feet tall, 
which were obtained from Dunkeld, and are now growing in the Arnold: 
Arboretum, Boston, U.S.A. This name is invalid, being later than Larix 
etcrolepis, which was publislied by me with a short but adequate descripciou 
in the Irish Times, 24th June, 1919, page 4. 

The Dunkeld hybrid larch was apparently first mentioned l)y Mr. H. J. 
Elwes, who states in Elwes and Henry, " Trees of Great Britain," vol. ii, page 
388 (1907), that at Dunkeld there was a Japanese larch planted close to a 
common larch, from which seedlings were raised at his suggestion by the late 
D. Keir, which seemed to be hybrids between the two species. 

All the plantations of Dunkeld hybrid larch wliich I have seen are 
remarkable for their great vigour and good health, being free from chermes 
and fungus disease. Al Tubney Arboretum near Oxford, a group of fourteen 
trees planted in 1909, varied in 1913 from 10 ft. 7 in. to 6 ft. 8 in., averaging 
8 ft. 5 in. in height. These are now (September, 1919) narrow in iiabit, with 

66 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

beautifully straight stems, averaging 30 ft. tall. They suipass considerably in 
height a group of Japanese larch, planted three years earlier, namely in 1906. 
There is also a thriving plantation of L eurolepis at Leonardslee, Sussex. 

M. Liechti, Inspector of Forests at Moral, Ssvitzerland, in a letter to me 
dated 31st August, 1919, states that Larix Marschlinsi in all probability is a 
hybrid between Laru lq)lolfpk and Larix sihirica ; but this is not absolutely 
certain, as there is a group of old trees of ordinary European larch about 400 
metres distant from the mother Japanese tree, the pollen of which might have 
been blown on the young cones of the latter. 


Fig. 1. &. Lfirir eu)<'p(i<i. h. Larii: Icptolepis. c. Larix eurolepis. Sections 
of the leaves of the long shoots ou the left, and of the leaves of the short 
shoots on the right. The tibro-vascular bundle in the centre, the resin-canals 
at the outer angles, and the epidennal layer of cells around the periphery, are 
shown diagrammatically. The interruptions in the epidermis indicate the 
position of the stomatic lines; but, owing to the irregularity of their 
arrangement, all the lines are scarcely ever cut through in one section. 
There is also shown in all the sections a short single layer of hypodermal 
cells, confined to near the middle line of the upper and lower surfaces. 

Fig. 2. Reproduced from a photograph. 1. Larix eriropaea, 2. Larix 
euroltpi*. 3. Larii Ui>(olepis. Mature cones, with the scales gaping apart 
and the seeds fallen, on the left. Cones just before ripening, with the scales 
unmoved and still bearing the seeds, on the right. 









[ 67 ] 





(Plates XII— XIV.) 

Kend January 26. PuUished JUv 17, 1920. 

I. — Introduction. 

The Douglas Fir of North America is one of tlie great timber trees of the 
world. Widely spread over the vast region between the Rocky Mountains 
and the Pacific Coast, where tlie diversity in climate is extreme, it exists in 
several forms, remarkably different in growth and utility. It was the 
primary object, at the outset of this study, to investigate the two chief forms, 
which are still grouped together by most botanists as a single species, 
Pseudotsuga Douc/lasii, Carriere. These are, however, more correctly regarded 
as two species : one, the Pacific Coast, Oregon, or Green Douglas Fir, to 
which Carriere's name should be restricted, and the other, the Rocky 
Mountains, Colorado, or Blue Douglas Fir, which Mayr named Pseitdotsin/a 
(jlauca. These two species inhabit separate regions, and diller much 
in silvicultural features. The Oregon Douglas Fir forms forests of 
immense trees on the Pacific Coast, and is now much cultivated 
in the British Isles, where its rapid growth and enormous yields of 
timber in a short term of years render it very valuable. The Colorado 
species, throughout its home in the Rocky Mountains, is much inferior in 
size and vigour, and is of little or no value in commercial aflorestation in this 
country. The importance of a comparative study of these two species is 

The original scope of this paper has been extended to include an account 
of the whole genus. This is given below in a methodical description of the 
genus and of the seven species wliieh have been distinguished. Our 
knowledge of P. Doucjlasii and P. ylauca, both in the wild and cultivated 
states, is fairly complete. Of the other species, the native material for study 


68 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academii. 

has been very scanty, while cultivated specimens are exti'emely rare, con- 
sisting of a few small plants of two or three species, only recently introduced. 
A brief reference may now be made to some other results of the present 
investigation, of which further details will be given in the succeeding pages. 
The microscopic structure of the leaves has been found to be a distinct and 
constant character in eacli species, evidently l)eing correlated with the special 
climate in which the tree lives in a wild state. The Colorado and Oregon 
Douglas Firs exemplify this in a striking manner, the leaf-anatomy of the 
former showing many xerophytic features which are adaptations to the dry 
and continental climate of the liocky Mountains. The notable diflerence in 
the odour exhaled by these two trees led to an examination of the oil which 
is obtained by distillation from their foliage. This oil proves in each species 
to be very distinct in chemical composition. A similar diflerence exists in 
the oil of the various forms of the Yellow Pine, which occur in the same 
territory as the American Douglas Firs. 

II.— TiiK Gksis Tseudotsuga. 

Pseudotsuga is a genus of Abietineae, akin to Larix in the structure and 
qualities of the wood and in its embryonic history,' but resembling Abies in the 
solitary evergreen needles. Main branches whorled. Bark on young stems, 
smooth and witli resin-vcsiclcs ; on older trunks, lliick, corky, furrowed, con- 
sisting of aliernale thin wliite layers and tliick reddish-brown layers. 
Branchlels with somewhat raised pulviui, each coloured around tlie projecting 
apex, which bears a single leaf, liuds diagnostic of the genus, spindle- 
shaped, sharp-pointed, with numerous sliining brown scales. leaves linear, 
narrowed at the base, with a median furrow above, and a green midrib and 
two stomatic bands beneath ; transverse section with a single fibro-vascular 
bundle and two marginal resin-canals. 

Cones short-stalked, pendulous, ripening in the first season, the rounded 
scales gaping to let out the rii»e seed ; bracts conspicuous, exserted, three- 
lobed at the apex, the terminal lobe awu-like. Seed without resin-vesicles, 
differing fj-om that of Lanx in tiie pointed base ; wing large, rounded above, 
not detachable without breaking, covering not only tiie upper surface, but 
also a considerable part of the lower surface of the seed. 

Seven specimens of I'seudotsuga have been described, three occurring in 
western North America, and four restricted to small areas in western China, 
Formosa, and Japan. These may be arranged as follows : — 

' See Jcseph Doyle, in Scient. Proc. R. Dublin Stx. iv, 325 (1918), on the various 
points t>f agrcvmcut, which establish a close natural affinity between Litrix and 

Henky and Flood — The Douglas Firs. 69 

T. — Ameimcanak. Leaves umlivided :it, Llie apex. 

1. P. Donrjlam, Carri^re. Pacific Coast llegion of Noitli America. 
Branchlets pubescent. Leaves thin, Hat beneath, with flagrant pine-apple 
odour. Cones .3 to 4 inches long, witli straight erect bracts. 

Var. caesia, Schwerin. Northern Eocky Mountains. This differs from 
the type in the glabrous branchlets, thicker needles, and smaller cones, 
2^ inches long. 

2. P. (jlauca, Mayr. Eocky Mountains, Colorado to Mexico. Branchlets 
variable in pubescence, often glaucous. Leaves thick, rounded beneath, with 
strong turpentine odour. Cones 2 to 3 inches long, with rellexed bracts. 

3. P. macromrpa, Mayr. Southern California. Branchlets variable in 
pubescence. Leaves thin, flat beneath, ending in a cartilaginous point. Cones 
very large, .3.^ to 7 inches long, wiili erect straight bracts. 

1 1. — AsiATlCAF. Leaves bifid at the apex. 
* Branchlets glabrous. 

4. i*. y«7;o?aVff, Beissner. Japan. Leaves about 1 inch long. Cones small, 
about Lo inches long, with short reflexed bracts. 

** J3ranchlets pubescent. 

5. P. sinensis, 'DoAe. N.-E. Yunnan, China. Leaves 1} inches long. Cones 
2 inches long, with short reflexed bracts. 

6. P. Forrestii, Craib. W. Yunnan, China. Leaves nearly 2 inches long. 
Cones 2j inches long, with long reflexed bracts. 

7. P. Wilsoniana, Hayata. Formosa. Leaves :| inch long. Cones 2 to 2^ 
inches long, with short reflexed bracts. This species is possibly identical with 
P. sinensis, Dode. 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii. Oregon Douglas Fir. 

Pseiidotsiu/a Dougladi} Carriers (1867). 
Pseudotsuga mtio-onata, Sudwoith (1895). 
Pinus taxifolia, Lambert (1803). 
Pseudotsiuja taxifolia} Britton (1907). 

The Oregon Douglas Fir attains 300 feet or more in height. Branchlets 

' TseudotiWju Douylasii is the first name of the species umler the correct genus, nnd is 
the ntime that has been generally used for many years by foresters, nurserymen, and 
botanists in Europe. Psendats^tga taxifolia, founded on the earliest specific nnme, is 
generally adopted in America, and is in accordance with the Vienna RuKs of 

70 P?-oceeih'nffs of the Uoi/al Irish Academy. 

without bloom, yellowish at first, grey in the second and third years, pubescent 
with minute hairs ; pulvini slightly elevated; buds with little or no resin. 

Leaves with fragrant pine-apple odour, pectinate, either flat in one plane 
or with a V-shaped depression between the two converging lateral sets, not 
gflaucous, straight, 1 to 1^ inch long, thin ; apex acute or rounded ; lower surface 
flat, with two well-defined whitish bauds of crowded minute stomata ; upper 
surface with a distinct median groove from base to apex. A transverse 
section of the leaf shows the proportion of breadth to thickness as 3'6 : 1 ; 
epidermal cells of the under surface papillate ; hypoderm absent except in 
the centre above and beneath ; idioblasts never present ; resin-canals with 
two layers of lining cells. 

Female flowere conic, usually greenish, composed of small pointed erect 
bracts, which are green with a narrow pink border ; seed-scales minute, with 
ovules converging at the antipodal ends. In some trees the flowers are 
reddish, so that colour alone will not distinguish this species from the 
Colorado Douglas Fir. 

Cones when ripe 3 to 4 inches long, 1^ to 2 inches wide, light brown, 
with numerous (about fifty) scales in ^^ phyllotaxis, and with erect 
straight bracts. Scales thin, f-J inch wide, .slightly concave internally, 
min>itely puWscent externally, rounded above witli a crcnulate margin. 
Bracts erect, longer than the scales, with terminal slender awn and two 
triangular, sharp-pointed, slightly laciniate lateral lobes. Seed about \ inch 
long, dark shining reddish-brown above; light brown, mottled with white 
l)eneath ; wing rounded at the summit, liafn gives the average weight of 
1000 seeds as lOo grammes. 

The seedling has six to eight cotyledons about i; inch long, triangular in 
section, entire in margin, green below and bluish above witli two stomatic 
bands. Primary leaves alwut \ inch long, linear, sharp-pointed, grooved in the 
median line above, with two stomatic bands beneath. Buds ovoid, reddish, 
smooth, pointed. 

The Oregon Douglas Fir is a native of the Pacific coast region, which 
includes southern British Columbia, Wasliington, and Oregon, from the crest of 
the Cascade mountains to the sea, and the coast ranges of California as far 
south as the Santa Lucia range. This species also occurs in the Sierra Nevada 
range in California. 

The other principal trees of the Pacific coast region are Sitka Spruce, 
Thuya gigantca, Western Hemlock, and Ahies fjraiuUs, with the Eedwood 
limited to the coast of California. These are the largest trees in the world, 
producing the maximum volume of timber per acre. The region is extremely 
humid, with an annual rainfall of 60 to 100 inches, most of which falls in 

Henry and Flood — The Douglas Firs. 71 

the winter months. The prevailing winds are warm and from the sea, the 
climate being mild and uniform, with frequent fogs, and gradual moderate 
changes in temperature. Cool summers and mild winters are the rule. 

The Oregon Douglas Fir occurs also in the Sierra Nevada of California, 
where the rainfall is less, 20 to 60 inches annually, with a long growing 
season. Here it attains a large size, but is not so abundant as on the coast. 
The accompanying species are not the same, Abies grandis being replaced by 
Abies concolor, and the Eedwood by Sequoia gvjantea, while I'hutja gigantea 
and Sitka Spruce are absent. 

Atmospheric humidity is essential to the good development in height and 
volume of the Oregon Douglas Fir. It flourishes best where both relative 
humidity of the air and precipitation are greatest. The rainfall of the region 
inhabited by this species exceeds that of any other forest region in the 
United States. The growing season is comparatively long, about six months. 
In consequence, no other tree in North America attains so great a height in 
the same term of years. It reaches on an average 154 feet in 100 years, the 
Redwood being next with 150 feet. 

The Oregon Douglas Fir does not bear exposure to severe cold, and for 
this reason does not extend in America further north than latitude 53°. Its 
growth is also checked by much exposure to the wind. Thus, in British 
Columbia, it is not found on the mainland near the open sea, on account of 
the strong south winds which prevail in winter ; yet it forms splendid forests 
close to the water's edge on the sea coast south of Queen Charlotte Sound, 
being protected by the moimtains of Vancouver Island. To the north it only 
occurs in sheltered inlets. It is quite absent from the Const Archipelago, 
where there is constant wind. It thus diflers much from Sitka Sprnce, 
Tliuya gigantea, and Western Hendock, which grow well in the islands, and 
occur as far north as Alaska. In Vancouver Island, the effect of the wind on 
its distribution is very plain, as it is rare and seldom reaches a large size ou 
the west coast close to the sea, while it is very abundant and of gigantic size 
a few miles inland. 

In America, Oregon Douglas Fir grows best on fresh sandy loam or loamy 
sand, and reaches its greatest size on deep porous soils, with considerable 
water content, but at the same time well drained. It is never found on the 
Pacific coast in swampy ground, being absent from the poorly drained areas, 
with patches of sphagnum bog, sedges, and rushes, on which Sitka Spruce 
and Pimis cmitorfa grow fairly well. It also avoids light dry sands and heavy 
clays ; but apart from these limitations, it is rather indifl'erent to conditions 
of soil, if the climate is suitable, as it grows fast on poor gravels and sands 
iu the Puget Sound country. It apparently will not bear inundation in 

72 Prnceerlwgs of the Roi/al Irish A cademy. 

cultivatiou in Europe ; but it grows iu Washington and Oregon, on the 
edges of ocean inlets, where the least rise submerges its roots. 

• In Washington and Oregon it bears less shade than Sitka Spruce, Western 
Hemlock, Tlnuja gigantca, and Abies grandis; but maintains itself in 
competitiun with these species on account of its greater rate of height growth, 
and it« adaptability to varying conditions of soil and moisture. It demands 
for its best growth an abundance of liglit overhead, but produces the tallest 
and straightest stems when well shaded from the side. It attains its optimum 
develoi'iuent in cvt-n-aged stands, where all the trees are about tlie same 
height, and all receive direct top-light. '.!rown in this way, the stems are 
cylindrical in form and crowded upon the ground, yielding an immense 
volume of timber )ier acre. The branches are very persistent, and remain on 
the stem long after their foliage has died from lack of light. Even in dense 
stands on the I'acific coast, the shedding of ihe dead branches only begins 
when the trees are forty years old ; and stems clear and smooth below the 
crown of living foliage are not produced till seventy or eighty yeare old. 

Owing to the remarkable rate of its growth in height and diameter, and 
its capacity to form dense stands, the Oregon iJouglas Fir excels in North 
America all other species in tlie yield of timber per acre. The yield tables,^ 
compiled from measurements taken by Han/.lik in 568 plots in the forests of 
this 8i)ecies in Oregon and Wa.shingti»n, show that between tha ages of 50 
and 120 yeara the mean annual increment in volume is about 170 cubic feet 
per acre on first-class sites, 130 cubic feet on second-class sites, and 100 cubic 
feet on infeiior sites. Mucli higher yields would be reckoned if thinnings 
could have been included ; but account was only taken of the timber actually 
growing on the ground at the tune of measurement. These tables show 
that on gooil soil an acre of Oregon l>ougla8 Fir at sixty years old measures 
10,000 cubic feet of timber, the average height of the trees being 120 feet. 
Mungei"' gives the average heitfht on good soil in the forests of Washington as 
110 to 130 feet at seventy years old, and 150 to 190 feet at 150 years old. 

Pseudotsoga Douglasii var. caesia. 

This variety, whicli was described by Schwerin in Mill. Deulsch. Dendr. 
Gcs., 1907, p. 257, attains a height of 100 to 150 feet. Lranchlets glabrous, 
grey iu the hrat winter and second and third yeai-s ; pulvini slightly 
prominent ; buds resinous. Leaves pectinate, with a trace of glaucous 
bloom, resembling the type in the continuous median groove above, but 
intermediate in most resijects between the Oregon and Colorado species. A 

• (/iiarierhj Journal of Foralrij, viii, HO (1914). 

' U. S. Dtpt. Agrie. Fvrul <)irc<dar. No. 175 (1911). 

Henkv and Flood — The Douglas Firs. 73 

transverse section shows llie proportion of breadth to thickness as 
2'75 ; 1 ; epidermal cells of tlie under surface papillate ; hypoderm well- 
marked in the centre al>()ve and beneath, occurring elsewliere in groups of 
two or three cells; idioblasts few; resin-canals witli two layers of lining 
cells; odour like that of the type, but less fragrant. 

Cones resembling tlie typical form in the straight and not reflexed bracts, 
but snuxUer in size; scales fewer (about Lliirty) in -,% phyllotaxis, |- incli 
wide, more concave internally. Bract with long terminal awn, and .'^hort 
blunt lateral lobes. Seed smaller than in the type. 

This variety is intermediate in the characters of the leaves between the 
Oregon and Colorado species, but is closer to the former, which it resembles 
in the cones. The Howers have not been seen by us. 

Var. cafsift was the name given by Schwerin to the Douglas Fir occurring 
in the interior of British Columbia, at Quesnel, on the Upper Eraser Bivcr, 
lat. 53°, where the climate is cold and comparatively dry. This variety 
extends throughout the northern Kocky Mountains region of the Douglas 
Fir, which includes the interior of southern British Cohnnbia, north-eastern 
Washington, northern Idalio, and north-western Montana. 

The climate of this region is not so humid as on the PaciKc Coast, the 
annual rainfall being 20 to 40 inches, falling mainly in the growing season. 
The winter is very dry and cold, tlie temperature sometimes falling to -25° F. 
A considerable number of the Coast conifers also grow in this region, notably 
Abies ffrccndis, Western Hemlock, and Thuya (jujantea. Pinus poiiderusa, 
rather rare in the Coast belt, becomes here an important constituent of the 
coniferous forest. Larue occidcntalis is confined to this region. 

Attention has recently been called^ by Professor John Davidson, r.LS., 
Vancouver, B.C., to the occurrence of manna on the foliage and branchlets of 
this variety of the Douglas Fir in the dry belt of British Columbia, especially 
in the valleys of the Fraser and Thompson rivers near Lyttou, Lillooet, 
and Nicola. This manna is composed mainly of the rare sugar, melezitose. It 
is produced in considerable quantity, and is not due to the attack of aphides, 
being, apparently a natural exudation from the leaves. It is comparable to 
the MaiiHC dc Brlam;uii, which is occasionally found as an exudation on the 
leaves of the European larch in the French Alps "in the height of summer 
and in the early part of the day." Melezitose is not known to occur in any 
other conifer. 

In 1907 young trees of var. cacsia were raised in German nurseries from 
seed gathered at Quesnel iu the preceding year by Baron von Fiirslenbeig. 

' See Amp.riciin Furestiij, February, 1920, p. 85 ; Scientijir Ameficau, 14 Februaiy, 
li»20, p. 105 ; and Fluckiger aud Haubury, Phai-macuijiui.hUi, -klU (1870). 

74 Proceedings of the Roijol Irish Academy. 

About fifty of these trees iu the Queen's Cottage Giouuds, Kew Gardens, 
are healthy, but comparatively slow iu growth. They were 7 to 10 feet higli 
in 1919, forming narrow regular pyramidal trees, with ascending branches. 
Tliey differ from the type in not making a summer shoot. At Avoudale, a 
small plot, nine years old from seed, average 5 to 8 feet high, about half 
the height of Oregon Douglas Fir of the same age planted beside them. In 
Germany also, var. cacsia grows more slowly than the Oregon Douglas Fir, 
and can be recommended for planting only in northern and mountain 
climates, where it would probably withstand severe winter frosts. 

Fseadotsaga glauca. Colorado Douglas Fir. 

Psrudotmga ylaucxi, Mayr, in Mill. Beidsch. Dendr. Ges. 1902, p. 86. 
Paeudotsuga Dowjlasii, \&i\ glanca, Mayr, ll'ald. N&rdamer. 307 (1890). 

The Colorado Douglas Fir attains about 80 or 90 feet in lieigiit. Young 
brauchlets either glaucous and reddisli brown in the first three seasons, 
or without bloom, when they become grey in the second or tliird year ; 
pubescence variable, oft«n glabrous on terminal branches, and pubescent on 
lateral branchlets ; pulvini elevated, projecting at the apex. Buds resinous, 
more or less covered with a whitish deposit of resin. 

Leaves with strong odour of turpentine, not regularly pectinate, those in 
the middle line spreading irregulaily, and more or less upturned on the 
branchlets ; similar to P. Voiiylasii in length and breadth, but tiiicker, and 
convex beneath ; upjjer surface indistinctly grooved, the median furrow not 
continued to the apex ; lower surface with two bands of crowded large 
stomata. A transverse section shows the ratio of breadth to thickness as 
2*4 : 1 ; epidermal cells all papillate ; hyiioderm nearly continuous all round ; 
idioblasts numerous ; resin-canals with two layers of lining cells. 

Female flowers irregular in shape, with widely spreading reflexed bracts, 
brilliant pink in colour, more rounded than in the Oregon species. Seed- 
scales with ovules diverging at the antipodal ends. 

Cones, when ripe, 2 to 3 inches long, l\ inch broad, light brown, with 
comparatively few (about 30) scales in -^^ phyllotaxis, and with reflexed 
spreading bracts. Scales somewhat smaller than in P. Douglasii, more 
concave internally, pubescent externally ; rounded above with entire margin. 
Bracts reflexed about the middle, and spreading outwards ; median awn 
slender, with triangular acute lateral lobes. Seeds similar to P. Douglasii, 
with paler wings, liafn gives the average weight of 1000 seeds as ITS 

PieudoUuga glaiico is a native of the central and southern Kocky Moun- 
tains, extending from eastern Montana and Wyoming southwards through 

Hknky and Flood — The Douglas Firs. 75 

Colorado aud Utah to Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. In this 
region the daily and seasonal ranges of temperature are great, the winter 
being long and severe, with frequent periods of extreme cold, the tempera- 
ture falling sometimes to -30'^ F. The summer is hot, and often very dry. 
The annual precipitation in tlie Douglas Fir zone is 15 to <!5 inches, largely 
in the form of snow. The growing season is short, often less than three 
mouths. The region is characterized by the occurrence of Picea Engelmanni 
and Pinus ponderosa scopulorum throughout, with Pinns Murrayana in the 
north aud extending as far south as central Colorado. lu the southern parts of 
the Rocky Mountains, as in New Mexico, the climate is more moderate, with 
a smaller range of temperature (-10^ to 95° F.), heavier rainfall, and a longer 
growing season. Here the Douglas Fir becomes a larger tree, and possibly 
constitutes a distinct variety. (See note, p. 91.) 

The Rocky Mountains Douglas Fir is much less susceptible to injury 
from drought than the Coast species ; but in arid regions it grows best on 
cool northern slopes, and in deep valleys where moisture in the soil and air 
is retained. It bears without injury very severe cold in winter, but is liable 
to attack by spring frosts, whicli damage the young shoots after growth has 
begun. In the Rocky Mountains it grows well Ijoth on dry sandy tracts 
and on moist loamy soils, but does not succeed on clay, on coarse gravel, or 
in poorly drained situations. It does not bear shade as well as Engelmann 
Spruce or Abies lasiocarjxi. 

In its native home it is very slow in growth, and rarely attains over 
90 feet in height aud li feet in diameter. Yield tables are not available ; 
but figures given by Frothinghami show that at its best in the wild state it 
reaches about 90 feet in 150 years. On account of its slow growth, the 
volume of timber per acre yielded by this species in the liocky Mountains is 
very small ; and it usually forms an open forest of small trees, with tapering 
stems and persistent branches. 

Pseudotsuga macrooarpa, Mayr, Wald. Nordamcr. 27S (1890). 

This species attains a height of 70 or 80 feel. Branchlets reddish brown 
in the first year, grey in the second and third years, variable in jjubescence, 
either quite glabrous or with scattered short hairs ; puhini only slightly 
raised. Buds more or less coated witli resin. 

Leaves pectinate, not glaucous, curved, 1 to 1^' nich long, usually tipped 
with a cartilaginous point ; median groove on the upper surface indistinct ; 
lower surface with raised broad midrib, and two depressed whitish bauds, 

' U. S. Vepl. Ayiic. Forest Circular No. 150, p. 30 (190D). 

76 Proceedings of Ike Roijal Irish Academy. 

each of 5 to 7 stomatic lines. A transverse section of the leaf shows the 
margins pointed and turned down : proportion of width to thickness as 
•i"6 : 1 ; epidermal cells all papillate ; hypoderni nearly continuous, with 
tliick cell -walls; idioblasts very few ; resin-canals with two layers of lining 

Coues, the largest of the genus, 3| to 7 inches lung, and 2^ inches wide; 
with niuuerous (50-75) scales, in |^ phyllotiv.xis, and with straight, non- 
retle.xed bracts. Scales thick, woody, broader than long, \\ to 2 inches wide, 
slightly concave internally, and densely and minutely pubescent externally, 
rounded above with a creuulale margin. Bracts slightly exserted, straight, 
with stout terminal awu, and two sharp-pointed lateral lobes. Seed very 
lai-ge, nearly \ inch long, dark brown and shining above, whitish mottled 
with brown beneath ; wing broad and rounded. Eafn gives the weights of 
two lots of 1000 seeds as 72 and lOS grammes. 

Tlie seedlings, which are described by Zederbauer in CentralblaU Gesavimte 
Forstu-estn, 1908, Part 5, difl'er considerably from those of the Oregon species 
in the more numerous (7 to 15) and longer (nearly two inches) cotyledons. 
The primary needles arc also very long, ^ to l-^ inch. The seedlings are 
delicale, being killed by ordinary winter frosts, and did not survive in the 
open air at Mariabrunn, near Vienna. 

This species occupies an isolated area in the arid mountains of South 
(Jaiifornia, at, .".000 to 5000 feet elevation, forming open groves, or growing 
ID mixture with shrubs, oaks, or pines. Its distribution extends from the 
.Santa Inez Mouiiuins near Santa Barbara on the coast, to the Cuyamaca 
Mountains «n the southern borders of California, and it also grows on Sau 
I'edro Marlir Mountain in Lower California. Tiiis region is characterized by 
a small rainfall 10 to 25 inches annually), a mild winter, rarely below 15° F., 
and a very hot suuimer. Other characteristic conifers here are Pinu» Jeffreyi 
and Pinm Cmdteri, both witii very large cones. 

This species was introduced into England by Mr. H. Clinton Baker, who 
raised seedlings at Bayfordbury, Hertford, in 1910. Si.x planted out in the 
woods were thriving in 1919, the lai-gest being 4 feet high. This species is 
tender to spring frosts, but sheltered by surrounding trees it bore without 
injury F. in the winter of 1918-1919. 

P»eudot«uga sinensis. Dode, in BiUl. Soc. Doidr. France, 1912, p. 58 ; Craib 
in Svii.-i R. Bot. Garden, Ediitburgh, xi., plate 161 (1920). 

This species is said to be a very lai-ge tree. Brauchlets moderately 
pubescent, with minute stiff hairs, reddish brown in the first winter, grey in 
the secoad aud third years ; pulviui scarcely elevated. Buds not resinous. 

Hknrv and Flood — The Douglas Firs. 77 

Leaves pecliiiate, bifid at the apex, 1 to 1^ inch l<Jiig; upper surface 
deeply grooved from base to apex ; lower surface with a wide raised iiii(h'ib 
and two narrow white bauds, each of 7 to iS lines of crowded minute stomata. 
A transverse section shows the edges of the leaf to be pointed and turned 
slightly down; proportion of width to thickness as 3"4: 1 ; epidermal cells of 
tlie lower surface papillate ; hypoderm nearly continuous all round the leaf : 
idioblasts numerous ; resin-canals with one layer of lining cells ; cell-walls of 
the spongy mesophyll infolded. 

Cones about 2 inches long and 1 j inches wide, of few scales (about 20) in 
-p^-j phyllotaxis, and short retiexed bracts. Scales large, thick, woody, about 
1\ inches wide; uppe)- margin rounded, with a slightly bulging apical part; 
exposed part of the scale much wider than in F. Forrcslii. Bracts sliorter 
than the scale, reHexed near the summit, with long central awn and two short 
lateral lobes. Seed not seen, described as 4- to 1 inch long, inclusiN'e of the' 
long narrow-pointed and striated wing. 

This species is a rare tree in China, where it has been found by Pere 
Maire growing on limestone at 8,500 feet elevation in north- eastern Yunnan at 
Che-hai and Tung-chuan. Seedlings were raised in 1912 by M. Chenault at 
Orleans, and one of these had attained at Leonardslee about 2i feet high in 

Pseudotsuga Wilsoniana, Hayata, in Icon. Plant. Formos., v. 204, t. 15 (1915). 

This species is a native of Formosa, where it is recorded from one locality 
only, Mount Morrison, at 9,000 feet altitude. It is not represented in 
European herbaria. Judging from the description and figure, it diflers but 
little from Fseudotsiuja sinensis, agreeing with the latter in the pubescent 
branchlets and bifid short leaves. The cone is similar in the shape of the 
scales, and in the short reflexed bracts.^ 

Pseudotsuga Forrestii, Craib, in Notes li. Bat. Garden, Fdinbutyh, xi, 189, 

plate 160 (1920). 

This tree attains 60 to 80 feet in height. Branchlels with scattered 
minute rigid hairs, which are somelimes absent; pu]\ini slightly pidjcLiing 
at their apices, and with translucent edges due lo the resin-canals. 1'he 
branchlets appear to be reddish brown at first, becoming grey in the second 
and third years. Buds slightly resinous. 

Leaves pectinate, bifid at the apex, the largest in the genus, up lo nearly 
2 inches in length ; upper surface with deep median groove from base to apex ; 

' Specimens of bi'iiiches with cones of this species have been very recently received 
by Professor Henry fioiu Mr. R. Kanehini, of the Foiinosau Forest Service. 

7^ Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

lower surface with wide raised midrib and two narrow white bands, each of 
5 to 6 lines of crowded minute stomata. A transverse section of the leaf shows 
the margins pointed ami turned downwards; proportion of widtli to thickness 
as 3'7 : 1 ; epidennal cells of the lower surface papillate ; hypoderm present 
only in the centre, and very sparsely at the outer edges; idioblasts numerous ; 
resin-canals with two layers of lining cells; cell-walls of the spongy mesophyll 

Cones about 2J inches long and \\ inches wide, with 20 or more scales in 
-,% phyllotaxis, and long retlexed bracts. Scales smaller than in P. sinensis, 
about 1-j inches wide, witli exposed part very narrow, and more concave 
internally. Bract with apical part retlexed over the scale in the next rank, 
longer than in P. sinensis, with a long central awn and triangular acute 
lateral lobes. Seed about ^ inch long, including the narrow-pointed pale 
brown wing, the upper surface of which bears a few hairs near the lower inner 
angle. The seed itself is dark shining brown above, and mottled light brown 

Tliis tree is a native of western Yunnan, in China, where it grows at 
10,000 feet allitutle in the Mekong Valley, lat. 27"' 40'. Young plants raised 
from seed lately sent home by Forrest are in cultivation at Edinburgh. 

It is very closely allied to P. sinensis, the microscopic characters of the 
leaf being very similar, liut it tlilVers in the cone and seed, and the leaves are 
uiucli longer. For the present it should be kept distinct. 

Pseudotsuga japonica, IJcissncr, in Milt. Dcidsch. Bcndr. Gcs., v. 62 (1896). 
I'siujii I I'.v udutiiuija) japonica, Shirasawa, in Tokyo Hot. Mag., ix. 86, 
t. 3 (1895). 

The Japanese Douglas Fir attains about 100 feet in height. Branchlets 
glabrous, yellowish in the firet year in native specimens, reddish in cultivated 
trees, asliy grey in the second and third years; pulvini projecting at their 
apices. Buds without resin. 

I.-eaves i>ectinate, bifid at the apex, about 1 inch long, thin, not glaucous ; 
upper 8urftu;e with a median furrow from base to apex ; lower surface flat, 
with two broad wliite bands, each of eight to ten lines of crowded minute 
stomata. A transveree section shows, imder the microscope, the ratio of 
breadth to thickness as 35 : 1 ; epidennal cells of the lower surface papillate ; 
hypoderm absent e.Tcept in the middle line ; idioblasts present ; resin-canals 
with only one layer of lining cells. 

Cones, the smallest of the genus, about 1^-1 jj inches long and 1 inch in 
diameter, with few (15 to 20) scales in | phyllotaxis and short reflexed 
bracts. Scales woody, about J inch wide, dark violet brown and glabrescent 

Henry anh F\.ooi) — The Doui/las Firs. 79 

externally, slightly concave internally from side to side, round above, witli 
minutely crenulate or entire margin. Bracts short, with apical part retlexed 
over the scale in the next row ; terminal awn broad, longer than the short, 
blunt, laciniate lateral lobes. Seed ^ incli long, dark shining brown above, 
pale mottled brown beneath ; wing short, broad, dark brown. 

This species is a native of south-eastern Japan, where it is restricted to a 
few localities in the provinces of Tosa, Kii, and Yamato. It is a rare tree, 
growing in mixed forests between 1,000 and 3,000 feet elevation. 

Three small trees were introduced into England by Mr. H. Clinton Baker 
in 1910. These are now thriving at Bayfordbury, Hertford, the largest about 
9 feet high, and making a leading shoot of 16 inches long in 1918. The 
young branchlets of these trees are brilliant red in colour. 

III. — The Ouegon and Colorado Douglas Firs Contrasted. 

Before giving an account of the different beliaviour in cultivation of the 
Oregon and Colorado Douglas Firs, it will be advisable to deal at some length 
with the distinctive characteristics of the two species. They differ funda- 
mentally, as already mentioned, in their distribution in the wild state, each 
occurring in a climate totally unsuited to the other. Introduced into 
cultivation, they retain their qualities, and are remarkably distinct in habit 
and growth as well as in botanical characters. 

1. Habit. The difference in habit may be mainly attributed to the much 
more I'apid growth of the Oregon Douglas I'ir. In this species, the main 
branches, coming off the stem far apart, are long, slender, and wide-spreading, 
being often curved by their own weight into the horizontal position, 
ultimately forming in adult trees a wide crown of foliage. The Colorado 
Douglas Fir has short stiif branches, coming off close together, ascending at 
an acute angle, and forming a narrow compact regularly pyramidal crown. 

2. Summer Shoot. The Oregon Douglas Fir produces in summer a second 
leading shoot, which continues to grow during autumn. This explains in 
part tlie rapid growth in height of this species. The late growth, however, 
renders the tree susceptible to injury by early winter frosts, when it is grown 
at a high altitude or in a severe climate. The Colorado Douglas Fir never 
produces a summer shoot, and always completes its growtli early in the 
season. The leading shoot has thus time to harden its wood before tlie onset 
of winter. 

3. Foliage. The foliage of the Oregon Douglas Fir is more regularly 
disposed in two ranks than that of the other species, and is softer when a 
leafy branch is felt by the hand. The leaves of the Colorado Dougkis Fir 
are upturned on the branchlets, and are coarse to the touch when handled. 

80 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academi/. 

A cross-section of the leaf of the Oregon species, viewed with an oi-dinaiy 
hand lens, appears thin, with a Hat under surface; while ihat of the Colorado 
species is thick, with a convex under surface. The glaucous or bluish colour 
of the Colorado Douglas Fir is generally apparent ; Imt this is a variable 
character, wliich cannot be always relied on. The dilfereiice in the odour of 
tlie two trees is remarkable, that of P. glavca being strong and like turpentine, 
while that of P. Boni/Zasii is very agreeable, with a fragrance like pine- 
apples. This is readily recognized when the leaves are rubbed between the 
fingers, or when a leafy brancli is placed in water in a room. 

4. Flouna. The female flowers or very young cones are reniarkalily 
difl'erent in colour and sliape in the two species. (See Plate XIII.) The 
young cones in the early stage are formed of compaiatively largo bracts, 
lit the base of each of which is a minute scale, bearing two ovules. In tlie 
Colorado species the reflexed and spreading bracts form an irregularly shaped 
body, which is brilliant red in colour. In the Oregon Douglas Fir tlie bracts 
are all slraiglit, appressed and erect, forming a regular cone, which is usually 
greenish, rarely i>ink in colour. The male (lowers apparently do not differ in 
the two species. 

5. Cones. The ripe cones of the Oregon Douglas Fir are large in size, 
composed of numerous .scales, and with straight nppressed erect bracts. The 
smaller cones <if the Colorado species have fewer scales, with most, if not all, 
of the bmcts reflexed about the middle, eitl>er entirely backwards over the 
scale beneath, or spreading at right angles to the axis of ihe cone. 

6. WtHxK The Oregon Douglas Fir, when grown on a long rotation, as in 
America, yields excellent timber, large in size, free from knots, straight in 
grain, liglil in weight, and very durable. It is the strongest wood in the 
world for its weight that is obtainable in commercial quantities. Quickly 
grown timber, in this country, unless the rings are extremely wide, is 
probably equally strong, but is less valuable, having more defects. It ranks 
in quality between Larcii and Scotch I'ine, but surpasses both in dimensions. 
It is equally durable with Ijirch, converts well, keeping straight when long 
sizes are sawn ; and if carefully stacked dries quickly, and is not liable to 
warp. It has been used for gates, doors, and fencing, and for railway 
sleepers and pit timber. 

The Colorado Douglas Fir, owing to its small size and mode of growth in 
open stands, yields as a rule rough timber. It is very strong and durable, 
but irregular in stnicture. 

A difference in the microscopical structure of the wood of the two species 
has been lately described.' In the Oregon Douglas Fir the thickened 
' G. J. Griffin, iu Journal of ForenU >i, xvi, 813 (1919). 

Hknkv and Flood — The Dougbts Firs. 81 

portion (loriis), ou tlio nipnilirane of the limdcicd pits, between the tiacheids, 
is placed in a central position, dividing equally the pit cavity. In tlie 
Colorado species the torus is usually pressed to one side, against the opening 
of the pit cavity, completely closing it. In consequence, the wood of the 
Oregon species is readily permeated by creosote, the reverse being the case 
in the other species. 

7. Reproduction. The Oregon Douglas Fir bears seed freely and at an 
early age in the British Isles, and reproduces itself naturally in many 
districts, self-sown seedlings being especially numerous on sandy soil in the 
New Forest and other parts of Hampshire. They are 40 feet high on poor 
gravelly soil at Dunster, Somerset, where the parent trees are only thirty- 
eight years old. In Ireland natural seedlings have been noticed at Derreen 
in Kerry, and at CooUattiu and Powerscourt in Wieklow. The seeds have, 
however, a poor gei-minating capacity as a rule, and are liable to be destroyed 
by the larva of an insect, Megastigtmis sjxrmotroj^hvs, which has been 
accidentally introduced into Europe from Oregon. Eafn^ has made numerous 
tests of imported American seed, and finds a remarl;able difference in the 
germination of the two species. The seed of the Colorado Douglas Fir 
germinates much sooner and in considerably larger percentage than that of 
the Oregon species. 

8. Resistance to Frost. The Colorado Douglas Fir is much hardier than the 
Oregon species, and is never injured by autumn or winter frosts in this 
country. It is, however, occasionally damaged by late frosts in spring, as on 
23rd May, 1911, when young trees at Ampton, Suffolk, were just as badly 
cut as the Oregon Dougjas Firs beside them. At Balmoral it begins to make 
new growth later in the season than the other species, and is said ou that 
account never to suffer there from frost. 

The Oregon Douglas Fir does not withstand extreme cold in winter, and 
for this reason cannot be cultivated at high altitudes or in northern climates. 
It is unharmed by ordinary winter temperatures in all parts of the British 
Isles below tree limit. The great frost of February, 1895, when the tempera- 
ture fell to - 17"' F., did not hurt the Oregon Douglas Fir at Balmoral, where 
it is planted up to 1,200 feet elevation. It is, however, liable to be injured 
in low-lying damp localities by both late frosts in spring and early frosts in 
autumn. Injury by frost is more likely to occur in the nursery tiian in the 
forest. In Bavaria the leaves turn red when the winter is severe, and 
drop off in the following spring. The Colorado Douglas Fir is never 
injured in this way, possibly owing in part to the protection of the thin 
layer of wax which gives the leaves their glaucous tint. 

' Testing o/ Forent Seeds, 18S7-191-2, p. 40. 

82 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

9. Insect Attack. During the last six years a species of Cbermes, identified 
by the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, with 
Ghermes coohyi, Gillette, var. Coircni, lias been noticed in the south of 
England on the Oregon Douglas Vir.' It has been observed mainly on the 
lower and partially shaded branches of fairly large trees, and so far has 
done little harm. It has not yet been found in England on the Colorado 
species. This is remnrkable, as in the contiguous plantations of the two 
species in Bagley Wood, Oxford, and at Highfield, East Liss, the insect does 
not spread from the trees of the Oregon species on which it occurs to those 
immediately adjoining of the other species. 

This Chermes, however, occurs in the forests of Pseudotsuga (jlmica in the 
Rocky Mountains, and on ornamental trees of this species on the Atlantic 
coast. It was recorded from only park trees in the Pacific coast region ; 
but Dr. E. J. I'erkins last year collected branches of Douglas Fir in a wild 
forest in Oregon which were badly infested with a Chermes indistinguishable 
from C. Coolei/i. The gall form of the insect is common on Sitka Spruce in 
Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and on Picen pioiffcns and 
/'. Kinielmnnni in tlie I{ix;ky Mountains. 

10. Unte of Grmoth. The two Douglas Firs difl'er remarkably in their rate 
of growth. The Colorado species at all ages is much less in height and 
diameter. It attains on an average about half the height of the Oregon 
species, l>oth in America and in cultivation in this country. I'lie following 
figures for forest trees on good soil in the United States illustrate this : — 
P. glaiifti, in the Rocky Mountains, eastern Idaho, .54 feet high, at seventy 
yeai-8 old ; P. Douffhsii, in western Wa.shington, 106 feet in height, at the 
same age. The dianiet^-rs of the trees in Idaho at fifty, sixty, and .seventy 
years old are lialf those in Washington at the same ages. Young plantations 
in England are similar in their developinent, as will be seen from the 
measurements given l>elow. 

11. Vol Hint find Yi'ld of Timber. As may readily be deduced from the 
comparative rales of growth in height and diameter, the volume of timber 
produced by the two species is extraordinarily diflerent in amount. 'The 
Pacific coast tree exceeds in yield of timber per acre four to ten-fold the 
Colorado Douglas Fir. This will be illustrated in the following account of the 
behaviour of the two species under cultivation in plantations in this country. 

12. SUvicuUiirc. The Colorado Douglas Fir has been tried as a forest 
tree in several places in Great Britain, but has invariably proved a failure. 

' It WHS tint seen by Mr. A. C. Forbes and Professor A. Henry on trees in tlie New 
Forest in .Tvily, lt»13. It has since been observed near Kast Grinstend (Sussex), 
Petersfield and East Lias (Hants), Buckhold (Berks), and Bagley Wood (Oxon). 

Henky AM) Fi,ooD — The Douglas Firs. 83 

The tree is healthy enough, but is of no commercial value for planting, as its 
lack of vigour and slow growth render it useless for the production of timber. 
It has been recommended for shelter at high altitudes, as it bears exposure 
well, but in our climate Sitka Spruce will prove much superior for this purpose. 
The Colorado Douglas Fir was largely planted in mixture with European 
Spruce and Scots Pine about forty years ago on good forest soil at Durris, 
Kincardineshire, but proved unsuccessful as a timber tree. Growing more 
slowly than either companion species, it was nearly all suppressed before its 
thirtieth year. 

At Buckhold, Berkshire, it is less vigorous than Scots Pine on clay soil 
overlying chalk at a considerable depth, and is regarded as a failure. Trees 
planted twenty-four years average 30 feet in height and 20 inches in girth. 
Oregon Douglas Firs alongside them, only nineteen years planted, have 
attained an average of 46 feet in height and 29 inches in girth. 

The Colorado species makes very feeble growth on poor sand, as at 
Westwick in Xorfolk, where a group of trees planted in 1902 were only 
5 feet high in 191S. Close beside them, Oregon Douglas Fir, of the same 
age, was 35 feet high. 

'The comparative rate of growth is also well seen ou good deep sandy soil 
at Highfield, East Liss, Hants, where Mr. J. S. Gamble, F.E.S., has made 
plantations of both species. In 1902, two acres were planted here with 
Douglas Fir and European Spruce, alternately and four feet apart. Over 
two-thirds of the area the Oregon species was used, and over the remainder 
the Colorado species. In 1919 the Oregon Douglas Firs, which had com- 
pletely killed the Spruce, were fine trees, about 40 feet in height, and 6 to 30 
inches in girth. The Colorado Douglas Firs, which will be suppressed in a 
short time by the Spruce, are now only 20 to 25 feet in height, and 3 to 15 
inches in girth. 

The difference in growth of the two species in England is perhaps best 
illustrated by the contiguous plots in Bagley "Wood, near Oxford, where the soil 
consists of sand and stones, with a moderate admixture of loam. These plots, 
each ^ acre in area and treated alike, were planted in the spring of 1907 
with four- year-old trees, spaced at 4 feet apart. Early in 1919, twelve years 
from the time of planting, measurements were made by Sir W. Schlich,* as 
follows : — 

Oregon Douglas Fir — 2lo2 trees per acre, averaging 32 feet high and 3'4 
inches in diameter ; basal area, 140 square feet per acre ; volume of timber, 
1176 cubic feet per acre. 

Colorado Douglas Fir — 2466 trees per acre, averaging 16 feet high and 

' Quarterly Journal of Foreati ij, xiii, 266 (1919). 

K.I. A. PltOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. B. [M] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

24 inches in diameter ; basal area, 83 square feet per acre : volume of timber 
206 cubic feet per acre. 

The differences in height, diamet€r, and volume observable in these two 
young plantations, which are both in perfect health, correspond with what is 
recorded of mature trees in their native forests. In the Oregon Douglas 
Fir plot all the grass and undergrowth have been killed, while in the other 
plot some bracken and bramble still survive. The needles of the Oregon 
species appear to decompose much more quickly than those of the Colorado 
Douglas Fir. Thus, though the total leaf-fall of the former must have far 
e.xceeded that of the latter, the foliar debris on the ground was only ] finches 
deep in the Oregon Douglas Fir plot, while it was 2 inches deep in the other 
plot. There is much less humus in the surface soil under the Colorado 
species than there is under the Oregon species. 

The Oregon Douglas Fir is one of the most valuable trees that have been 
introduced. It proiUices in this country an enormous volume of excellent 
timber in a short period of time, being rea<iy for felling at fifty or si.xty years 
old. Grown in dense plantations, it surpasses all other species in yield of 
timber. 'J'his great production is shown by the following table,' which gives 
actual measurements of plantations of Oregon Douglas Fir in Scotland, 
England, and Wales. These plantations have not been selected in any 
way ; and some of them, owing to errors in initial planting and subsequent 
thinning, are insuthciently stocked, and show poorer yields than may be 
e-xpected from plantations grown under better methods of silviculture. 

EAatc and Counlj. 


Number of 

per acre. 

Mean lieight 

of dominant 


Volume of 
per acre 

over bark. 




in volume 

per acre. 

tUgler, Oxford, 





Cub. ft.* 


Llandinam, Montgomeiv, 






Toftworth, 01ouce»ter, 






Duniter, Sooienrt,. 






Tort»orth, Gloucetter, . 






TarmoanI, Perth, . 






Cochvillan, Camarton. . 






* Quarter-girt meaiurement. 

The Reconstruction Forestry Report, making a reduction of 30 per cent. 

'See JoHT. Board of Agric'tllHre, xx, 1087 (1914). 

HioNRY AND Flood — The Dotiglm Firs. 85 

for contingencies such as damage from wiml, insects, etc , estimates the yield 
resulting from plaiiliiig land of average (iuality with tliis sjjccies to he 7000 
cubic feet at the end of sixty years. The early maturity and great volume 
of the Oregon Douglas Fir make it the most profitable tree to employ in 
afforestation schemes. 

The Oregon Douglas Fir has certain disadvantages, and should only be 
planted in carefully selected areas. It suffers much from exposure to strong 
prevailing wind, and does not thrive in wet land or on heavy clay or gravelly 
soils. It has an aversion to lime diffused in the soil ; but nevertheless makes 
considerable height and girth on chalk and limestone that are covered with a 
surface layer of humus, in such cases forming wide-spreading superficial 
roots. It is liable in the young stage to injury from spring and autumn 
frosts. These drawbacks limit considerably the area in which it can be 
commercially planted. It is a splendid tree in sheltered situations where the 
soil is moderately deep and not too wet. When not exposed to wind, it 
grows well enough at high elevations; plantations in Wales being successful 
in favoured spots np to 1250 feet. At Garmaddie, Balmoral, a plantation at 
1100 feet attained in twenty -six years a height of 45 to 50 feet. 

While attaining its maximum development on deep loamy sands, it 
thrives much better on poor sandy soils than is generally supposed. This is 
an important fact, as it renders proHtable the affoi'estation of large tracts of 
poor heath land in England, which would yield only a slight return if planted 
with any other species or if put under the plough. In such soils it often 
establishes itself with difficulty, and looks yellow in foliage for a time ; but 
this is generally a passing phase. Thus at Westwick, Norfolk, on poor 
sandy heath, where Larch and Scots Pine do not exceed in the best spots 
60 feet high at eighty years old, plantations of Oregon Douglas Fir, that 
looked unpromising at first, are now very thriving, and average 40 feet in 
height at twenty years old. In Holstein, poor heath land,i on which Scots 
Pine and Spruce were subject to root-rot and failed, was successfully afforested 
with Oregon Douglas Fir, which in thirty years has grown to timber size. 

IV. — Anatomy of the Leaf. 

The microscopical structure of the leaf has proved useful in tlie dis- 
crimination of species in various genera of conifers, notably Abies- and 
Pinus.^ In a paper lately read before this Academy, we found the leaf 

' Trans R. Scott. Arbor. Soc, xxii, 235 (1009). 
= M'Nab, in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., ii, 073 (1870). 

'Masters, ia Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxxv, 50U-659 (1904). and Sliaw, The Genus 
Finns (1914). 


86 Proceedings of the Royal Jiish Academi). 

anatomy of great service in establishing tlie distinctive characters of the 
European and Japanese species of Larch and their hybrid ; and one of the 
characters investigated, the papillate epidermal cells, seemed to explain the 
great capacity of the Japanese Larch in bearing shade. The adaptation of 
species to their en\'ironment may evidently be elucidated by a study of the 
comparative anatomy of the leaves, which are the organs of photosynthesis 
and transpiration — functions that are considerably afi'ected by climate. 

This is well seen in the various species of Douglas Fir, which inhabit 
regions characterized by great diversity in the humidity of the air, the 
quantity of sunlight, and other climatic factors. In fact, no two species agree 
in the structure and shape of the leaf. M'Nab was the first to investigate 
these characters in the American Douglas Fir, only one species of which was 
recognized at the time, and conjectured from the sections of the leaves at his 
disposal that there wei-e two distinct species. • These two species, the 
Oregon and Colorado Douglas Firs, indeed reflect in the structure of their 
leaves the great dissimilarity of the climates of the Pacific Coast and Eocky 
Mountains regions. 

All the species, e.xcept the Formosan Douglas Fir, have now been 
examined ; and transverse sections of the leaves under the microscope show 
considerable difTerences, which will now be pointed out. 

\. Shape. The leaves of the different species vary in the relative pro- 
portion of their dimensions in thickness and width. Thick leaves present less 
surface to evaporation, and are characteristic of xeropliytic conditions. The 
Colorado Douglas Fir has very thick leaves, convex on the lower surface, and 
glaucous above and beneath owing to a thin film of wax, which is protective 
against heat and drought All these characters indicate a dry, sunny, hot 
climate. Most of the other species have thin leaves, flat beneath. 

2. Pajnllne. In P. glatica and P. macrocarjia all the epidermal cells are 
papillate, but in the other sjiecies the epidennal cells of only the lower surface 
bear papillae. Various explanations of the functions of these papillae have 
been given, notably Professor H. H. Dixon's, that they allow more light to 
enter into the leaf, where it is available for photosynthesis. Leaves with all 
the epidermal cells papillate are probably able to bear shade well. This 
would be an advantage in regions subject to long periods of drought, as such 
leaves persist long on the branches, forming on the tree a thick crown of 
foliage that protects the soil from evaporation and keeps it moist. It woidd 
be of interest to ascertain whether P. glauca and P. viacrocarpa bear dense 

' M'Xah, in Proc. Boy. Iriih Acad., ii, 703, plate 49 (1876). Fig. 32 reiiresents 
P. Douglatii. Figs. 32a and 32b represent P. glauca. 

HuNRY AND Fi.oou — T/ic Douglas Firs. 87 

protective foliage in tlie Rocky Mountains and in southern California re- 
spectively — regions notable for tiieir long, dry, and hot summers. 

3. Hypodenn. A layer of thick-walled liypodermal cells is practically 
continuous all round the leaf in P. i/lanca, V. macrocarpa, and P. sLriensis. It 
is present only in the central part of the leaf in P. Dowjlasii, P.japonica, and 
P. Forrcstii. The continuous hypoderm seems to be a xerophytic character, 
the three species in which it is present all living in dry regions. In P. Douglasii, 
var. caesia, which is more xerophytic than the type, hypoderm is a little 
developed elsewhere than in the centre of the leaf. 

4. Idiohlasts. These are peculiar stellate or irregularly radiate cells, which 
ramify between the ordinary parenchymatous cells in the leaf. They are 
hollow, with thick walls and naiTow lumina running up the arms of the star. 
In 1876 M'Nab discovered idioblasis in the leaves of the Eocky Mountains 
Douglas Fir, but could not find them in the Pacific Coast species. In the 
present investigation M'Nab's observations have been confirmed; and the 
idioblasts have been proved by various chemical tests to be formed of lignin. 
They have been found to be most numerous in P. glauca, rather abundant in 
P. japonica, P. sinensis, and P. Forrcstii; very few in P. macrocarpa and 
P. Douglasii, var. caesia ; and totally absent in typical P. Dour/lasii. 

The significance of idioblasts is obscure. The term idioblasts was 
originally applied by Sachs to individual cells strikingly different from their 
neighbours ; and he named hard thick- walled idioblasts, such as those now 
described, stone-cells or scleroblasts. Haberlaudt^ refers to these as astro- 

Idioblasts are not confined to Pseudotsuga, as they occur in other conifers 
and in ordinary flowering plants. As to their function, several theories have 
been brought forward. One theory is that they act as water reservoirs. This 
is supported by the fact that they largely occur in xerophytic plants; but in 
opposition to this it may be pointed out that the amount of water they could 
store would be very small, and that the plant would have diiBculty in extract- 
ing the water for use. Sachs, indeed, says that they have such thick walls 
that their contents are of little physiological importance. 

Another view, supported by iJe Bary,'^ Haberlandt, and Bower,' is 
that idioblasts act as scaffolding to strengthen the leaf and keep it distended 
and of a leathery consistence. It is difficulc to see, however, how they would 
act as a skeleton, when for the most part they are embedded in the substance 
of the leaf, are widely separated from one another, and do not extend to the 

' Physiological Plant Anatomy, 158(1914). 
■ Comparative Anatomy, 424 (lSS-1). 
^Botany of the Living Plant, 144 (1919). 

88 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

epidermis. Another suggestion is tliat idioblasts are protective, reudering the 
leaf unpalatable to weevils, beetles, etc. 

0. Resin-Canals. Two marginal resin-canals are present in the leaf iii all 
the species, the onlv difference noted being that they are surrounded with 
one layer of lining cells in P. japonica and P. sinensis, and with two layers in 
the other species. 

6. McsophyU. In the two Chinese species the cell-walls of the spongy 
mesophyll are infolded. This is not observable in the other species. 

7. Median Groove. The groove on the upper surface of the leaf in the 
middle line is well marked, and continuous from base to apex in P. l)ontjlasii, 
P.jajtonica, P. sinensis, and /'. Forrestii. It is slight and not continuous to 
the apex in P. glauca and /'. macrocarpa. 

v.— The Oil Distilled raoM tiik Leaves. 

The diflference in the odour of the foliage of the Oregon and Colorado 
Douglas Firs is remarkable and distinctive of the two trees.' The fragrance 
of the Oregon species is agreeable, with a scent like pine-apples. The Colorado 
species has a strong smell like tui^ntine. The odour is perceived near large 
trees and in plantations in certain states of the atmosphere, and can always 
be recognized by rubbing the fresh leaves between the fingers, or by placing 
a branch of foliage in a vessel of water indoors, when the room soon becomes 
tilled with the characteristic perfume. 

The h-aves of coniferous trees in general yield on distillation peculiar oils, 
which are often of commercial value. The characteristic odour of each species 
is doubtless due to the nature of the oil in the leaf. In order to test this, 
quantities of the foliage of the two Douglas Firs were sent to Mr. C. T. 
Bennett,, F.I.C., who has kindly supplietl the following details of analysis 
of the oils distilled in the laboratorj- of Messrs. Wright, I>ayman,& Umney, 
Ltd., Southwark, London, SJE.: — 

" Oregon Douglas Fir. 

" 1. 5') lbs. of leaves of young trees growing at Avondale, sent 
in August. When distilled, less than 0*01 per cent, of an oil with 
a very aromatic odour was obtained — a quantity too small for ex- 

' Attentinn w»s first drawn to the distinctive odours of the two DougIa.s Firs by 
Mr. V. C. Le Fanu, of BAllyiDorris, Brav. Dr. Jncobi wrote in MUl. Drultch. Dcndr. 
Get., 1914, p. 2'^4, «n the fragrance of the Oregon species as affected by the different 
ttatea of the atmosphere. 

Hi;nky and Flood — 7'Ac Dotujlas Firs. 89 

" 2. 50 lbs. of leaves of old trees growing at Buckhold, Berks, sent in 
November, when distilled, yielded Oil jior cent, of oil, having the 
following characters : — 

Specific gravity, .... 0'876 

Optical rotation, . . . . - 7° 

Eefractive index (20°), . . . l-48o5 

Esters as bornyl acetate, . . . 12'4 per cent. 

" The ester-content is much lower than that of the Colorado Douglas 
Fir oil, but the odour is more fragrant. The oil contains dipentene or 
limonene, but if pinene is present, the quantity is very small, as practically 
nothing distils below 175°. 

" 3. A few days later another oO lbs. of leaves of the Oregon Douglas 
Fir from Buckhold were distilled, and enough oil was then available for 
further investigation. On fractionating the oil, an appreciable quantity 
of geraniol was separated, and this appears to be the chief odorous con- 
stituent. The proportion of total alcohols by acetylation, calculated as 
geraniol, is '-iVo per cent. The presence of bornyl acetate somewhat masks 
the odour of geraniol in the original oil. There is also a small trace of 
citral, but the proportion is too small for determination. 

" Geraniol occurs in tlie oils of some species of Callitris in Australia, 
but has not been apparently recorded as a constituent of the oils distilled 
from other conifers. Geranoil is the chief constituent of Indian palmarosa 
oil obtained from the fragrant grass, Andropogon Schoeiianihiis, and occurs 
in citronella oil, otto of roses, lemon oil, etc. 

" Colorado Bo\ujlas Fir. 

" 50 lbs. of leaves of moderate-sized trees growing at East Liss, 
Hants, sent in October, yielded on distillation 0"ol per cent, of oil. 

Specific gravity, .... 0-905 

Optical rotation, .... - 46" 

Eefractive index (20=), . . . 1-4717 

Esters as bornyl acetate, . . . 34-5 per cent. 

" The terpenes consist principally of pinene. The odour is chiefly due 
to the bornyl acetate present. 

" It would appear from these analyses that the strong odour of 
Colorado Douglas Fir, which is like that of turpentine mixed with 
camphor, is due to the large percentage of pinene and bornyl acetate. In 

90 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the Oregon Douglas Fir pinene is not present, and the bornyl acetate is 
much less in percentage. The peculiar fragrance is chiefly due to the 
presence of the highly odoriferous substance geraniol, slightly modified 
by the small amount of bornyl acetate pi-esent " 

Two previous analyses of the leaves of Douglas Fir are on record : — 

Brandel and Sweet* examined foliage of Or^on Douglas Fir collected in 
Washington State, and found a yield of 0-8 to 1 per cent, of oil ; no pinene 
present, the main constituents being terpencc, of whidi the principal fraction, 
boiling at 161" to 169°, contained camphene. A small fraction, boiling at 
175° to 176°, was thought to be limonene. The higher boiling fraction 
contained bornyl acetate. 

This analysis a'jrees with English-grown Oregon Douglas Fir in the 
absence of pinene and in the small quantity of bornyl acetate present. 

Schorger* made an analysis of foliage of Douglas Fir, gathered in the 
southern part of the Sierra Nevada, California, which yielded on distilla- 
tion 0-1 6"l per cent of oil, with specific gravity of 0'873 to 0876, optical 
rotation of -17'^ to -22^ and containing: — 

a-pmcne. .... 

■ib per 

j3-pinene. .... 


limonene, .... 


bornyl acetate. 


bomeol, .... 


unidentified green oil, 




This analysis would indicate an oil agreeing with Colorado Douglas Fir 
in the presence of pinene : but in contains much less of the higher boiling 

It is evident that further investigation is required on the odours and oils 
of the different species and varieties of Douglas Fir in America. 

It is worthy of note in this connexion that the difTerent forms of the 
Yellow Pine in western North America, which closely resemble the various 
Douglas Firs in their distribution, yield each, on tapping their stems, an 
oleo-resin, which contains a different oil.' Typical Finns ponderosa, with 
moderate-sized cones occurring in the same region as the Oregon Douglas 

' thtji imicKutUal Rcrieir (Milwaukee), Nov. 1908. p. 326. 

» Jotin,. Jmtr. 0>€m. Sk., ixxv. p. 1895 (1913). 

5 \. W. Schorger, in Prue. Soc Amer. PorttUrt, xi. 32-39 (1910). 

Hhnuy and Flood — The Douglas Firs. 91 

Fii- and its var. ccicsia, yields an oil, consisting mainly of Beta-piiiene. Piniis 
ponderosa, var. scopulomm, with small cones, a native of the Rocky Moun- 
tains from eastern Montana southwards (llie region of Fsevdolsuf/a ylauca), 
yields an oil consisting mainly of Alpha-pinene Pinus Jeffreyi, with very 
large cones, occurring in southern California in the same region as Pscndot- 
suga macrocarpa, yields an oil totally diffei'^nt from the two preceding trees, 
containing 95 per cent, of heptane. The analogy in the distribution, size of 
the cones, and different oils of the Douglas Fir and Yellow l^ine is very 

Notes by Pkofessor A. Henry. 

The microscopical details, and the drawings of the leaf-sections, flowers, 
cone-scales, &c., are due. to Miss Flood. I am much indebted to Mr. C. T. 
Bennett,, F.i.c, for his investigation into the oils obtained from the 
Oregon and Colorado species. Help in providing material for study and in 
other ways was obligingly rendered to me by Mr. J. S. Gamble, f.e.s., 
Dr. Herbert Watney, Mr. W. E. Hiley, Mr. V. C. Le Fanu, Prof. Sir I. B. 
Balfour, f.k.s , and Prof. W. G. Craib, m.a. 

Note added in Press." 

Note to p. 75. — With regard to the size attained by the Douglas Fir in 
the southern Rocky Mountains, Wooton and Standley, "Flora of New 
Mexico," state that the tree sometimes reaches a height of 200 feet, with 
a diameter of 6 to 7 feet. This is probably an over-estimate. Mr. G. B.. 
Sudworth has just written to me from Washington that eleven of the largest 
trees measured in the Lincoln and Datil National Forests, New Mexico, 
attained heights of 97, 130, 126, 111, 112, 114, 127, 137, 143, 128, and 
150 feet. Some of these trees are considerably taller than any recorded 
from Utah or Colorado, the highest measured in Utah being 119 feet, and in 
Colorado, 115 feet. 

[Explanation of Plates. 


92 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acmiemy. 


Plate XII. 

Seed-scale, a\ bract, h; and seed, c; all x \, of ripe cones of — 1, /'. I)oug- 
lasii ; 2, /*. glauca ; 3, /'. Doiujlasii, var. cacsia ; 4, P. macrocarpa ; 5, P. 
sinensis ; 6, P. Forrcstii ; 7, /'. japonica. 

Young cones of 8, P. glaiica ; and 9, P. Douglasii. 

a, female flower, x |. 

b, c, d, bracts from centre, base, and apex of Llie cone, x \. 

e, ovular scale, x f . 

Mature cones, x I, reproduced from photographs, of Pseudotsuga Foircstii, 
P. japonica, and P. sinensis. 

Platk XIII. 

Mature cones, x 1, reproduced from pliotograplis, of Psevdotstiga macrocarpa, 
P. Douglasii, P. Doiigla-sii, var. cacsia, and P. glauca. 

Plate XIV. 

Transverse sections of the leaves, x 40, of — 1, Pseudotsuga liouglasii; 
'2, P. glauca; '.i, P. Douglasii, \&v. cacsia] 4, /'. macrocarpa; 5, P. sinensis; 
6, P. Forrcstii; 7, P. japonica. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol.. XXXV, .Sicr. II 

Pl.,\TK XII. 

7a- 7c 

P japonica 

r* Torresti 

P sinensis 

Henry and Flood. — Thk Dotgla.s Firs. 

Proc. R. r. ACAi)., Vol.. XX.W, Skct. b. 


R Douglas 

"■ PDouglasVi, 

%i^- va.r. caesia 

P macrocarpa. 


Henry and Flood. — The Douglas t'lKS. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate XIV. 


2.P. of. aaea 

3.P. Dou-qdasU var.cae 

5. P. sinensis. 

7. P. -iapoTiLea. 

Henry and Flood.— The Douglas Fi: 

( 'J-^ ) 


[communicated by permission of the director of the GEOLOaiCAL SURVEY OF IRELAND.] 

Plate XV. 

[Rea<l Jaxuahy 12. rciblislied May I'.l, 1920.] 

Those who are well acquainted with the Highlands of Scotland will have 
recognized that, generally speaking, the moraines of that mountain district 
do not assume any pronounced linear arrangement. In most cases there is 
nothing but a wild profusion of irregularly scattered mounds. The areas 
which have come within the scope of my own observation show this condition 
of things as the normal type of lowland and valley-bottoin topography. 
Here and there, it is true, a rude linear arrangement can be detected by a 
careful observer, but it seldom has any persistence, and is mostly confined 
to the mountain slopes. There must of course be cases of well-marked 
linear moraines here and there in the Scottish mountains — indeed, photographs 
have been published which show them — but they are the exception rather 
than the rule, and do not invalidate the generalization that the prevailing 
type of morainic topography is irregular in character. 

To this condition of things the mountains of Kerry form a notable 
contrast. The moraines, which almost e\erywhere cover the lowlands at tlie 
foot of the mountains, show a persistent and well-marked linear arrange- 
ment, and often form unbroken ramparts many miles in length. They are 
arranged, moreover, in concentric series one within the other, the intervening 
intervals being free from moraine, or only covered by a thin deposit, nut 
rising into mounds. I can see nothing in the topography of the Kerry 
mountains as compared with the Highlands of Scotland which would lead 
one to ascribe this difierence to local circumstances, and have so come to 
believe that ihe two types of morainic formation are in some way an 
expression of different climatic conditions during the retreat of ihe ice. 

The glacial ion of the mountains of Iveragh and Dunkerron was eH'ected 
in the main by ice from a centre of distribution in the low country west of 
Kenmare. The demonstration of this need nut be included here. It is 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

given ill lull in Llie " Memoir on the Geology of Killainey and Keiimare," 
now ready for Ihe press. The map (fig. 1) shows the main lines of flow. 
Cavrantuoliill, The l?eeks, Purple Mountain, aud Maugerton, in spite of their 
superior altitude, contributed but little to the main ice-sheet. The glacieis 
which they uourished on their slopes were of diminutive size, and melted 

Lints of IcC'-fUiw . •'. ' /iernnanlsoftJicJ^re-glacuil ufjUaid,. 

iCAll O I i 3 1 S S 7 a S 10 MIUS. 

Fio. 1. — Miipihowitix iliv luiiiii !'•' M"V<;iiii'iii nwi tiie rriiin iiits of llio I'lvglaciiil U]<Ihii<I in lliu 
Kt-niiiare-Kill.imeY Uistiid. The luuvcniciit in llie iiii-aa ouUidc the iiiTuws hus nut 
been invretigaled. 

away at an early stage of the retreat. These ranges stood out as nunutaks 
above the general level of the ice, and, wliere the corries have not eaten loo 
far into their sides, preserve a good deal of their pre-glacial form and 

The passes between these higher siiininits were, however, very heavily 
glaciated, and suHered to a remarkable degree from plucking and scouring. 

W^.'Kiii r — Minor Verioilitjitu in Ol<ici(tl Itelreat. 9;> 

They ollored to the outflowing ice fioin t'lie Kcnmavc centre five main 
avciHies ol' liischavge towanls the iiortii. These were I'roin we.sL to east— (1) 
tlie Car.igli Valley; (l2) the (lap d' Dunloe; (:J) the Killaiiiey Valley; 
(4) the valley of the Cappasrli Kiver and Ijougli Giiitaue; (5) the valley of 
the Loo and Flesk. The ice tongues whieli occupied these passes, and thence 
deployed on to the northern lowland, will in this paper be referred lo as tlie 
Caragli, ])unloe, Killarnoy, Guitane, and Flesk glaciei-s respectively. Tlie 
existence of the Guitane and Flesk glaciers was cut short at an earlier stage 
of the retreat than that of the Caragh, JJunloe, and Ivillarney glaciers, 
because the passes through whicli they were fed lay at a greater distance 
from the centre of distribution. The history of ihe retreat subsequently to 
the abandonment of these passes is recorded in the valley of t!ie Eouglity 
Eiver, east of Kenmare. The greater part of the letreat of the ice-maigin as 
it shrank from the plain into the passes, and from the passes south and west 
to the ice-shed seaward of Kenmare, is ciiaracterized by a marked periodicity. 
It is clearly a matter of great interest lo inquire into tlie nature of this 
periodicity, and get some idea of the duration of the oscillation.s which it 
indicates. One might express one's aim in such an investigation as being an 
attempt to determine a climatic "grain" as characteristic of a definite period 
of late glacial time. In addition to the obvious importance of comparing 
the minor climatic variations of such a distant period with those of the 
present day, there is the possibility of correlation with other areas, where 
the retreat shows a similar character. 

As the evidence upon which the tentative conclusions of the present paper 
are based is most clearly defined in the Kenmare Valley, it will be necessary, 
before proceeding to the main issue, to describe in some detail the conditions 
which obtained in this area during the retreat. 

Icc-damincd Lalcts of the Kenmare Valley. 
During the whole period of the retreat of the ice-front from Jlorley's 
Bridge on the east to the ice-shed west of Kenmare the drainage of the 
lloughty Valley was entirely reversed and discharged along the line of the 
railway via Morley's Bridge and Loo Bridge into the valley of the Flesk. 
This obstruction of drainage resulted in the formation of a glacial lake, the 
surface of which lay at a level of 320 feet O.D., determined by the height of 
the outlet at Morley's Jhidge The maiginal terraces and embankments of 
this lake form one of the most striking features of the valley, and in distinct- 
ness and massiveness rival those of Glen Boy and Gleu Spean (see Plate XV). 
They prove the lake to have had during its greatest extent a length of at 
least twelve miles, ami lliniu(j;hout this distance show no departure from 


96 Proceedings of the Rojfal Irish Academy. 

borizontaliiy, wliicli is not included within llie limits of error inseparable 
from such observations of level as it has been found possible to mate. 

The definiteness and well-marked character of the shoreline of this sheet 
of Virater, which may conveniently be referred to as Lake Kenmare, is without 
doubt largely due to its constancy of level. The sill of the outlet is composed 
of very hard rock, and has not been appreciably lowered by the outtlowins: 
waters. Tlie steep-sided pass through which the discharge took place is a 
very remarkable feature of the district, but in no sense owes its origin to 
glacial drainage, or even to the excavating action of ice. Its course, far 
from being coincident with the trend of the ice-motion, is in one place directly 
transverse to it. The floor has, nevertheless, been everywhere plucked and 
scoured by the passing ice. The eflect of the outflowing waters of the lake 
is only noticeable as a slight erosion and potholing of these ice-moulded 

During the initial stages of Lake Kenmare, while it was still only a mile 
or two in length, a small lake was also impounded in the passatlJerrincullig, 
about three miles north of Kilgarvan. This small lake formed a well-marked 
terrace on its northern shore. In the Slaheny Valley, south of Kilgarvan, 
there was a somewhat larger lake, the surface level of wiiicli is recorded in 
some terraces in the valley of the Gla.shagorruv Kiver, above Glanlough. 'I'he 
outlet of this lake was eastward through the beautiful dry gap of Crumagloun 
into Lake Kenmare. 

Connexion between the shore-rmbiintmni/s of Lalcc Kenmare and the 
marginal drainuiji'. 

On e.\aniining the arrangement of tlie gravel terraces along the shore-line 
of jjike Kenmare, it becomes at once apparent that the materials of which 
they were built up were derived in tiie main from the lateral drainage of the 
ice-sheet. As evidence of this, it is clear in the first place that, if the terraces 
were produced by ordinary shore action and the inwash of streams, they 
ought to be inci easingly more massive and better defined towards the eastern 
end of the lake, which was longest in existence. A glance at the map will 
show that this is not the case, the terraces at Caber, half way between 
Kilgarvan and Kenmare, being just as well developed as any further east. 
Moreover, many streams which poured into the lake have made no deltas at 
their point of discharge. For example, the Owbeg Itiver, north of Kilgarvan 
has built up no delta at Meelick, where it reached the level of the lake, 
whereas a small lateral tributary of this river to the west of Meelick has an 
immense plateiiu of gravel in the lower part of its valley. On the south side 
the Slaheny River formed no delta, whereas its tributary on the west, the 

Wiuf;iir — Jfi)io)- I'crioilicil// in Glacial Retreat. 97 

Glasliagoiiuv, lias an iinposiny^ delta about a quarter of a square mile in 
extent. Tlie hill s^lnpi's to lliu north of Kilgarvan, and thence east to 
Morley's Ihidge, sliow <inly a few insignificant traces of terraces, and yet there 
were at this poinl a number of small streams descending into the lake. 

Perhaps tlie most remarkable proof of the importance of the glacial 
ilrainage in the buildin;; of tlie lake terraces is tlie fact that in the Slahcny 
and Owbeg Valleys the terraces occur only on the western side of the valleys, 
and are almost completely wanting on the eastern. Tlie gravel and sand 
carried along by tlie marginal streams were brought to rest at the lake level 
in these valleys, and so travelled no farther towards the east. The slopes of 
the main valley immediately east of these laterals are devoid of terraces for 
the same reason. 

Some very striking and instructive phenomena bearing on this point are 
to be observed in the valley of the Cleady River, thi-ee miles north-east of 
Kenmare. The lake terraces in this valley can be traced into a massive 
series of gently sloping fluvio-glacial terraces, which continue up the western 
branch of the river towards Gowlane, but are completely wanting on the 
northern branch, which comes down from Coombane. The western branch, 
along which the terraces occur, is found to occupy throughout part of its 
course a glacial drainage channel, and this channel can be followed over tlie 
pass to the south-west of Gowlane at an altitude of 500 feet, and along the 
slopes of Peakeen in the direction of Carrig East. It is clear from a 
consideration of contours that the marginal drainage must have gone along 
this channel and over the pass by Gowlane from the time when the ice-front 
first set free the mouth of the Cleady Valley uiitil it sank to the oOO-foot 
level on the western slope of Strikeen. Immense quantities of sand and 
gravel were thus transported along this route into the western branch of tlie 
Cleady Hiver, and there, being checked by the waters of the lake, built 
themselves out into great Huvio-glacial fans. 

The terraces of Lake Kenmare, when followed westward, appear at first 
sight to come to an end at Cleady. One might conclude that, when the ice had 
.retreated thus far, the lake had for some reason ceased to exist, were it not that 
there is a well-developed group of terraces at exactly the right level of 320 feet 
below Letter in the headwaters of the Finnihy River. These prove that the lake 
must in its later stages have had a considerable extension to the west of 
Cleady. Why, then, are there no terraces along the slopes from Cleady to 
Strikeen, and thence north-west as far as Letter? The reason is clear once it 
is recognized tiiat the marginal drainage is essential to tlie building of tiie 
terraces. From Cleady to Strikeen they are wanting because, as lias been 
pointed out above, the drainage during this period of the retreat went over 

98 Pioci'.iuiiiifjs of the Roi/al Irish Acitdeuij/. 

the pass at Gowlaiieinto thelieaitwatersof tlieCleady Eivev. Tliey are absent 
along tlie noiili-easteni slopes of tlie Finnihy Valley because, when once 
the ice withdiew from Strikeen, it ailniilled the lake to the headwaters of 
the Finniliy, and the gravel brought east by the marginal drainage was 
cheeked at this point, and built up the terraces at Letter. 

From the above considerations and a multitude of other details wliieh it 
is impossible to discuss here, it will be seen the shore embankments of Lake 
Kenmare are really part of the marginal deposits of the ice-sheet re-arranged 
b}' the lateral di-ainage, ami brought to rest at the level of the lake. 

Uf treat Sta/fea in the Kcumarc Valley. 

A careful examination of the valley of the Koughty Uiver, between 
Kenmare and Kilgarvan, i-eveals the fact that it is crossed by a series of belts 
of moundy sand and gravel, sometimes associated with massive shore embank- 
ments. These together form l>roken l>arrieis across the valley beneath the 
level of the shores of Lake Kenmare. They occur at faiily regular intervals 
of about a mile or a little more. Only four or five are really well defined, 
and stand out aa striking objects ; but by fitting in the evidence in the lateral 
valleys with that in the main valley, it is possible to distinguish as many as 
nine in the nine-mile stretch of valley lielween Morley's Dridge and Kenmare. 

When followed above the shores of the glacial lake these gravel barriers 
are found t^i pass into normal clay moraines, so that it is clear that in the 
liottom of the valley they are really water-sorted moraines. Moreover, above 
the shore-lines of the lake another interesting fact becomes apparent. The 
morainic barriere are compf>sit«, consisting either of a group of smaller 
moraines, or of one large moraine with a terraced face. There is thus a 
double periodicity in moraine formation during the retreat, the larger stages 
of moraine fonnation, with inter-spaces of alxjut a mile, Ijeing punctuated by 
.tmaller stages with intervals of, perhaps, 50 or 100 yards. It is not possible 
to determine how many of the minor moraines correspond to one of the 
major stages, but the .«ub-division is very obvious. It is most clearly visible 
on the slopes soiith of Mangertonbeg, on ihe north side of the valley, and on 
the upland between Letter and Slaheny on the south side. 

Time-values of the Major and Minor Period icUie^i. 

The idea at once suggests itself that the minor oscillations thus recorded 
are yearly, and that the larger stages represent a climatic oscillation 
exicndiiig over a number of years. Confirmatory evidence to this eflect 
is aflordetl by a small hut well-defined esker ridge on the shore to the south 

^Vl^l(iHT — Minor I'criudicitij in Glucial Ucircat. 


of lliu Gi'L-al iSciutliein Hotel, Kemiian.'. Do Gccr' liaa sliowii tliat eacli of 
Llie iiuUvidual liillocks or gravel ceiilies, of wliicii tiic eskeis wtiidied hy liini 
in Sweden are composed, is equivalent to two of the seasonal laminae in tlie 
laminated clays in that coiiutiy, and so represents in general a year's retreat. 
The esker south of Kenmarc is about 600 yards long, and contains seven or 
eight of these hillocks. Tlie rate of retreat thus indicated is about 80 yards 
per annum. The larger interval marked by tlie transverse gravel and 
moraine belts, between whicli the esker is situated, can imly be roughly 
estimated as from 1^ to If miles in length. This gives approximately an 
upper limit of forty and a lower limit of twenty years for the length of the 
period represented by the gravel barriers and the intervening intervals. The 
mean of tiiirty years is comparable with the average length of the climatic 

Estuanne Mud-EMS Alluvium -M otecialGravelJ I Rock.^ 
Esker Ridges > Mi)uncis.^=^fe:g) Succ«sslvelc« Fronts ._ 

l''iG. 2. — Sketch Miip of tlie Ksker Bulge, to the south iif 
Keiimme, showing the sulidivisioii into annual 
mounds. Tlie lidge is double throughout the 
greater part of iis leugtli, ou aueount of the 
subglacial stream having dischaiged by two 
orifices at the ghicier front. 

periods established by Briickner- witliin which a dry and warm epoch is 
succeeded by an epoch of lower temperature and greater precipitation. In 
dealing with the interpretation of this esker as affording an indication of 
time-values, it is clearly of importance to take into account its position 
relative to the preceding and succeeding }ieriods of moraine formation. 'J'he 
first point to be noted iii this connexion is that moraine formation at this 
stage of the retreat is very ill-defined. The preceding period is weak, and 
the succeeding period almost untraceable, and clearly the last of the series. 
The rate of retreat was, therefore, probably becoming equalized as between 

■ Gerard tie Oeer : " A Tlionii(igra|iliiciil liecovcl of the Lnte QuHteriiiiiy Clinmle" 
ill Die VciiiinhriiHyen lies Kiimas, Geol. Congress, Slockholni. ]!)](); "A (jeoiliroiiolo'^y 
of theliisl 12. (K)() years," Geol. t'oiigress, Coiii|ito Reiuhi. mio, 

-Ed. Briiokuer : Ivliiu isoluvMiikimgou, [>. 2.'>2. 

lOO Proceedint/s of the Royal Iriish Academy. 

the moi-ainic and iuter-morainic periods, so that the decisibn as to which of 
these periods the esker is to be ascribed to is of less importance tlian it might 
otherwise appear. An examination of the map (Plate XV) will show that it 
might l»e regarded as havini; l>een formed either in the last iuter-mominic 
period or in tlie last morainic period, or partly in one and partly in the other. 
The probability is that it belongs to the morainic period, but that the belt 
iincovei-ed during this period was about a mile wide, and thus comparable in 
length with the preceding iuter-iuorainic period. It will appear from this 
that the iissumplion ihat tiie esker gives an avei-age rate of retreat is a 
reasonable one. 

It is interesting to note that the moraines of the Vaberg district in 
Swetlen, descril>cd by Hetlstrom*, exhibit a similar iieriwlicity. Three series 
of morainic ridges succeed one another from south to north in the following 

order : — 

.1. Tlie MoUtorp Series. 

2. The VaWrg Series. 
Z. Hie Foi-svik Series. 

There is an inlorval of 1 km. of morainelcss country Ijetwecu the Molltorp 
and Vaberg Series, and 2 km. between the Valierg and Forsvik Series. The 
Forsvik Series contains some 16 parallel moraine ridges, of which llie eight 
most southerly, which are the l>est exposed ami most easily traceable, lie at 
distances of 100 to 225 m. from one another, with an average interval of 
150 m. The ridges ai-e all of small dimensions, having a breadth of about 
15 m. at the l>ase, and a height varjing from 1 to ^ m. In spite, however, 
of tlieir diminutive size, they are traceal>le with wonderful continuity across 
the country, i^eceding north a little on the heiglits, and ]iushing south again 
in the valleys. 

The Vaberg Series consists of 17 parallel ridges of height and dimensions 
similar to those of the Foisvik, and occurring at similar int«rvals. The 
details of the Molltorp Series are not recorded. 

That tliese moraines i-econl the same climatic periodicity as those of the 
Kenmare Valley there seems little doubt. There is also a fair presumption 
that we are dealing here with the effects of Briickner's climatic I'scillations. 
One is struck more than anything else, however, by the apparent rarity of 
cases iu which such a record is displayed by the retreat-moraines of 
glaciers. In most glaciated districts phenomena of this kind are exceptional. 
In the Kerr}' Mountains, on the coutrar}', they are the rule, and arc 

< HemtAn Hedstmm : Om aodmoraner och stnmdlinier i tmkten of Vaberget. Geol. 
Foren. t\.rh«iMn. IW. ixiii. \>. Ifi-T aOOl). 

Wrigh'I' — Mi)ior Periodicity in Glacial Retreat. 101 

characteristic of at least some portion of tlie retreat of nearly all the ice 
tongues I have had occasion to examine »hiring the re-survey of this region. 

Furtlier Cases of Periodic Retreat in Kerry. 

All the ice-tongues which deployed through the mountain passes on to 
the plain of Killarney and Killorglin have remarkable series of concentric 
moraines. The most striking case is that of Lough Caragh (see Fig. 3). 
Here there is a group of eight or nine moraine belts forming concentric rings 
about the northern end of the lough, which occupies the gap in the hills 
from which the glacier issued on to the plain. The outermost of these 
moraines at its east end is conterminous with the outermost moraine of the 
Glancuttaun glacier/ which also has a series of eight moraine belts. In this 
latter glacier the innermost belts are broken up into minor moraines, thus 
showing their composite nature. The retreat of these glaciers was not as 
rapid as that of the Kenmare glacier, as the eight retreat stages embrace a 
distance of only three to three and a half miles. 

The glacier formed by the confluence of the Killarney and Dunloe glaciers 
extended west in its early stages until it met the confluent Caragh and 
Glancuttaun glaciers. After it parted company with these it formed a number 
of moraine belts. There is, however, so little regularity of development that 
it is not possible to estimate the number of retreat stages represented. 
Moreover, these moraines come to an end against the upland north of the 
valley of the Flesk, so that only the innermost of them circle completely 
round the basin of Lough Leane. The periodic nature of the moraine 
depositions of the great Killarney glacier is, however, well seen on the wooded 
slopes east of Muckross, and is also recorded in the series of flu^■io-glacial 
terraces to the east of Killarney. 

The Lough Guitaue and Flesk glaciers have also rings of concentric 
moraines, but the stages of retreat seem to be fewer in number, and are less 

The coiirie glaciers of the Eeeks, Purple Mountain, and Mangerton show 
a good deal of variation in the number of moraines they have left behind. 
The Coomloughra glacier, on the west side of Carrautuohill, deposited four 
moraines after it parted company with the Caragh ice-tongue. The arrange- 
ment of these moraines is shown in figure 4. Tlie Gaddagh glacier has 
also left four moraines at intervals down its valley. The Curraghnmre, 
Cummeennapeasta, and Alohart corrie glaciers only left one moraine each. 
- ^^____^ _ .. -^f . . , _-_._ 

' A brunch of the Caragh Glacier, the tongue of wliich became isulnted during the 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. - 




a "13 o 3 

j: t: 



— ^s . 

B X C .i 

i il5 

^ ' *- x "•■ •— 

7: .« ? '" 


I S = E 

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- I SO 

5 "o f = = 

:2 S 5 p.- 


.2 S' 

:^ 5 i i J 

_! >5 ^ 6i «; 



Wright — Minor Periodicity in Glacial Retreat. 


The tiny glacier tliat foriued in the hollow S.-E. of Tomies Mountain left 
three or fonr moraines, one of which splits into three at one entl, thus 
betraying its composite nature. 

The De\irs Piuicli Bowl has only one moraine ; the Horse's Glen also 
only one ; but in the latter case the stages of final retreat may be marked 
by the three lake basins. It is difficult to say why some of the local 
glaciers show a periodicity in their retreat, while others do not. Possibly 
considerations of altitude and aspect may have something to say to it. 

Fig. 4. — Map of Cairantuoliill and tlie western part of M'Gillicuddy's Kueks, sliowing tlie jieiiodic 
moraines of the Conie glaciers. A. Lateral moraines of the Caragh-Glanciitlaun 
Glacier. B. Cooiiiloiighra Glacier, confluent at its nia.xinium with the Caragh- 
Glanciitlaun Glacier. C. Gaddagh Ghicier, foinied hy the confluence of three coirie 

Possibility of a Lont/-pei'iod Climatic Oscillation, 

It is a rather remarkable thing that in the history of the retreat of every 
one of the ice-tongues described above there came a time when no more 
moraines were deposited even periodically. The area subsequently abandoned 
is in most cases now occupied by a lake, e.f/., Lough Caragh, Lough Leane, 
and Lough Guitane, or is merely a central basin, as in the case of the Dunloe 
and Flesk glaciers. In either instances the relatively sudden cessation of 
m raine formation is very marked, and would seem to indicate some fluctua- 
tion in climatic conditions. An arguinent that at first sight would seem to 

lOi Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

support this conclusion is derived from the fact that in the case of difilerent 
glaciers moraine formation ceased at about the same date. Taking the Dunloe 
and Killarney glaciers, for instance (see fig. 3), and counting inwards from 
the point where they last coalesced, we find that in each case there were 
three stages before the formation of moraines ceased altogether. The outer 
moraines of the Killarney glacier are too indefinite to enable a similar 
comparison to be made in tht case of the Caragh and Killarney glaciers. 
The available facts are not inconsistent with the idea that moraine formation 
ceased at the same date in the case of these two glaciers ; but beyond this it 
is impossible to go. As regards the simultaneous cessation in the case of 
tlie Dunloe and Killarney glaciers, an alternative explanation is forthcoming 
in the fact that these glaciers were fed from the same reservoir in the Black 
Valley, which in turn was supplied from the Kenmare basin to the south. 
Once the Kenmare centre of accumulation failed to send ice north, over tlie 
high watei'shed which separates it from the Black Valley, a rapid withering 
of the Dunloe and Killarney glaciers became inevitable. Judging from the 
height of the ridges (see fig. \), the svipply from tlie Kenmare centre into the 
upper reaches of the Caragh lliver would be cut oft' about the same time as 
that into the Black Valley, ur [>erhaps a little sooner. An appearance of 
simultaneous rapid withering and consequent cessation of moi-aine formation 
would thus be produced. 

As regards the ice-tongues of Lougii Guitane and the Flesk, which lie 
further east, the evidence is not very clear, but suggests that they finally 
withered away while the nioi-aine building of the Killarney glacier was still 
in full progress. This is consistent with the idea that they must have been 
cut ofl' from their source of supply in the Kenmare Valley at a relatively 
early stage of the retreat. 

Tlie final retreat down the Kenmare Valley is free from this complication 
of supply from an outside source which might lie cut off suddenly ; and it is 
worthy of not* that no moraine barriers occur west of Kenmare (see Plate XV). 
The retreating ice at this point cert-ainly ceased to form periodic moraines ; 
and it is hard to find a cause for this cessation, unless, perhaps, the dwindling 
size of the ice-remnant can lie regarded as supplying one. 

On the whole, however, the very definite termination of the period of 
intermittent moraine building in the case of the glaciers which form the 
subject of this paper would seem to Ije susceptible of explanation from local 
causes. The question of the beginning of the period of moraine building is 
even more obscure. The crescentic moraines on the northern plain have 
certainly a definite outer limit ; but this appeai-s to be determined by the 
coming on of the upland, or in the .case of the Caragh glacier by the sea. 

Pkoc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, sect. b. 

I'I..1.TE XV. 

GMcialStrm . 

Clay Moraines • 

GravelUonines&Eskersrr-^ GlscialLakeTerraces,-iK^ Flmio-glicisl Fans L«J Overrim Channslsy ■* Ice/Hargins 

_3 Miles 

Map of tlie Kemnare Valley, 'allowing tlie terraces oi" Glacial Lake Keiimare aiul the peiiodic nature of tile terminal moraines, lire ice-margins are rather hypothetical, and are nrerely inserted as 
a guide to the iiiter]>retation of the moraines. Contours every 500 feet, figures on the upper side. The terrace and outlet of J.ahe Kenniare lie at an altitude of 320 ft. O.D. 

Wright. — Minor Periodicity in Glacial Retreat. 

101 Proceedings 

support this conclusion is de 
glaciers moraine formation ce 
and Killarney glaciers, for i 
the point where they last ■ 
three stages before the form 
moraines of the Killarney 
comparison to be made in 
The available facts are not ii 
ceased at the same date in t' 
is impossible to go. As r^ 
the Dunloe and Killarney g) 
in the fact that these glaciei 
Valley, which in turn was 
Once the Ken mare centre o; 
high watei-slied which sepai 
of the Dunloe and Killarney 
height of the ridges (see fig. 
upper reaches of the Caragh 
that into the Black Valley, 
simultaneous rapid witherin 
would thus be produced. 

As regards the ice-tongi 
further east, the evidence i 
withered away while the nn 
in full progress. This is coi 
cut off from their source o 
early stage of the retreat 

Tiie final retreat down tl 
of .lupply from an outside sc 
worthy of note that no morai 
The retreating ice at this po 
and it is liard to find a caus< 
size of the ice-remnant can ' 

On the whole, however, 
intermittent moraine buildi 
subject of this paper would 
causes. The question of ih 
even more obscure. The o 
certainly a definite outer li 
coming on of the upland, oi 

WiUGiiT — Minor Periodicity in Ghmal Rclrcnl. 105 

In the Kenmaic Valley tlicrc arc certainly no moraines in llie pass north- 
east of Morley's Bridge, or on the neighbouring upland ; but the conditions 
arc very different from those in the open Kenniare Valley. 

In view, however, of the fact that there still remains a possibility that 
the limits of the periodic moraine building may be due to climatic variation, 
and that the doubts which obscure the matter might be cleared away by the 
investigation of adjoining areas, it should be kept in mind that on this 
assumption an epoch of 250 to 300 years of moraine Ijuilding punctuated by 
a thirty-year periodicity appears to have alternated with other epochs in 
which the retreat was more regular, and perhaps more rapid. The evidence 
in the Kenmare and Killarney mountains may be regarded as clearly 
establishing the minor periodicity of about thirty years ; but the major 
periods of 250 to 300 years are only vaguely suggested. 


r 106 ] 




(Plates XXI-XXIII.) 

Read May 10. PuUUhcd Jdlt 28, 1920. 

Thk object of this paper is to i-ecord a section of the work recently carried 
out by Mr. R. Southern, of the Irish Fisheries Brancli, and myself on the 
fauna of the intertidal area. This work was mainly ecological, an attempt 
being made to study the associations of littoral forms, and for this reason it 
was necessary to examine a large number of " stations " in the various zones 
of the shore affected by the tides. 

Moanwhile, results of systematic iniport-aiice were oluaiiied in at least cue 
group of animals, namely, the Acarina, or mites, wliich wiili the insects form 
an interesting element of the intertidal fauna. It is necessary to describe a 
numltcr of new fonns which have apparently escaped notice up to the present 
time. For this reason it seems advisable to report (m these results, and so 
make a preliminary use of the large iiiiinl.ii nf Held observations which are 
now available. 

The localities select'ed for e.xamination are the rocky shore at Malahide 
and the adjoining estuary on the Dublin coiust, and Ardfry, at the north- 
eastern extit?mity of CJalway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. At tlie first- 
nieiitioiie«l place the work was greatly facilitated by the action of the Eoyal 
Irish Academy in lending us the hut bequeathed to the Academy by the late 
Mr. IL J. Usher, m.ili.a. 

The establishing of this hut on a suitable part of the shore at Malahide 
enabled us to explore the intertidal area fairly thoroughly during favourable 
tides, and without this help the work wouM have been much more difficult. 
During a short visit in the early part of June, 191G. to the Marine Laboratory 
maintained at Ardfry by the Fisheries Branch of the Department of Agri- 
culture and Technical Instruction, investigations of the littoral fauna were 
made on lines comparable to those in progress at Malahide. 

A short experience of this kind of shore-collecting soon convinced us that 
gome form of sub-division of the int^.'rtidal area would be a great help towards 

IlALnKUT — The Acarina of the Seashore. 107 

a more exact study of tlie fauna. It was finally decirlod to adopt as a 
preliniiuaiy sub-division the zones occupied by certain licliens and seaweeds. 
Wiiere there is sufficient foothold for the dominant plants these zones arc 
usually present, and succeed each other as well-defined hands on tlie seashore. 
Beginning at the tup and descending, tlie zones occur in llie following order: 

The Orange Lichen zone (species of Physcia, Lccanora, &c.). 

The Pelvetia zone {Pelvctia caiialiculatn dominant). 

The Spiralis zone {Fiieus spiralis dominant). 

The Vesiculosus zone (Fucus vesiculoms dominant). 

The Serratus zone {Fucus scrraUis dominant). 

The two uppermost zones were the most thoroughly examined, partly on 
account of their interest as a meeting-place of many terrestrial and maritinie 
forms, and also their accessibility as less frequently covered by the tides. 
They represent approximately the part of the shore lying between high neap 
and high spring tides ; and it follows that during the period of neap tides 
these two zones may be left uncovered for days ; for this reason they are 
frequently almost dry, and the animals occurring therein must be capable of 
withstanding conditions varying from time to time within a wide range. 

The Orange Lichen zone is bounded seawards by the Pelvetia zone. The 
landward limit is vaguely defined by the extreme range of the maritime 
species and the occurrence of purely terrestrial forms. In practice, however, 
there is usually little difficulty in demarcating it. The width of the various 
zones depends chiefly on the slope of the shore seawards. The more sheltered 
the coast, the more clearly they are defined. 

Apart from descriptions of single species, the Acarina of the seashore ha\e 
been but little studied, and such papers as have appeared on the subject are 
of limited scope. Excluding the family Halacaridae or maiine mites, the 
following papers are noteworthy, as they contain references to the great 
majority of the intertidal Acarina. The numbers refer to the bibliography at 
end of this paper : — Barrois (1), Berlese and Trouessart :20', Brady (21, 22). 
Ilalbert (25), Hull 26 , King (27), Laboulbene (30), Lohmann (32, 34), 
Michael (36, 37 , Moniez 38), Tietze (46), Topsent and Trouessart (47), 
Tragardh (50), Trouessart (53). 

The first paper in which an attempt is made to deal comprehensively with 
littoral species is that of Moniez (38) on the mites and insects observed by 
him on the seashore at Boulogne; with the exception of a few unnamed 
varieties the paper refers to previously known species. In 1SS9 Berlese and 
Trouessart published a joint paper (20) containing the original descriptions of 
six of our most characteristic shore mites. Ten yeais later 'J'ietze 46j made 
observations on a few species found on the Venetian coast, and his j>aper 

[(2 2] 

1 08 Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

may be found incorporated in Canestiini's well-known " Prospetto " 23 . 
King has published an account of four species of Acarina found on the coast 
at Millport, in tlie Firth of Clyde, with some interesting observations on 
their life-histories. During the recent Clare Island survey a good deal 
of attention was given to the littoral Acarina of the Mayo Coast, 
and some new forms were brought to light (25 . Mr. E. Southern has 
already published a very useful analysis of the large amount of shore- 
collecting carrie<l out during this survey, more especially from the ecological 
standpoint (R.I.A. XXXl . A recent paper by Hull (26) contains a number 
of intertidal species found in the Tync Province and elsewhere in the North 
of England. 

The species included in the following list are such as can be reasonably 
considered as habitual denizens of the intertidal area. 1 am aware that many 
other species found in the vicinity of high-water mark might liave been 
included, more especially in the families Oribatidae and Tronibidiidae, but 
for the present it seems best to include only such species as apjwar to live in 
places directly afTectetl by the tides. A few of the mites recorded in this 
paper, such as Gamasiui longieomis Berl., the two species of Aliens, and some 
OrilKitids, require verification as inhabitants r.f the intertidal area. 

The question then — are these intertidal si>ecies specially modified 
to suit their peculiar mode of life? An examination of the genera repre- 
sentee! shows that a fair percentage of them are characteristic of the shore, 
and when this is the case they are represented by but lew, sometimes only 
one spocies; such are Halolaelaps, IJydrogamasus, Thinozercon, and others. 
Yet, although these genera and species often possess peculiarities in the 
structure of their dorsal and ventral plates and in other characters, it cannot 
be said that they exhibit any striking uKMlifications lo suit them for even a 
.senii-a<^uatic life. For ini<tance. it is in the breathing organs that we should 
ex|tect to find modification, but as far as one can judge these organs are not 
exceptional in the intertidal species. On the other hand, the possession of a 
smooth shining epidermis, or a covering «if fine hairs, to jirotect the creatures 
from wet surfaces would l»e of great use, for the reasons given below, and 
these are characters which the majority of them possess ; in common, however, 
with a great many purely terrestrial species. A modification in the foim of 
the tarsi and ambtdacra certainly does occur in a few genera (Hydrolaelaps 
and others), and we find a similar change in these stnictures in certain 
species of the t«iTestrial acari which fretjuent very wet places (25) away from 
the seashore. 

It was at first believed that these intertidal mites lived freely on the 
shore, and on the approach of the tides betook them.selves to crannies and 

IlAi.UKiri' — The Acarina of Ihc Seanliore. 109 

fissures, where there was suflicient air to support tlicni during the time their 
haunts are covereil witli water. I'ut a little observation of the creatures soon 
proves that this is an erroneous idea. It is quite true that the inoru active 
mites (Rhyncholophus, Bdella, &c.,) may often be seen moving about freely on 
the shore at low tides, more especially during bright weather, and tiiey must 
necessarily seek retreats to protect themselves from the tides. Yet their 
habitual dwelling-places are in the sheltered spots, such as crevices, rock- 
fissures, and under embedded stones, as anyone who has collected these 
animals can easily observe. These habitats are always such as have been for 
long undisturbed, and where air is imprisoned during high tides, and there 
the mites and their associates are found even in places that have not been 
covered by water for several days, as in the Pelvetia and Orange Lichen 
zones. Indeed, a boulder for long embedded in sandy mud, or a flaking rock, 
often presents an interesting sight on being disturbed. It will be noticed 
that, although covered twice a day by the tides, the freshly exposed surfaces 
are not saturated with water, but are just moist, or in the higher zones fairly 
dry, and iu the favoured places are peopled by a variety of insects, mites, 
and other animals. There may be found large colonies of the common shore 
spring-tail Anurida marUima, with myriads of their cast skins in a dry 
condition, and attendant predaceous mites, beetles (Aepus, Diglotta, 
Micralymma), and false scorpions [Ohisiicm maritimum). 

Higher up on the shore in the gravel, sand, and shell association, at about 
high-water mark, Acarina are often found in places wliere there are no such 
retreats, but in this case the mites are only occasionally wet or sprayed, 
by the spring tides, and are evidently quite at home in their habitat. 
Comparatively few species have succeeded in establishing themselves here, 
though they may be numerous enough in individuals. 

A glance at the table (p, 111) giving the zonal distribution of the intertidal 
Acarina makes it clear that the number of species becomes suddenly much less 
below the Orange Lichen zone, and in order to understand this it must be 
remembered that this zone is normally not covered by water for a large 
proportion of the tide-cycles. Apparently a majority of the species have not 
succeeded in penetrating lower than this zone, and, as might be expected, they 
are lai-gely such as are not confined to an intertidal habitat; this applies in 
particular to the family Oribatidac. This is also a less nuvrkcd falling-oil' 
below the Pelvetia zone, and here again there is less flooding ihan in the case 
of the lower zones, which are uoriually covered by the two daily tides. Tlie 
list contains sevcnty-seveu species, and of these (e.xcliuling the Halacaridae) 
we find that about twelve species range from the Orange Lichen down to tlie 
Serratus, and in a few cases even to the Lauiinaria zones. In the localities 

110 Pmcecdings of the linijul Iris/i Academij. 

examined tliiee species were found only in the two lowest zones^namely, 
Ilalolaelaps fflabriifscnlus, Ilijdrogainasits litloralis, and EiqwdcH varicf/atus 
\'m: halophilus nov. ; the adnlt of Cyrthydrolaelaps hirtiis Berlese was found 
in these zones, though its nyniphal form is abundant on the higher part of the 
shore. No doubt these species, as well as others in the list, will be found 
to have a wider range when additional localities have been examined. 

As already stated, these zonings are tlie result of observations carried out 
on the stretch of limestone rocks at Malahide. At Ardfry the shore is not 
rocky, at least in the localities examined ; there tiie species were found chiefly 
under embedded stones in places where the botanical zones are present. Tlie 
unmarked species are such as were found amongst stones anil decaying 
seaweeds, or in estuaries, where the zones arc more or less obliterated. Some 
esluarine species occurring on muddy Hats are also found on the Orange 
Lichen zone of the open seashore. 

Less attention was given to the Halacaridae, or marine mites, than to the 
terrestrial families ; only the species noted on the rocky shore at Malahide 
are mentioned. Of these, Ayavc hnvi]mlpiii 'I'rouess. occurred in a small pool 
in the Pelvetia zone (July, 1917); it does not seem to have been recorded 
from liritish shores, tliough it is known to occur on the French coast of the 
Knglisli Channel. The single representative of the Hydrachnidao, or fresh- 
water miles, found during our shore work is a widely spread form, Eylais 
fumiala Kuenike : a few s|)ecinicns occurred in fresh and brackish pools in 
the bed of the Hroadnicadnw Water in the Malahide Estuary. These two 
families arc included only at the end of the zonal list. 

As regards the systematic result of our work, seventy-seven species of 
iutcrtidal Acarina arc i-ocorded in lliis paper, and they are distributed 
in the following groups: — Gamasoidea, 28 species; Oribatoidea, 17 species; 
Sarcoploidea, 2 sjiccies ; Trombidoidca, .'30 species. It is necessary to describe 
a new genus (Thinoseiu.s), twelve new species, and three new varieties of 
known species. In order to make the list as complete as possible, such 
S|>ecie9 as liave l)ecn found in other loc;ilities besides Malahide and Ardfry, 
reconled or otherwise, are included, notably tho-se found during the recent 
Clare Island Survey (25). It is anticipated that at some future date an 
account of tlio intcrlidal fauna of the Malahide and Ardfry areas from the 
purely ecological point of view will be publisheil. 

It is with pleasure I acknowledge my indebti-diicss t<> "ui leading Kuropuan 
Acarologist, Dr. A., of Florence, who has given me most vahuible help 
in the identification of new and little known forms. 

A »nmpleU> set of the new forms deseril^ed in this paper is deposited in 
the National Museum, Dublin. 

llAi.iiicin' — The Acarimt of the Sentihorc. 


List ok SrEciES, aku the Zonks in which they aue found. 




Cyrlhydi'iiliieliips luitus Ilcrl., 

Gumnsolneliips luininliaous Uvrl., 

Rliodiicunis roseiis vui'. pallidiis Hull, 

Halolaclujis glubriusculus Hit!, et Troiiess 

Halolaelaps oelticus Salbl., 

Gamasellus ineimis sp. nov., . 

Gamasus Kempersi Oudms., 

Gamasua lunaris Omlms. , 

Gamasus eolcoptratorum (Z.), 

Gamasus iiiuiianis ^S)'/., 

Gamasus Tiouessarti Berl., 

Gamasus crassipes var. longicoinis Bcrl., 

Gamasoides spinipes (C. X. Koch), 

Hydrogamasus littoralis (G. et li. Can.), 

Ilydiogamasus Giardi {Bir!. el Trouess.], 

I'acliylaelaps lilturalis Salbl., 

Macrocheles marginatus vuv. littoralis (Halbt.) 

Laelaps deutatus sp. iiuv,, 

Episeius giandis (Berl.), 

Lasioseius salinus sp. nov., 

Lasioseius fucicola sp. nov., 

Thinoseius Berlesii gen. et sp. nov 

Thinozercon Michaeli JIalht., 

Phaulocylliba littoralis (Troncss.), 

I'haulodiriyclius repletus IScrl., 

I'haulodinychus oroliestiidarum (Burrois) 

Tiaidiyuropoda minor [Ilnlbl.], 

Dinyelius sp., 


Oribata setosa C. L. Kovl,, 
Oribata quadricornuta Jllic/incl, 












Sui ralus 






Proccedinijs of the Royal trhh Academy. 

List of Species, and the Zones in which thev are found — continued. 

I Orange 
{ Lichen 





ORIBATOIDEA— foii<iH(«rf. 
Orilata ijuii(lrivi.rU'.\ »[•. nov., 
Urib.ita avenifcrn Uichnel, 
Orlbata Lucasii Sicolcl, 
Oribatn parmuliiw ilichatl, 
Uribatula siniilis Mirluul. 
Oribatiila veniiata Jtirl., 
Oribntula uxicola sp. nov., 
Sc\ilovertex bilineatiin Mieharl. 
SoutoTcricx Spcili Oiidttu., 
Sculovertex corrugatiis Miehnil, 
ScutoTfrtex maciilatua Muhiul. 
Soulorertex porfunitus Bnl , . 
Ilcnnannia scabra L. Koth, 
llcrmunnia rcUciilatii Thor., . 
Nutlirua iiivi'niialus H%<hnel, . 

Tyroglyphm liltomli* tp. nov.. 
Uvadeaia fiiiica Lohm., . 

Uiaiotydnoiis brcriatjilua ap. nov., 
Bbagidia Uulopbila [L"^-), 
Eiipo<l(.i variegatua var. halopbili.» nov., 
Chromolydaeua ovatua (C. L. Koch,, 
Ilalotyilaeus hydrodroniua Lerl. el Ttoneti., 
Alicua oblongua ap. nov., 
Aliciu l.-ilii* sp. nov., .... 
Naniiii'bi-stra anipbibiiia Tept. el Trouru., 
Bdellnlillnralia (£.), .... 
Udell* devipieria TAoi., . 
Cjta intitostria {Hrrm. ) C. L. Koth, 
Rhapbigriatbfis ^iiiLiliia 9p. nuv., 








Sp _ j - 



































1 Iai,15i;kt — The Ac(n-iiia ol the Seashore. 

List of Speciks, an'd the Zones in which -imikv .\i:e tound — covtinaal. 




I'elvclia , 


Vesica - 



Sligin;ieus xhudouiulas vui". fissurioolu nov., 



Rbyucholophua nraueoides (BerL), . 





lUiyncholophus Passerinii (ZffW.), . 




Kliyiicholoplms niLripes Berl. el Trouisn., 





Khynclioloplius tardus Ualil., 






Miciotronibidiuiii pusilluui v:ir. major nov., 





' Eyiuis Ijamata Koenike, .... 






llhombognathus setosus (loAwi.), . 





Rlionibognatluis notops {Gosse), 





Rliombognathus pascens (Lohm.), . 





Rhombognathus seaharai {Eodge), . 






Aguue brevipalpis Troucss., .... 






Hulacaius acteniis Trouess., .... 






Halacariis Basteri (Jo/iiisl.), .... 






Ilalacanis oculatiis Hodge, .... 





Halacaius rhodostignm Gosse, 





Halacarus tabellio Trouess., .... 






Halacarus Pabricii Lohm., .... 






Localities. — Malahide, Howth, Baldoyle, and DoUymouut, on the coast of 
Co. Dublin. Ardfiy, on tlie Galway coast. Westport and Mulnumy, on 
the Mayo coast. Lough Hyue, Co. Cork. 

Order A CARINA. 
Sub-Older GAM ASO IDEA. 

Cyrthydi'olaelaps hirtus Jlcrl. 

1899 Gamasns sp. Tictze 23, p. 1)48; 46. 1904 Berlese 8, p. 19. 1915 
Halbert 25, p. GO. litis IJulI 26, p. 77. 

A cliaracLeristic shore species occurring fmin tht; Pelvelia down to the 
Serralus zone. At Malahide it lives between limestone Hakes, usually where 

' Tlio faii.ilics llyiliaclmiilau and 1 l.ilacaridai; aru inchuied here merely for con- 
vciiieiico of lefercuco. The latter occur chiefly in rock pools. 

114 Pi-oceedmgs of the Royal Irish Acadcmij. 

there is a layer of damp sandy mud : occasionally seen running on ihe rocks 
at low tides. I have found adult and late nymplial forms well below tide 
marks in the Vesiculosus and Serratus zones ; on Uie other liand, the early 
nymphal form (protonymph) occurs commonly on the upper parts of the 
intertidal area, usually in the Pelvetia zone. At Ardfry it. occurred under 
stones resting on mud, June. 

First described by Tietze (23) as an unnamed species of ffrtma^?«, his figures 
leave no doubt that the species dealt with is the present one; subscipu ntly 
described by lieilese from specimens collected by Trouessart on the coast 
at Fiuislerro. Both sexes, tlie prolonyniph and the iii/nipka colcopfratu, arc 
described in 25. 

Gamasolaelaps excisus {L. Koch). 

1879 .Swiiw excistis L. Koch 22, p. 122. 1903 Cyrtolaclaps (?) auraniiaciis 
Berlcse 7a, p. 241. 1906 Gtimasohiclups aumntiacus Berlese 11, p. 101. 
1915 Halbcrt 25, p. 58. 191S Hull 26, p. 77. 

The ntfmp/ia ailtoptrata form of this species occurred on the Mayo Coast 
at Westport and Muhanny in July and September. The adult female was 
found under stones in a brackish jdace, a little above high-water mark, at 
Howth ill Septeiiil)er (25). Tlie species iias not been found since in Ireland, 
but I believe the localities are such as would correspond to the Orange Lichen 

There can scarcely be any doubt that this is the mite described and figured 
by L. Kocii as SeiiLs excisufi (29 : therefore the species is recorded as above. 

Rhodacarus Oudms. 

In his " New List of Dutch Acari " (43. p. 48) Oudenians described a very 
interesting acarid — liliodacarus — an<l established a new sub-family for its 
reception. His chief reasons for doing so are that the genital aperture of the 
mole is situate<l mi tlie sternal shield instead of on its front margin, and the 
chelicerae are witiiout appendages in both sexes. He also coninienls on the 
position and structure of the female genital foramen, and the division of the 
botly into two distinct regions, "a true thorax and a true abdomen." 

The occurrence of IlIuHUuariu roseus in Ireland has already been recorded 
(26, p. 81), and I iiave recently found a varietal form of it living in rock- 
flssnres on the seashore at Malahide. Dr. Uudeinans found the type in 
HidlaiKl amongst decaying leaves, and the Irish si>eciiiieiis occurred in a 
similar habif,at in marshy places at Glendalough and in the Tolka valley, 
near Dublin. 

In the male the geniual foramen (I'l. XXI, lig. lb) would at sight 
appear placed at some distance from the front margin of the st<irnuiii, but a 

II \i,i!i';Kr — 77/6' Acariiin of i.hc Scuskorc. lln 

closer exaniiiiiiLioii iiinkcs it clear LliaL the jiart of the sternum in front of the 
<;eiiital foranu^u is weakly chitinized, and is formed by a uniting and enlarge- 
ment of the jugular plates. Tiie genital foramen lies in the thickly chitiuized 
margin of the tiue sternal shield, where it is fused with the jugular area, so 
tliat Llie position of the foramen is quite normal. With regard to the 
armature of the male chelicerae, it seems to me that tiie chitinoiis swelling at 
tlie outer side of each free chela represents the modified male appendages; it 
is absent from tlie female. The position of the female foramen is rather further 
back than i.s usual in the Gamasidae, but its position is really much as in 
certain other genera, such as in Gamasellus. A more important point, which 
is not referred to in the original description of Ehodacarus, is the presence 
of asniall conical plate between the genital and sternal shields. It is placed 
immediately in front of the genital shield, as it possibly represents the fused 
paragynial jilates. 

Rhodacarus roseus, Oudms. 

A few specimens found between damp Hakes at the top of the Orange 
hielien zone at Malahide are apparently identical with the typical form. 
Lower down, in the intertidal area, it is replaced Ijy a vaiiety which is, I 
Ijelieve, the same as the form recently described as a new species by 
Hull (26). 

Var. pallidus Hull, (PI. XXI, fig. 1 a, b.) 

The original description is as follows : — " Translucent white, with the 
appendages tinted with brown. Considerably larger than roseus. Epistome 
with a simple acute tapei-ing process without terminal ijlume or basal teeth ; 
otherwise resembling roseus. West Allendale, under deeply embedded stones 
with rcrijnmasvs humutus. I have seen two males only " (26, p. 57). The 
length of the male is given as 440yu. 

In the Irish specimens the measurements are : in the female (tig. 1 a), 
length about 550/(, breadth, 22t)(u ; in the male, .518/1 and 230ji(, so that, as 
well as being considerably larger, it is also relatively narrower than tlie type 
form for wliicli Oudemans gives the following measurements : length of 
female, i!)t)/t ; of male, oSo/j. The colour is white tinged with pink, lyrate 
organs brown, and the nioulii parts of a deeper brown. Thc> legs are 
decidedly longer ; those of the female are about 550/(, ooO/x, oOO/i, and 450/i 
respectively. Tlie long median spine of the epistome is minutely spiculato 
at its apo.K, and there are one or two pairs of small finely pointed teeth close 
to the base; possibly the presence of these characters was overlookeil in ilie 
original speeinieiis. The armature of the tarsi appear to diii'er in the se.vcs ; in 

116 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academic . 

the male and female of the typical fonn the ambulacra and claws are missing 
from the first pair of legs, while in the variety fairly well-developed claws 
are present in the female, though they are absent or rudimentary in the 

Habitat. The variety pallidns Hull occurs at Malahide in the Orange 
Lichen, Pelvetia, and Spiralis zones, usually between limestone flakes where 
there is some sandy mud, in from almost dry to moist situations. The dates 
of capture range from March to October. 

Halolaelaps glabriusculus Derlese et Trouessart. 

1875 ? Gamasus marinus Brady 21, p. 307. 1889 Berlese et Trouessart 
20. p. 2. 1890 Zircon inariiins Monie/ 38, p. 13. 1902 Pnrasilus mai-iiins 
Oudcmans 41, p. 2.SI. 1906 Berlese 11, p. 109. 19U King 27. p. 135. 
1915 Halberl 25. p. 56. 1918 Hull 26. p. 77. 

A characteristic species in the lower zones of the iniertidal area, I have 
usually found it in crevices and between limestone Hakes in theVesiculosus and 
Serratiis zones at Malahide. It may also \>e found under stones on estuarine 
and non-rocky shores, as at Ardfry and 'Wesii>ort, in the West of Ireland. 

Halolaelaps celticos Ilalbt. 

1915 HaliRit 25, p. 57. lOlti Hull 26. p. 77. 

Found undtr stones just below high-water mark on the seashore at, 
Westport, July, 1911. It is very abundant at Howth in a similar habitat 
amongst decaying seaweeds, September. 1913. I did not succeed in finding 
it on tlie rocky shore at Malahide. Hull has recorded it from the Tyne 
province (26). 

Gamaselloa Berlese- 

The genus Gamaselius was first established as a sub-genus of Cyrlolae- 
lape by Berlese in the supplement (3. p. 61) to his Monograph on Italian 
mites (2 . No type species was sjiecially indicated, though four species are 
referred to the new sub-genus ; of these it is necessary to select Gamaselius 
falcvjtr (G. et R Can.) as the type of Gamaselius. The reason for this selection 
is that all of the four species are not congeneric, and Berlese makes it quite 
clear in a later reference (9) that Gamaselius is intended to include those 
species in which th>- -'■■■• ■' and venlro-anal plates are united in the male ; 
such is the case in '■ '< Mriijrr, a j:cmj<1 fissure of which will l>e found 

in (2, Fasc. LXlll, n. 4). 

The four species originally reieneu Vt Giiuiaaclhi.-i aic U.Jiilaijcr (\j. et 
K. Can.), G. apiriconii* (G. et K. Can.;, O. captator lierlese, and U. comutus 

Halukih' — 'rhr Acariiut of the Srashorc. 117 

Kramer. The two first-mentioned species are congeneric, Init the otlicrs arc 
evidently to be referred to Dendrolaelaps Hallit., described in 1915 25, \k G8), 
with I). Owlemansi as the type-species. In the male of tliis genus the 
sternnni is separated from the ventro-anal shield, and the lattei' is fused with 
the second dorsal plate. The chelicerae carry long processes, and the second 
legs are very stout, the tarsi being armed with a spur. Dr. lierlese has since 
raised Gamasellus to generic rank, and has established a new sub-genus as 
follows : — Digamasellus, " Characteres generis Gamasellus, sed scuto maris 
sternale ab anale distincto. Species typica. G. pcrpiisillus" (9, p. 234). It 
woidd seem that a new species of Gamasellus found on the rocky shore at Mala- 
hide is to be referred to the sub-genus Digamasellus. At first 1 had some 
doubt on this point, but Dr. Berlese lias seen specimens of both se.xes, and 
refers them to this sub-genus, notwithstanding the fact that the second legs ai'e 
unarmed on the male, while in the type species (Z>. perpiisillus) they are armed; 
therefore the present species is e.\ceptional in this respect. 

Gamasellus inermis sp. nov. (PL XXI, fig. 2 a, d.) 

An active orange-coloured species, which lives in fissures and between 
flakes on the seashore. Female (fig. 2 a): length, 470;u ; breadth, 264/ii; 
colour a shining orange ; immature specimen yellowish. Body of the usual 
gamasoid shape, with three double rows of short hairs. Dorsal plates of 
almost equal breadth ; the truncated posterior margin of the second plate 
reaches end of abdomen, and carries a pair of large pores (fig. '2 b). Sternum 
long, with bow-shaped front, and truncate end margins, sides <leeply incised. 
Jugular plates absent, at least as separate plates; metasternal plates rudimen- 
tary, position indicated by paired hairs. Genital plate laelaptoid, longer than 
broad ; a pair of hairs on the side margins. Yentro-anal shield large, flattened 
on its front margin, and it reaches the end of the body in some specimens. 
Inguinal shields are present, and there are also three or four pairs of very 
minute plates. Endopodial plates rod-like. Peritreme strongly sinuate, 
poststigmatic end partly encircling last pair of legs. 

Capitulum quadrate, epistome with three short spines, ma.xillary lobes 
acute, and placed well in advance of the palp articulations, Free chela armed 
with two strong teeth, fixed chela with two teeth, and a smaller one placed 
near extremity. Palps (length 125;u) of normal structure, the second and 
third segments armed on their inner sides with a strong spine. Legs rather 
long and stout, with sparse hairs; the approximate lengths are 34();u, 286;li, 
242/x, 298|u. 

Male: Considerably smaller than the female, with which it agrees in the 
structure of the dorsal plate, peritreme, pedal plate, and other characters. 

118 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acndemji. 

Length, S74:fi; breadth, 130yu. Anterior part of tlio sternum (lig. 2 c) like 
tliat of female, Init tlie plate is much longer, wideniiic inio a wcilge-sliape at 
tlic end margin of the fourth acetahula. Genital foramen large, with a thick' 
chitinous border; sternal liairs, five. Ventro-anal plate very large, its 
llattene<l front margin lying close to the sternum, and the posterior margin 
reaching end of body. 

Chelicerae (fig. 2 d) minute and curved ; fixed chela with one strong tooth 
and a sinuate chitinous process rising from its base ; length about twice that 
of the chela. In its natural position, as seen from below, the process points 
inwards and downwards, apex liooked. Free chela with one strong central 
tooth and two small teeth close to the apex of the segment. Legs as in tlii' 
female ; second pair a little stouter than the others; unarmed. 

Habitat. — An undoubtedly intcrtidal species occurring in ilic Orange 
I lichen and IVlvetia zones at Malahide. It lives in fissures and between 
Hakes in from dry to moist places where there is little silt, occasionally in 
spots that have not been covered i>y the tides for several day.s. The sexes 
a|)peur to occur in about etpial numbers, and females with eggs were collected 
in February and September, the earliest and latest months in whiih ili(> 
species was noticed. 

Qamasus Kempersi Oudms. 

1902 Oudemans 43. p. .'36. 190G Herlese 11, p. U.". lOlG Halbert 25, 
p. 49. 191S Hull 26, p. 8-i. 

A aiKJcies characteristic of the high-water mark level. It is often aliun- 
danl there under stones and seaweed and amongst moist, shelly sand and 
L,'ravel, in places where there are usually few other species of mites. On the 
rocky Malahide shore I did not (ind it l»elow tlie IVlvc-tia zone, though it 
probably doe.s oceur in the lower zones. Also found in the Westport district, 
and very generally on the Dublin coast. The dales of captuie range from 
February to November. 

GamasuB lunaris Oudms. 

1882 Gamnam ruhcsctiui G. et K. Can. " Gamasi Ital.," p. 42. 1892 
G. riihfscena Berlcse 2, Fasc. LXix, n. 9. 1903 G. ndjcscem Oudemans 41, 
p. 78. 1906 0. /MiwrwBerlese 11. p. 147. 191.". Halbert 25, p. r,0. 1918 
Hull 26. p. 83. 

Found under decaying seaweeds washed Iiy the tides into the Orange 
Lichen zone at Malahide, August, 1915. It was fouml under similar condi- 
tions on the seashore at We8ti)ort. Possibly not a regular denizen of the 
intcrtidal area. 

Halbkut — The Acnrina of the Seashore. 119 

Gamasus coleoptratorum L. 
The female of this coinmoii Eiiropcaa species occunod under stones 
resting on sand, gravel, and shells in the Orange Lichen zone at Malaiiide, 
June, 1916. The nymph was also found, commonly under decaying refuse 
lying on the rocks in the same zone, May, 1918, and on Westport shore in 

Gamasus immanis Berl. 

1903 Berlese 7b, p. 262. 1900 Berlese 11. p. 179. 1915 Halbert 25, p. 50. 
1918 Hull 26, p. 85. 1914 King 27, p. 129. 

This fine acarid, the largest of our native Gamasidae, was first recorded 
as a British .species by King, who has publisiied some interesting observations 
on its life-history (27). Subsequently I met witli it on the coasts of Dublin, 
Mayo, and Cork (25) under stones, amongst shingle, and in decaying seaweeds 
at high-water mark. It has also been found at Ardfry under limestone 
boulders resting on damp sandy mud in the Orange Lichen zone, June, 1916. 

Gamasus Trouessarti Berl. 

1S89 Gamasus tludassinv.s Berl. et Trouess. 20. 1889 G. fucoinim var. 
\i 38, p. 156. 1S92 G. Trmicssarti Berlese 3, p. 67. 1915 Halbert 25, p. 51. 
1918 Hull 26, p. 85. 

An abundant and characteristic shore species, occurring in a variety of 
habitats, from the Orange Lichen down to the Serratus zone, as at Malahide 
and Ardfry. On the lower part of the shore it occurs chietiy in crevices and 
rock fissures, and under stones embedded in mud. It is often abundant 
under decaying seaweed at high-water mark, and I have found the adults 
and uyniphs in the .'iand, i;ravel, and shell association, and in estuaries on 
the Dulilin coast. 

Gamasus crassipes L. \ai. longicornis Berl. 

Lender stones and decaying seaweeds at Ardfry, June. A common and 
widely distributed form, possibly not a regular inhabitant of the intertidal 

Gamasoides spinipes (C. L. Kocii)- 

1844 Gamasxis spinipes C. L. Koch 28, Fasc. 39, fig. 18. 1885 
G. brachiosus G. Can. 23, p. 79. 1890 Poecilocheinis spinijics Oudemans 44, 
p. 134. 1892 P. spinipes Berlese 2, Fasc. i,xi.\. n. 4. 1906 Gamasoides 
ynnipes Berlese 11, p. 288. 

These are some of the more important references to this peculiar form, 
which is known only in the nympha cokoptrata stage, and it may yet prove 

120 Proceeditifis of the Rof/al Irish Acadcinfj. 

referable to some known species^ Shore of oyster pond at Ardfry, 
in the Orange Lichen and Pelvetia zones, under stones on muddy soil in a 
spot flooded at higli tides, June, 1916. At Mulranny it was found under 
stones on the shore, and also in old nests of Puffins and Black-backed Gulls 
on The Bill Bocks, off the coast of Mayo, June. 

Hydrogamasus littoralis (G. et R. Can.). PI. XXI, fig. 3.) 

1851 ? Gamtunts snlinits Laboulbenc 30, p. 297. 1851 ? Gamasvs 
marUimus Laboulbene 30, p. 298. 1885 Gamasu* littoralis G. et E. Can. 
23. p. 72. 1889 Gamas\is littoralU Moniez 38. p. 186. 1892 Hydrogamasus 
littoralis Berlese 2. Fasc. LXvni, n. 6. 1902 llydrofiamasus salinus 
Oudemans 41, p. 286. 

In the above-quoteil references it will be seen that Oudemans has revived 
•' salinus " as the correct sjiecific name for the present species, arguing that the 
raite figured by Laboulbene as " Gamasu* talinus" is the nymphal stage of 
//. littfimlii (G. et R Can.), ind he also refer? to the similarity l>etween the 
original figure of " Gamasus Mlinus" and Iterlese's figure (2) of the nymph of 
the present species. Doubtless Laboulbene was dealing with a nymphal form 
of Hydrogamasus. but there are at least three littoral species in this genus, and 
there is some uncertainly concerning the exact species dealt with by the 
French author. In a case of this kind it seems best to adhere to the first 
undoiibtc<l description of the species, which is that of the Italian authors, 
G. and K. Canestrini. 

During our work at Malahide I was fortunate in finding what are 
apparently the protonyniphal and deutonymphal forms of If. littoraiis ; they 
<K«un<d on three occasions in the Vesiculosus and Sernilus zones in company 
with the adult form. In the protonymph (fig. 3) the primitive arrangement 
of the dermal platt-s is well shown. It will be remembered that the adult 
llydrogamasus has the entire dorsum protected by a strongly chitinized 
shield. In the prot<<nymph there are two large dorsal shields, and between 
these there are no less than four pairs of very small plates ; there are also 
three pairs of small plates on each side of the first shield. The second dorsal 
shield is placed at the extremity of the body, and it is continuous with the 
.small anal plate on the ventral surface. The sternum is of the usual V-shape. 
The length is 640^, breadth 370^. 

ITie dcutonymph (length 768/i, breadth 460^) occurred with the adults 
in October. In this form there are the usual two dorsal shields ; the first of 
these is the larjer, r it of the ppitonymph, except that the sides, 

frtjm the humeral t-. ... ,....: comers, are {larallel ; the former are well 

Halbkkt — 77/6 A carina of the Seashore. 121 

marked, and cany a long bristle. Second .sliield nearly as bn^ad as Llie first, 
strongly narrowed lo the end margin, wliieli is straight, with a pair of long 
bristles, and on the inner side of these a pair of very short hairs. The hair 
armature of the dorsal surface is much as in the protonyniph. Anal plate 
small, placed at end of body, and carrying two pairs of long hairs, and a 
terminal spine. This is tiie nympha coleoptrafa form. 

Habitat. — A species of the lower intertidal area, occurring between 
limestone flakes and in crevices in the Vesiculosus and Serratus zones at 
Malahide. At Ardfry it was also found in these zones under boulders partly 
embedded in sandy mud and in moist places. Adults and nymphal forms 
were observed both in the summer and autumn months. 

Hydrogamasus Giardi (Berl. et Trouess.). (Pi. XXI, fig. 4.) 

1889 Seius Giardi Berlese et Trouessart 20. 1889 Gammus Giardi 
Moniez 38, p. 193. 1892 Hiidrogamasus Giardi Berlese 3, p. 72. 1915 
Halbert 25, p. 65. 

This species is found ou a wider range of the shore than the preceding, 
occurring freely from the Pelvetia down to the Serratus zones on the rocky 
shore at Malahide, usually in crevices and between tiakes in from moist to 
wet places. At Ardfry it occurred in the corresponding zones under 
boulders resting on sandy mud. The sexes are almost equally abundant, 
and the dates of capture range from April to October. 

Frequently found in company with H. littoralis ou the lower part of the 
shore. The two species are structurally very much alike, but they may be 
separated by the following characters : — 

HydrofjaviasHS littoralis, larger ; length of female, about 940/u ; breadth, 
560/^ ; length of male, 922ju ; colour paler ; form more oval ; hairs of dorsum 
relatively longer. Fissure separating dorsum from anal shield reaching the 
end margin of body. 

Hyd^rofjamasus Giardi, smaller; length of female, 640^; breadth, ."12/u • 
length of male, 563/i ; colour much darker ; body hairs shorter. Fissure not 
reaching end margin of body. 

The supposed difference in the fusion or otherwise of the anal and dorsal 
plates in these two species does not occur (3). As a matter of fact, these 
plates are fused at their end margins in both species. A figure of the male 
chelicerae of H. Giardi is given (PI. 1, tig. 4) ; those of //. littoralia are very 

Two other species of Hydrogamasus ha\e been described, i.e., II. Silvcstrii 
Berlese (6), from the Italian coast (Portici), and II. antarcticv.-t, Trag., from 
Paulet Island. 


122 Proceedings of the lioyal Irish Academy. 

Pachylaelaps littoralis Halbt. (PI. XXI, fig. 5 a, tl.) 

1915 Halbert 25, p. 64. 

This species was described from the male found under embedded stones 
well below high-water mark in Eellacragher Bay, on the Mayo Coast, in 
September, 191o. As only a single specimen occurred, there was doubt as to 
whether the species is a true denizen of the intertidal zone. While at Ardfry 
in June, 1910, females of a Pachylaelaps, which are evidently to be referred 
to the present species, were met with in the Pelvetia and Spiralis zones. 

Female (fig. 5 a) : Length, 84:4/[i ; breadth, 460/u. Shape and hair armature 
as in the male (fig. 5 e), which it also resembles in the structure of the palps, 
legs, pcritreme, and other organs. Colour, pale yellow. Sterinim of the 
usual shape, end corners reaciiing to the fourth acetabula; liinder margin 
concave ; the space between this and the genital plate is weakly chitinized. 
The genital plate is lai^e, pointed in front, and evenly nuindcd behind, 
though occiisionally somewhat truncate. Anal plate broader than long 
(breadth, 140/i; length, 120/j) ; extremity strigose. Peritreme enclosed in a 
plate forming a narrow margin on its outer side; end of plate acuminate, 
reaching well beyond the middle of ventral plate. All these plates are 
reticulate and punctureil. 

Maxillary plate narrow, wiih two pairs of long hairs on front margin and 
two shorter proximal pairs; maxillary lobes straight and very long, reaching 
end of liypostome. Epistome with about eight spines, some branched. Each 
chela armed with one strong tootli. Legs, second pair stout (length about 
410^), segment two, with a small conical tooth. Tiie armature of the tarsus 
is figured (tig. 5 b). 

'riie male of this species has a broad dagger-like process on the free 
clielicerae, and the femur of the second legs carries a stout conical spur 
(fig. 5 d.'. 

Habitat. — Found on the shore of Mweeloon Bay, Ardfry, under stones 
on gravel and sandy mud in the Pelvetia and Vesiculosus zones, June, 1916. 

Tietzc records the occurrence of a single .=ipecinien of Pnrhi/lrielaps 
jKclmifi-r, which he found umlcr stones on the seashore at Venice (46). 

Macrocheles marginatus, var. littoralis ("Halbt.). 

1015 Iloloslasjm iiianjiiuiliis, var. liltomiis, Halbert 25, p. 67. 

The variety was described from females and an immature male found on 
the seashore at Westport. It has also occurred at Malahide under stones 
and refuse in the Orange Lichen zone, and at Ardfry under stone.s resting on 
mud in the same zone. It seems a rather common form at the high-water 

IIai.hicri' — The Acar/nu of //lo Seashore. 123 

Laelaps dentatus sp. uov. (I'l. XXI, lit;-. G a, o.) 

A .species reiiiiukalile for its very elongate shape, the dentate anterior 
corners of the sternum, and the armature of the last pair of legs in the male. 
The female resemliles that of L. oh/o7if/)t,s Halbt. (25), but is narrower and 
more elongate, and the peritreme is not joined with the pedal plates. The 
ventral plates also are diffei-ently formed. Female (fig. 6 a) : Size rather 
variable, averaging about 680/x in length, and 560^ in breadth. Shape, elongate 
oval, with slightly marked shoulders, and the colour is yellowish, with darker 
lyrate organs. Dorsal shield large, very minutely punctured, and with 
indistinct scale-like markings ; side margin even. There are four double rows 
of hairs ; frontal bristles small. Sternum large, its rounded end margin 
reaching the third acetabula; front margin sinuate towards the corners. 
Jugular plates well developed, placed on a thinner and larger chitinous base. 
Tritosternum small and narrow, springing from a slightly crescentic basal 
piece, at each side of which is a chitinous piece. Genito-ventral shield very 
long and broad, gradually widening to beyond middle, and then narrowing 
to end margin, which is straight ; four pairs of hairs. Metasternal plates very 
minute. Anal plate triangular, broader than long, front margin as broad as 
and lying close to margin of preceding shield. The metapodial plate encloses 
last pair of acetabula, beyond which it projects on a pointed lobe. Inguinal 
plates linear. Peritreme curved inwards towards the extremity, and it lies 
free of the metapodial shield. 

Maxillary plate quadrate, four pairs of hairs ; lobes straight. Epistome 
convex, armed with small sharp teeth. Fixed chela with four teeth, two of 
which are terminal. Legs long and robust ; the lengths are about GlG/u, 418//, 
384/i, and 550^. 

3Iale (fig. 6 b) considerably smaller than female, varying from 480/u to 
550/t in length, and in breadth from 240/i to 280^. Ventral shield of usual 
shape, almost reacliing end of body, reticulate, with a double row of nine 
median hairs. The anterior side margins of the sternal part are distinctly 
dentate (fig. 6c). Each chela is armed with a strong triangular tooth ; the 
fixed one is strongly arched. The male appendage (fig. 6 d) projects by 
about half its length beyond the apex of the segment, slightly sinuate, and 
bent upwards at the extremity. Palps of usual type. Legs, lengths about 
.52S;u, 440//, 33l)/(, and .")28/t; second pair a little stouter than the others, outer 
margin of third segment (fig. (i e) with a rounded prominence at base, ventral 
side with four hairs, Third segment (femur) of last pair of legs armed with 

[/.' 2] 

124 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

a large chitinous tooth placed near middle of ventral siirface. In one 
abnormal specimen there are two such teeth on the left femur. 

Habitat. — An abundant and characteristic intertidal species, usually 
occurring in crevices and between flakes where the coast is rocky, and also 
under stones on estuarine shores. At Malahide it is found in from almost 
dry to moist crevices in the Orange Lichen, I'elvetia, and Spiralis zones. 
Has also been found at Ardfry, where it extends down to tlie Vesiculosus 
zone at least. The males are less common than the females. Tlic dates of 
capture range from February to October, and it probably occurs in all months 
of the year, 

Lasioseius IJerlese. 

In my report on the Acarina of the Clare Island Survey (25) it was 
pointed out that the Seius group of the family Laeiajjlidac was badly in need 
of revision. Tlie sjwcies there recorded were referred to the genera Seiulus 
(Berlese) and Paraseius (Tragardh). Dr. Berlese has since published a 
useful pajHjr (16 in which new genera and sub-genera are established, eitlier 
with brief diagnoses or by tlie naming of types. 

Berlese indicates Snu.i muricatits (C, L. Koch) as the type of the genus 
Lasioseius, 90 it is necessarily also tlie type of the sub-genus lasioseius (s. str.). 
In this specie's the tarsi and ambulacra are of the form usual in tiie Seius 
group of genera. It .seems unsatisfactory, however, to include in the same 
genus such species as Z. Ualiciu, L. sen-alus, and L. grandis, in which tlie 
tarei are much attenuated, and the ambulacra are modified into a bristle-like 
form. Sucli species ."^liould. in my opinion, be included in a separate genus, 
and as the name Episeius has lieen suggested for tliis purpose by Hull (26), 
with E. serralm (Halbt.) as the type, this name must be used. In a previous 
paper I endeavoured to establish Paraseius Tnig. for the species with modified 
ambulacra, but unfortunately Triigardh indicated Gamnsvs imdlis Kramer 
(49; as the type of his genus. Dr. Berlese is now convinced that Paraseius 
is the same as Epicrius Can. et Fanzago, for the reason that Kramer's species 
is nothing more than a uymphal fonn of Epicrim //cotndricus, 13crl. (17). 

Episeius ^randis (Berlese). 

1916 Lntioseius ffraiuli.'^ Berle-so 16, p .'U. 

Habitat.— Salt marsh on Malahide Island, a few specimens found under 
shells and stones, May. Tlie females are abundant in Malahide estuary-, 
under stones in a partly dry channel of the Broadmeadow Water. It 

Halber'I' — The Aearina of the Seashore. 125 

also occurs on the open seashore at Malahide amongst wet moss growing on 
calcareous tuffa where a streamlet flows on to the shore, June. 

Described by Bei'lese from Italian specimens found in moss and amongst 
dead leaves (16). It is rather a large species (about 670// x 450/t), belonging 
to the group with modified tarsi and ambulacra. The dorsal shield has 
strongly squamose markings, especially towards the sides, and the hair 
armature is strong. The plates of the ventral surface greatly resemble 
those of E. italicus Berlese (figured in 25), except that the ventro-anal 
plate is much smaller, and is of a roughly cordate shape length, 220/< ; 
breadth, lIQjx). Not previously recorded from the Britannic area. 

Lasioseius salinus sp. nov. (PI. XXI, fig. 7 a, b ) 

A small species belonging to Leioseius, a sub-genus, briefly diagnosed by 
Berlese as follows : — " Ex genus Lasioseius. Pedes breves et robusti. Truncus 
elongatus, lateralibus subparallelis. Typus : Z. Z. minuscnlus, Berl." 
(16, p. 45). 

Female (fig. 7 a): Length about iiO/t; breadth, 260ju. Colour pale brown. 
Shape as is usual in Lasioseius. Dorsal plate sub-parallel, reaching end 
margin of body ; sides weakly serrate ; surface finely punctured and reticulate. 
Hairs weak ; two pairs on the end margin stronger than the others. Sternum 
rather short ; genital plate long and narrow, much as in E. scrratu-s, Halbt. 
Ventro-anal plate large, broader than long, flattened on the front margin, 
rounded posteriorly, minutely punctured, and there are about six pairs of 
small hairs. Peritreme close to the legs, it is joined with the inner margin 
of a well-developed plate, post-stigmatic extremity curved inwards and 
partly enclosing the last pair of legs. Maxillary plate quadrate, hair 
armature normal. Chelicerae : the free chela is armed with two strong 
teeth ; fixed chela with about four very weakly developed teeth, Legs short 
and stout, tarsus of last pair figured (fig. 7 b). 

This species appears to differ from the two described European species, 
Z. mimis<nilus and Z. veinistuhi^, in the less elongate shape, the shorter sternal 
plate, the broader ventro-anal shield, and also in the relatively shorter firet 
pair of legs. 

Habitat. — Found under dead shells in a salt marsh on Malahide Island, 
May, 1915. 

Lasioseius fucicola sp. nov. (PI. XXI, fig. 8 a, d.) 

A veiy distinct species, which is chielly remarkable for the long pcnicillate 
hairs on the margin of the body. The following is Dr. Berlese's diagnosis of 
the sub-genus Zereoseius, to which it belongs : " Zercoscius n. sub-genus. 

126 Proceedings of the Ro//al Irish Academtj. 

Ex genus Lasiaseius. Pili trunci plus miuusue penicillate, vel dilatati. 
Typus Z. Z. sj>aihuligcr Leon " (16, p. 43). 

3Iak (fig. 8a): Length, of a Swanage specimen, about 768/u, breadth 
537^ ; of a ilalahide specimen 614/i. breadth -ilGfi ; the latter is probably 
not mature. Colour pale brown. Shape ovate, slightly flattened on end 
margin ; sides indistinctly serrated. Dorsal surface minutely punctured, and 
with reticulate markings, becoming scale-like towards the end of the body 
On each side of the doi-sum there is a row of seven strong marginal spines ; 
these (fig. 8b) are straight and smooth, except at the extremities, which are 
somewhat flattened and penicillate. There are two pairs of stout frontal 
spines ; two rows of minute hairs in the middle line of the body, and a few 
on the side margins. The ventral shield (fig. 8c) is V-shaped, with strongly 
pointed side processes, and bow-shaped front inai^n, and there are four 
pairs of minute liairs. Peritreme long and sinuate ; apex reaching fourth 
acetabula ; no shield. Anal plate small, semicircular in front, and suddenly 
narrowed to an obtusely pointeti extremity, where there is a strong terminal 

Epistonie armed with comparatively long spines, branched at the 
extremities; maxillar)- plate large and transverse ; lobes small ; tliere are three 
pairs of rather long hair on the front margin (fig. 8d). Palps of moderate 
size, with two strong conical teeth on underside of first segment; second 
segment with five short spines, three of which are on the dorsal surface. 

Legs, with the exception of llie first pair, long and robnsl ; tlieir upper 
sides carry penicillate hairs like those of the dorsum ; llie ventral hairs are 
long and pointed. Ambulacra stout, with two teiminal liairs of moderate 
length. Free chelicerae. amietl with a short process, whicli readies a little 
beyond the end of the segment, seen in their natural position from alwve, 
the pnx^esses are straight, directed outwards, and ate bhuitly pointed. (The 
chelicerae of the unique Irish specimen have not been dissected.) Female 

Habitat. — Some years ago Mr. A. I), ilichael kindly sent me a few 
littoral mites which he found on the south-west coast of England. One of 
these, from the shore at Sw&nage. is referable to the present species. In 
July, 191o, I fouod. a male, apparently not quite mature, under seaweeds 
washed into the Orange Lichen zone at Malahidc. The weeds were in a moist 
decaying condition, and were lasting on the bare limestone rocks. 

ThinoseiTU gen. nov. 

(Fetttalr). A form Wonging to the family Laelaptidae ; general structure 
resembling tliat of the genus Lasioseius, but in the adult the body is enclosed 

IlALiiKiM' — The Acarina of the Seashore. 127 

ill a continuous test, with the exception of the sternal and pedal lej^ions. 
Sternum absent (though present in tlie nyviphu cokojArata st-d<^c) . Endopodial 
and metapodial plates well developed. Ambulacra on all ijaiis of legs. 
lype Tliinoseius Berledi sp. no v. 

Thinoseius Beiiesii sp. nov. (I'l. XXII, lig. 9 a, e.) 

Female (fig. 9 a, b) : Length aljout 760/( ; Ineadtb, 540//, in the Malahide 
specimens (a Swanage specimen measures 845/^ x 590//). Colour during 
life, light brown, with a conspicuous darker spot on each side- of the dorsum. 
Shape, broail and pyriform, end margin sometimes flattened. Epidermis very 
minutely shagreened, also marked towards margins with waved lines, and 
there are traces of a polygonal network on the dorsal surface. Hairs short 
and sparse. Sternum and jugular plates absent, the sternal region being 
very weakly chitinized ; four pairs of hairs present. Tritosternum normal. 
Endopodial plates well developed, usually with sharp processes, as in the 
genus -Halolaelaps ; metapodial plate, a thin chitinous band, bounding the 
basal segment of the fourth leg. Peritreuie sinuate, enclosed with and 
bordering tl:e ventral plate. Genital plate of the usual trapezoidal form, 
slightly longer than broad ; anal plate fused in the chitinized cuticle of the 
ventral region. The front margin of the last is sinuate, and placed near it is 
a pair of small ring-like structures embedded in the cuticle. 

Capitulum, with a short and broad maxillary plate, rounded behind, with 
t^ree pairs of moderately long hairs ; ma.xillary lobes normal. Epistomal 
margin semicircular, armed with five or six long and stout spines, which 
are branched at their extremities. Chelicerae (fig. 9 c) very small. Palps 
robust (length, about 180/t); second segment with three short dorsal spines ; 
inner and outer margins with one fine hair. Legs of moderate length, 
robust; hair armature weak ; tarsi not attenuated, all pairs witli ambulacra. 
The last (fig. 9 d) carry a pair of bristle-like lateral lobes resembling tliose of 
the genus Episeius. Male unknown. 

Nymplm cokoptratu (fig. 9c). — Length, about 500/< ; breadth, oOO/i. 
Shape, less strongly pyriform than in the adult ; side and end margins 
flattened ; hair armature relatively stronger. Epidermis minutely punctured 
and reticulate. Sternal shield of the usual V-shape ; front margin strongly 
convex. Anal plate small and heart-shaped. Peritreme long and curved 
inwards; inner margin serrated near the extremity. A pair of small lunate 
inguinal plates are present. 

The most interesting characteristic of this new genus is the abs<'nee of a 
sternal shield, a very rare feature in the Gamasoidoa. Lorlese has described 

138 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(13) and figured (15), an Italian form Asternoseius, in whicli there is no 
sternum ; the only resemblance between this and Thinoseius is the general 
hardening of the body cuticle. There is little doubt that the loss of the 
sternum in the adult is here a case of retrogression, as it is present and is of 
the usual foiin in at least one nymph stage. 

H/VBITAT. — Found in company with the preceding species under decaying 
seaweeds washed into the Orange Lichen zone. July, 1915. On anotlier 
occasion it was found with numbers of the nymplui colcoptrata form among 
damp sand and shells under a dry top layer in the same zone. Mr. A. D. 
Michael has taken it on the seashore at Swauage (Dorset). 

THnozercon Michaeli Halbt. (PI. XXII, fig. 10.) 

1915 Halbert 25, p. 82. 

The male, female, and nymph of this interesting species were first found 
under stones on an estuarine part of the seashore flooded by the tides at 
Westport, in July, 1911. Snlwequently both sexes occurred under stones a 
little below high-water mark on the south shore of Howth, April, 1913. 
More recently Mr. Southern collect<»d it in the Orange Lichen zone at Lough 
Hyne, on the Cork coast, November, 1916. I did not succeed in finding it 
either at Ardfry or Malahide. 

Berlese was under the impression that this genus is synonymous svith 
Iphidinychus, a South American form (15), and is so recorded by him (16). 
He has recently seen specimens of Thiiiozercoii, and agrees with me that 
they represent a very distinct genus (18). A figure showing the arrange- 
ment of the ventral plates of the female is given in the present paper (fig. 10) ; 
the presence of two paired sternal shields is of interest. There is consider- 
able justification for making this remarkable form the type of a separate 
family (see 25 ; for the present it is included in the Zerconidae. 


The identification of the four species of this family living liabitually 
between tide-marks, and in salt marshes on the Irish coast, has given some 
trouble, partly due to the fact that the " Uropoda orchestiidarum " of authors 
included two species belonging to different genera. I believe the correct 
names of the shore species liave now been placed lieyond doubt ; and a table 
containing the more essential characters by wliicli they can be separated may 
help to prevent furtlier confusion. 

Halrert — The Acarmaofthe Seashore. 129 

A, — Marginal plates absent from the dorsum. First pair of legs without 
ambulacra and claws. Male genital foramen opposite fourth pair of legs. 
Size, about 690/u x 460,< (PI. XXII, ^l,^. 11). 

1. Phaiilocyliiha iUtoralis (Trouess.). 

B. — Marginal plates present. First pair of legs with ambulacra and 
claws. Male foramen opposite third pair of legs. 

Ends of marginal plates not joined ; their extremities removed some 
distance from the posterior margin of the dorsal shield. Form broadly ovate, 
with a few short marginal hairs. Metapodial line distinct. Size variable; 
averaging about 950/i x 720/i (PI. XXII, fig. 12). 

2. Phaulodinychus repletus Berlese. 

Marginal plates more uniformly broad, and united by a narrow 

chitinous band behind the dorsal shield. Body margins with numerous 

strongly curved hairs. Metapodial line obsolete. Size about 690/( x 460/( 

(PI. XXII, fig. 13). 

y. Phaulodinychus orchestiidarum (Barrois). 

Ends of marginal plates not joined, reaching, or almost reaching, the 
posterior margin of the dorsal shield. All plates strongly and regularly 
punctured. A row of T-shaped hairs on side margins of body. Size smaller, 
about 614^ X 440;u (PI. XXII, fig. 14). 

4. Trachyuropoda minor (Halbt.). 

Phaulocylliba littoralis (Trouess). (PI. XXIF, fig. 11.) 

1889 Urojioda orchestiidarum (partim) Berl. et Trouess. 20, p. 125. 1902 
Discopoma littoralc Trouessart 52, p. 41. 1915 PhaulocijlUha. Bcrlesii 
Halbert 25, p. 86. 1917 Berlese 19, p. 11. 1918 Berlese "Eedia" 
xiii, p. 190. 

Both sexes were found between damp limestone flakes in the Pelvetia 
and Spiralis zones on the rocky shore at Malahide, May and June. At 
Ardfry the male and nymphs occurred under boulders resting on gravel and 
shells in the Vesiculosus and Serratus zones, June. In these localities it 
seems the rarest of the four intertidal species of Uropodidae. The first 
recorded British specimens were found under stones in llowth Harbour in 
November, 1913. The ventral surface of the male is figured (fig. 11). 

Phaulodinychus repletus Berl. (PI. XXII, fig. 12 a, b.) 
1903 Berlese 7b, p. 269. 1915 Habiropoda iiiienttpta Halbert 25, p. 88 

1916 Berlese 17, p. 136. 1917 Berlese 19, p. 11. 1918 Hull 26, p. 50. 

An abundant species in estuaries and salt marshes, and also on the ojien 

seashore under stones and decaying seaweeds, usually in ihe Orange Lichen 

130 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

zone. Malahide estuary, Howth, DoUymount, Bray, &c., on the Dublin Coast. 
On the west coast of Ireland it is equally common at Ardfry, Westport, and 
Muhanny districts. The adult and nympha honieomo^-pha stages are figured 
(fig. 12 a, b). 

Phaulodinychus orchestiidarum (Barrois). (PI. XXII, fig. l:'> a, d.) 

1887 Uropoda orchestiidarum Barrois (nympli) 1. 1S89 Berlese et 
Trouessart 20. 1902 Trouessart 52, p. 38. 1910 Berlese 17, p. 13G. 1918 
Berlese " Redia " xiii, p. 190. 

Usually a comniou species where it occurs, ranging from the Pelvetia down 
to the Serratus zone. At Malahide it lives cliietly between moist limestone 
flakes where there is some sandy mud. At Ardfry tlie habitat is under 
stones partly embedded in damp mud. 

The species was de.scribed liy Barrois from the nymplial form which he 
found attached to the common shore Amphipods, Orchestos, and Talitni.s (1). 
The female does not seem to have lieen described ; it may Ijc recognized by the 
characters indicated in the preceding table and the accompanying figures 
(PI. XXII. 6g. 13 a, d). 

Trachyuropoda minor (Hal ht.). (PI. X.KII. lig. 14.) 

19 1") ITnhn-opoilft minor Hall>erl 25, p. 90. 

A fairly common species often found in company with rhnnhdinychiis 
rrjJctus on estuarine shores. At Malahiile it was ob.served in the Orange 
Lichen and Pelvetia zones between rather dry • limestone flakes and on 
calcareous tiiHa, where a small stream flows on to the seashore ; also a single 
specimen, in the ni/mpha homeomorplut stage, fixed on the under sjije of 
Orrhestia (jammnrns. It occure in the same zones at Ardfry under stones 
resting on mud. Many specimens were once taken from amongst the.^deljris 
of old nests of Puthns and Gulls on The Bill rocks oil the Mayo w»ast. 
Berlese refers (in litt.) this species to his sub-genus Dinycliura, wliifh is 
recorded in a short note in (15, p. 85). 

Dinychns sp. 

The only example of this genus found dnringonr shore work is immature, 
an<l I have not sncreoded in determining the species; It occurred under 
damp Hakes in the uppermost Orange Lichen zone, immediately under the 
" grassy sward," and is possibly not a regular denizen of the intertidal shore. 

Halbiokt — Th£ Acarina of the Seashore. 131 

Sub-Older OltlBATOIDEA. 


Oribata setosa G. L. Koch. 

Malahide, under more or less dry Hakes in the Orange Lichen zone ; also 

under refuse lying on the rocks in the same zone, April and May. A widely 

distributed species. 

Oribata quadricornuta Michael. 

Found by Mr. Southern in the Orange Lichen zone at Lough Hyne, 
Co. Cork, November, 1916. At Mulranny it was also found under stones on 
the seashore in September. 

Oribata quadrivertex sp. nov. (PI. XXII, fig. 15 a, b.) 
A small, compactly formed species, standing nearest to the " pyriformis" 
group. It is remarkable on account of the short, strongly clubbed pseudostig- 
matic organs, the square vertex, and the peculiar form of the lamellae, which 
in tire long, slender cusps bear some resemblance to those of Oribata gracilis. 
Occurs in salt marshes. 

Length, about 450/x ; breadth, 2S0/i, and slightly larger. Colour, 
yellowish brown; texture smooth and shining. Cephalothorax (fig. 15a) 
rather short, about one quarter as long as the abdomen, and much narrower. 
Rostrum bluntly pointed ; dorso-vertex quadrate, half hidden by the central 
extension of the dorsum. The lamellae are narrow, uniform bands con- 
nected by an equally broad translamella ; cusps rather long and slender, and 
just broad enough at their extremities to carry the lamellar hairs ; these are 
stout and curved strongly downwards over the rostrum. Interlamellar hairs 
long, very stout, and minutely serrated ; they spring from a transverse bar 
wbich bounds the posterior margin of tlie dorso-vertex. Pseudostigmatic 
organs (fig. 15 b) close to the middle line of the body, short and strongly 
clavate, slightly incurved, and their stems are mostly hidden under the 
margin of the dorsum. The stigmata are cup-shaped, shallow, and their 
margins are but little raised. First tectopedium a long curved blade. 

Abdomen oblong, shaped much as in 0. gracilis, though less strongly 
narrowed in front, evenly rounded at end margin ; pteromorphae weakly 
developed. Front margin produced at centre in a small rounded prominence, 
dorsum with about eight pairs of minute hairs, two pairs on enil maigin 
upturned and stronger than the others ; there is a circular pore near the sides 
of the dorsum. Genital and anal plates large, of almost equal size, each 
enclosed by broad chitinous margins. Epimera without the distinct inner 

] 32 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

borders present in 0. gracilis and other species. Legs normal, last pair 
rather short, scarcely reaching the end of the dorsum ; the lengths are about 
495)u, 308^, iGifi, '2SG^ ; central claw nuicli stronger than the others. 

Habitat. — Not unconunon under dead shells in a salt marsh on Malahide 
Island, May, 1915. Ic also occurs under stones lying on mud at the mouth 
of a small stream flowing into the Malahide estuary, June, 1915. On the 
west coast it was found under stones on a grassy sward just above the Pelvetia 
zone at Ardfry in a place covered at high tides, June, 1916. 

Dr. Berlese refers this species to his sub-genus Punctoribates, wliich was 
apparently established without diagnosis, and with 0. punctum C. L. Koch as 
the type-species. Koch's figure shows a snu\ll globular species, with rather 
long, clubbed, pseudostigniatic organs. It is also recorded in the works of 
Canestrini and Fanzago. The former says (23, p. 19) : " Setole stimmatiche 
niediocri claviformes." Yet it is figured by Berlese (2, fasc. xxx, No. 2) as a 
species with short lamellae, united by a broad translaniella and long leaf- 
shaped pseudostigmatic organs. In a later reference (5, j). 66) he records 
0. avenifera Michael as synonymous with 0. punctum, so there would seem to 
be a difference of opinion as to the characteristics of the last-named species. 

Oribata avenifera Michael. 

Found under limestone flakes in the upper Pelvetia zone at Malahide, 
June. Also under stones a little above high-water mark in the Orange 
Lichen zone, April. 

As Michael 36) has pointed out, the cuticle of this species is very 
minutely punctured, but it is not correct to describe the notogaster as 
hairless ; as a matter of fact there are four pairs of short hairs, as well as an 
equal numlier of paired pores on the dorsal surface. Not previously rocoidcd 
from Ireland. 

Oribata Lncatii Nicolet. 

Found crawling on a giecn alga-like weed in the Broadmoadow Water 
estuary at Malahide, June, 191.">. The .species had been previously found 
under fir bark on Achill Island, and on Lambay (25). A generally dis- 
tributed British species. 

Oribata panneliae Michael. 

Common under lichens growing on large boulders on the seashore at 
Howth, in a place at least occasionally splashed by the tides. Apparently a 
coast species, Mr. Michael records it as feeding upon lichens ( Ptirmelia) 
growing on granite rock at Liind's End, Cornwall (36;. 

Hai.bkkt — The Acarina of the Seashore. 133 

Oribatula similis Micliaol. 

Found in the Pelvetia zone and upwards at Avdi'ry, under stones resting 
on a peaty soil, dryish wlien llie tide recedes, but Hooded at high tides. Also 
under stones on a grassy sward, just above the I'elvetia zone, June ; occurs on 
the seashore at Baldoyle in a similar habitat. A generally distributed 
British species. 

Oribatula venusta Berl. 

1908 Berlese 12, p. 8. 1910 Berlese 10, p. 229. 1910 Halbert 25, p. 102. 

This is evidently a coast species in Ireland, though Berlese does not state 
the habitat of the original Norwegian specimens. It was first recorded as a 
British species from the Mayo coast (25), where it is quite common under 
stones a little above high-water mark, and also on the adjoining sandhill, in 
September. At Ardfry it occurs under stones resting on sand and decayed 
seaweed in the Orange Lichen zone, June, 1916. At Malahide under hard 
limestone flakes in the lower part of the Orange Lichen zone in company with 
Ochthebius Lcjolcsii, and other littoral species. I have also found it on 
Lambay Island in October, and amongst lichens and moss on the Portmarnock 
sandhills in January. 

Oribatula saxicola sp. nov. (PI. XXII, fig. 16 a, b.) 

A small sluggish species belonging to the " tibialis " section of the genus 
Oribatula. Lives in rock fissures. Length, 490;u ; breadth, 286;u. Colour light 
brown. Body strongly flattened, surface apparently smooth and shining, 
but in reality excessively minutely punctured. Cephalothorax (fig. 16a) 
comparatively large, rostrum bluntly pointed, lamellae narrow blades on edge 
and tapering to a point, placed partly on the marginal slope of the cephalo- 
thorax ; lamellar hair long and minutely setose, it springs from a pore lying 
immediately in front of the extremity of the lamellae. Translamella absent, 
or a mere line. The pseudostigniata are hidden under the dorsum, though 
occasionally the corners project a little. Pseudostigmatic organs (fig. 16 h) 
with slender stalks and strongly chibbed extremities. 

Abdomen with the shoulders evenly expanded ; breadth about Iwu-thirds 
of the length. On the dorsum there are three or four pairs of pores and 
short hairs, and at least thi-ee pairs of upturned marginal hairs are noticoablo 
on the posterior third of the body. Legs robust and a litile longer than in 
0. tibialis ; claws unequal. 

The following notes may be of use in separating the present from the 
allied species: — From 0. slmUis (Michixn]) easily recognized by the tridactyle 
claws. From tibialis (Nicolet), to whicli it is nearly allied, by tlie shorter 

134 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 

and more strongly clubbed pseudostigmatic organs and the more expanded 
shoulders. From 0. cx-ilis (Nicolet) and 0. rennsta Berl., liy the strongly 
narrowed lamellae and the more elongate form of the body. 

Habitat. — Occurs in numbers under dry or slightly damp llakes in the 
Orange Lichen zone on the rocky shore at Malahide, often in company witli 
Bhyncholoph^is araiuoides l>erlese. I have also found it under lichens growing 
on boulders on the seasliore at Howth with such species as Orihata panncliac 
and Nothrns invcmistus. 

Scutovertex bilineatus Micliacl. (PI. XXII, fig. 18.) 

Under moist limestone llakes in the Orange Lichen /.one at Malahide, in 
places where there were also black encrusting lichens, February. Tiie adults 
and nymphs were clustered, round llie edges of the flakes. Ai Ardfry it 
occurs under stones resting on mud in tiie J'elvelia zmie and upwards to tlje 
sward above tho Orange Lichen zone, June. Common at Westport under 
stones on the seashore at a little above high-water mark, July. 

Scutovertex Spoofl Ouiims. \^\'\. XXII, lig. 17 a, b.) 
1900 Oudemans,39, \>. 112. 1901 S. Liliiuaiics Oudeinans 40, ]). 70. 

Described by Oudemans froni specimens fouml in l'"iid;ind by Dr. A. R. 
Spoof " in spawn of Lymnaea in sub-saline water " (39). In a later paper he 
recoi-ds it as synonymous with S. hUineatus Michael (40). At Malahide I 
liave found both S. bUineatus and S. S/ioofi, which I consider is a distinct 
si)ecie8. A])art from otlier dilFerenccs, tliey nniy be readily se]mraled by the 
structvire of llie claws. Michael has accurately described these in the (ase of 
6'. W/iWff/iM (fig. \i<): "The claws are monodu<-.tyle, but there is a niinuU' 
projection at each side of the claw, and two long fine hairs sharply hooked at 
their distal «-nds," v^c. (36). On the other hnnd, the claws, tlioiigli of unequal 
thicknesses, are undoubtedly tiiree in number in 6'. .S/'oo/i, and are just as we 
find them in S. scnlptns and other triilactyle species. It would appear 
likely that the lateral claws are rudimentary in S. hilivcatus, and are repre- 
sented by the minute projections on each side of the n)iddle claw, as described 
by Michael. These can be seen distinctly under a high magnitication ; and 
it may be note<l that the hooked hairs are also present in S. Spoo/i. The 
latter species also differs from S. hilinc/iinx in the following characters : — Tho 
cephalothomx (fig. 17a) is larger, and the central finrow is more defined ; the 
abdomen is more strongly narrowed in front, so that it is less regularly 
oval than in bilinaUus; it is also leas coarsely punctured and the longitudinal 

Halbeut — Tlie Acarina of the Seashore. l-Sri 

ridges arc niucli less distinct. l'.ey;)ii(l the iiiiddlr tliere are two large pores 
which are very conspicuous. 

Habitat. — Occurs between moist limestone Hakes on the rocky shore at 
Malahide in tlie Orange Lichen and Pelvctia zones, and somewhat doubtfully 
in the Spiralis zone. In these habitats tliey were in small colonies round the 
outer edges of (he flakes, sometimes in company with the Tyroglyphid mite 
Hyadesia fusca; also under stones resting on sandy mud at the mouth of a 
small stream flowing into Malahide estuary. At Mulranny it occurred under 
stones on the seashore. The dates of capture range from May to September. 
Not previously recorded from the Britannic area. 

Scutovertex corrugatus Michael. 

Adults and nymphs common under stones on the Island saltniarsh in 
Malahide estuary, May. At Mulranny it is very abundant under stones at 
the mouth of a small stream flowing into Bellacragher Bay, September (25). 

Scutovertex maculatus Michael. 

Under tufts of a lichen (Lichina pygmaea) growing on exposed rock surfaces 
at Malahide, in places washed by high tides ; with it were niimbers of a small 
green Amphipod {Hyale Prevostii M. E.). Has also occurred on Lambay 
Island (25). 

Scutovertex perforatus Berl. (PI. XXII, fig. 19.) 

1910 Berlese 13, p. 265. 191:} Berlese 15, p. 98. 

A few specimens were found under stones on a grassy sward amongst 
Sea Purslane (Atriplex portulacoides) and othejf estuarine plants within reach 
of high tides at Baldoyle, on the Dublin coast, November, 1917. This is by far 
the smallest known species of Scutovertex ; the Irish specimens, measuring 
o53/i X 176([<, are even a shade smaller than the Italian (o90yu x 210^). Notable 
features' are the long setiform pseudostigiiiatic organs and the clear circular 
spot near the front margin of the dorsum. In the brief description of the 
species (13) Berlese says : " Derma dorsi aeque punctulatum." The dark 
spots on the dorsum are really raised granules ; these are replaced on the 
Cephalothora.x (fig. 19) by ridges. Not previously recorded from Britain. 

Hermannia scabra (L. Koch). 

Amongst calcareo\is tulla on a wall where fresh water flows through at 
Malahide, probably washed by high tides. -Tune; also under flakes in the 
Orange Lichen zone, dry to moist, August. At Ardfry it occurred under 
stones resting on sandy mud and gravel in the Orange Lichen and I'elvctia 

136 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

zones. At MuUanny, on Lhe Mayo coast, it is abundant under stones just 
above high-water mark, September ; and it was found in the debris of old 
nests of sea birds on the Bill Eocks, as recorded in (25). 

Hermannia reticulata Thor. 

Malahide estuary, found crawling on a green alga-like weed on bank of 
the Broadnieadow Water, with Oribata Lucasii Nic. Eecorded from Clare 
Island and llie Westport district in 25. 

Nothms invenostus Michael. 

Found under lichens (Lichciui pygmaca) growing on large boulders on the 
south shore of Howth, Co. Dublin. Splashed by high tides, though probably 
not intertidal. 

.Sub-Order S A KCOPl'0 1 1 )E A. 


Tyroglyphus littoralis sp. nov. PI. XXII, fig. 20 a,d.) 

The discovery of an uiidescribeil species of this family living on the sea- 
shore is of interest. As far as I am aware, the only pre\'iously known 
Tyroglyphids found in this habitat are the species of Hyadesia, all of which 
arc intertidal. (I once found a colony of Ti/iih/Ii/iJius lomjior living between 
limestone flakes in the Orange Lichen zone at Malahide, ihfuigh probably in 
this case the mites were introduced with debris deposited on the shore. It 
is a species of varied habitats, and is of almost world-wide distribution.) 

FcmnU. — Length al>oul 616^; breadth, 418;i. The entire animal is 
pyrifonn. Texture smooth ; hyaline, the expulsory vesicles ajipearing as large 
brown spots. Cephalotliomx of the usual shape, distinctly narrower than 
abdomen, strongly wonstricled in front, so that the rostral part i.s rather long 
and narrow, and much as in T. hclcrocomm Michael (37, 1'l. XXXIII, fig. 1). 
Cephalothoracic hairs in a row; the two outer ones are very lung, inner 
ones short (length about GS/i), rostral hairs reaching a little beyond 
end of mandibles. Alxlomen with rather prominent humeral corners, 
slightly constricted behind these, thence widening gradually to beyond the 
middle, and diminishing to the end margin, which is produced at the centre 
in a pointed process. Apparently this process is not homologous with the 
tubular bursa copulatrii found in the genus Glycyphagus. On the dorsum 
there are five pairs of long plain haire, three of wliich are marginal, and there 
are four pairs of comparatively short hairs placed on or near the anterior 

Halhkui' — Tlic Acaniia oj the Seashore. 137 

Tlio opimcial area ami the genital foramen are much as in T. siro; close 
to the end margin of the ventral sitlo are two long hairs, and there are a 
few pairs of short hairs. Legs mirnial ; Uiu fmirth segments carr}- the usual 
long hair, and a strong curved spine springs from the fifth seguicnt of first 
two pairs. 

MkJi: — The only male found was mounted in glyceriue medium, so that 
tlie sliape cannot be exactly described. A drawing (Hg. 20 c) made 
shortly after capture is probably sufficiently accurate. Much smaller than 
female, length about o60/( ; breadth, 220/i ; broadest across the foie part of 
the abdomen ; the posterior margin is clearly indented at the centre, and 
immediately over the notch is a small papilla. All the hairs of upper 
surface as in female, but relatively much longer. Expulsory vesicles very 
large. The genital plates form a semicircular shield, and there are two 
copulatory discs closely resembling the same structui'es in Histiofjastcr 
eiitomophagus (37, PI. XXVII, fig. 20 d). Legs robust and characteristic of 
the genus, except for the last pair ; the tarsal segments of these, instead of 
having two small raised discs near the middle of the segment, have only 
one disc, which is placed close to the base on the upper and inner surface 
(fig. 20 d). ■ ■ 

Habitat. — Two females and a male found in moist decaying seaweeds 
amongst shingle close to the harbour at Howth, Co. Dublin. The locality is 
slightly above high-water mark, and evidently within reach of high tides, 
September, 1918. 


Hyadesia fasca (Lohm.). 

1894 Lcntunr/ula fxsca. 32, p. 86. 1899 Canestrini and Kramer 24, 
p. 136. 1901 Michael 37, p. 196. 1907 I.ohmann 34, p. 368. 1915 Halbeit 
25, p. 108. 

Adults and nymphs occurred in nuiiibers at the edges of rock crevices in 
the Pelvetia and Spiralis zones at Malahide, June, 1916. In the same 
locality it was found fairly commonly in rock-pools containing much 
Enteromopha, in the Orange Lichen zone, -Tuly and September. First 
recorded as a British species from Clare Island, where it is abundant amongst 
coralline seaweeds in rock-pools. Lohmann gives its distribution as the 
North Sea and the lialtic. 

U.\.A. PKOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. li. [S] 

138 Proceedings of the Roifal Irish Academy. 

Lasiotydaeus brevistylus sp. uov. (PI. XXIII, fig. a, b.) 

The genus Lasiotydaeus was fouuded by Berlese in (12), the type-species 
being L. ijhjcjipluKjinus Beil. In a later paper (10) he establishes a new sub- 
genus Melanotydaeus, in which the rostrum is well below, or iiidden by, the 
cepiialothorax, and the body hairs are short. The present species belongs to 
this sub-genus, of which Berlese describes five species as occurring amongst 
mosses in Italy. 

In general structure L. hretidyhis is allied to Z. sti/liger, described and 
figured in (10), so much so that with comparative notes and a figure a detailed 
description is not necessary. A good structural difference occurs in the palpi ; 
in L. stjiligrr the two terminal processes of the last segment are very long 
and slender (see 10, fig. 12a), and are much longer than the basal part of the 
segment. In the present species tliese processes are stouter and much 
shorter (fig. 22b), about equalling the basal part in length. In some female 
specimens the processes are even shorter than is figured. The lower process 
is stouter than the upper one, which is curved. Cephalothora.x about a tliird 
OS long as abdomen, and the rostrum is generally hidden, though in some 
specimens the apex is visible. The legs are a little stouter. The colouring 
appears to be a verj' dark olive, and the legs are red. Tlie size ranges from 
about 250/i to 280^ in length, by l.">0;i in breadth. 

Habitat. — A fairly common species in the Orange Lichen and Pelvetia 
zones on the rocky shore at Malahide, under flakes in from dry to moist 
situations. The dates of r:apture are in May and June. 

Rhagidia halophila (I.,ab.) 

1851 Uamasiis halophilus Laboulbene 30, p. 295. 1889 Normria halophila 
Moniez 38, p. 270. 1915 Halbert 25 p. 110. 1916 Hull 26, p. ;j5. 

This active, orange-coloured Acarid is one of the most characteristic 
species of the intertidal area, occurnng from the Orange Liclieu down to the 
Serratus zone at Malahide and Anlfry. Its favourite haunt^s are l>etween 
rock flakes and under stones embedded in sandy mud in from moist to wet 
places. During low water it may Ije -seen running with great speed on the 
rock surfaces. The dat<?8 of capture range from March to November, and it 
probably occurs throughout the winter months. 

Hamjukt — The A carina dJ' Ike Seashore. 139 

Eupodes variegatus Kcjch \ ai. halophilus iiov. 

Ill tlie Serralus zone at Aidl'ry llieve ucciirs a I'uini of EiipodeK wliicli 
seems to be a variety of the counuou European species E. varicycdus Kocli. 
The general structure is tlie same as in the typical form. The ovigerous 
female measures about GGG^u in length, and the breadth at the shoulders is 
about olO(U. ("olour pale rose. It differs from the typical form in the 
shorter body hairs ; the group at extremity of abdomen number six or seven 
hairs, the longest measuring not more than 70ju. All hairs minutely setose. 
The first pair of legs measure about 666/.(, and the remaining three pairs are 
a little longer and more slender than in the type, and tlie femora of the last 
pair are less thickened. In the male, of whicli only one specimen was found, 
the body is smaller tlian in the female, the length being 5o0/i. The size is 
apparently somewhat larger than in tlie type. A male of E. variegatus, 
found in the west of Ireland, measures 400/x. 

Chromotydaeus ovatus (C. L. Koch). 

1838 Penthaleus ovatus 0. L. Koch 28, Fasc. 18. 1886 Canestrini 23, 
p. 225. 1891 Berlese 2, Ease. LX., n. 2. 1912 Sig. Thor 45, p. 237. 1915 
Halbert 25, p. HI. 

The occurrence of this species under stones on the seashore at Mulranny 
has already been recorded (25j, and I have since found it commonly as an 
intertidal species at Ardfry, iu the Pelvetia and Spiralis zones. It has not 
been found at Malahide, so that it may possibly be a species of western range 
in Ireland. The specimens would seem to be uniformly longer than the 
Italian form; both Berlese and Canestrini record the length as 400//, while 
the Irish shore specimens are about 640/j in length, and the breadth varies 
from 410/i to 460,u. Dr. Berlese, who has seen the Irish form, says it is the 
present species. 

Thor records its occurrence on the western shores of Norway in the 
Balatius balanoides zone, and under Fiimis vesiculosus. 

Halotydaeus hydrodromus (Berl. et Trouess). 

1889 Notophallus hydrodrovius Berlese et Trouessart 20, p. 21. 1891 
Ilalotydacm lujdrodromus Berlese 2, Ease. Lx, n. 10. 1915 Halbert 25, ]'. 1 11 . 
1918 Hull 26, p. 33. 

Usually a common species on the seashoi'e, ranging fioin ihe IVlvetia 
down to the Serratus zone at Malahiile and Ardfry. Though less agile llian 
Rhaijidia halophila, it is almost as great a rover on the rock surfaces when 
the tide recedes ; and it also occurs in colonies between flakes. On the west 


140 Proceedings of the Roijul Irish Academy. 

coast of Ireland, at Mulranuy, it is represented by a well-marked colour 
variety, alholincalus Ilalbl. (2b), which was found in large colonies under 
deeply embedded stones well below high-water mark. 

Alicus oblongus sp. nnv. (I'l. XXI 1 1, tig. 23 a, c.) 

A very distinct species, which may be recognized by the foini of tlie body 
and the hair armature of the cephaloLhorax. 

Colour, while, tinged with rose. Length, about ooO/i ; breadth, 160ju. 
Tlie body is of an elongate oval shape; shoulders not prominent, and but 
slightly constricted. Hair armature sparse, of short, strongly plumose spines 
(fig. 28 c). Epidermis minutely .striated. The cephalothora.x (fig. 23 a) is 
relatively large and wide at the base. E)'es small, placed on sinuous ridges 
close to the side margins. There are the usual two pairs of long sensory 
hairs, bearing secondary hairs, and springing from well-marked pores. 
Behind these there is another pair of sliort and more strongly " feathered " 
hairs placed on a small circular plate, and there is another minute pair 
placed in a line with the long sensorj' hairs. All of these hairs are enclosed 
in an oblong area defined by two sub-cutaneous chiiinous rods, which run 
forward to the front margin. Tiie five .segmented palpi Jfig. 23 b) are rather 
short, with stout basal .segments, a few plumose spines; and tiiere is a stout 
adpressed spine on the upper surface of fourth segment. The mandibles are 
rather slender, chelae armed with a few minute teeth, a single hair on outer 

Legs decidedly sliort ; the three first pairs are of about equal length, last 
pair the longest (130^). All segments with a few plumose hairs; si.xth 
segment has also a bent spine on the dorsal side. 

Habitat. — Two specimens foimd between dry limestone Hakes in the 
upiiermost Orange Lichen zone at Malahide (24th May, 1915). Apjiarently 
this and the following species of Alicus occur only in the upper limit of the 
Orange Lichen zone, and it is po.ssible they are not really denizens of the 
intcrtidal area. 

Alicus latus sp. nov. (I'l. XXIII, fig. 24 a, c.) 

A species belonging to the sub-genus lAi/italicu-s, Derlese. Length, about 
220/1 (not including mandibles) ; breadth, lOO/i. Colour, during life, a very 
pale rose. The body (fig. 24 a) is robustly fonned and sub-quadrate. 
Epidermis finely lined, and there is a very spare covering of plumose hairs 
(fig. 24Ii cV which are Imiijer and more distinctly clavate towards end of body. 

Halrert — The Acan'na of the Seashore. 141 

Cephalotliorax iTlatively small ami much narrower than ahdiimcn ; front 
margin slightly concave, with a small central papilla. There are two long 
plumose hairs, and a nmeh shorter third pair near the middle line ; ontside 
of these are three pairs of very short, fine, marginal hairs. Eyes small, 
placed on a ridge running from posterior margin to anterior corner of 
eephalothorax ; the latter are pointed. 

Abdomen, shoulders wide and prominent ; lying between them is a central 
wedge-shaped area; anterior part marked off by a constriction. Mandibles 
very broad. Legs comparatively long and robust, with weak plumose hairs, and 
without the clavate hairs present on the body. 

This species is allied to A. cloiujdtus Berlese and A. Paolii Berlese. It 
is apparently nearest the latter species, differing from it in the much smaller 
eephalothorax and shorter sensory hairs. Dr. Berlese has kindly sent me a 
drawing of A. Paolii, which shows these characters much clearer than they 
appear in the published figure (9, PI. XVIII, fig. 17). It dilTers from both of 
these species in the more robust build and more uniform breailth of the 
abdomen. The body hairs are not so long, and the legs are apparently 
shorter and stouter. The sub-genus Leptalicus was established by Berlese 
(9) without a diagnosis ; A. Paolii is the type species. 

Habitat. — I found this fragile species on at least four occasions, during 
May and June, in the Orange Lichen zone at Malahide. It appears to live 
in small colonies between rotten flakes where there is clay detritus. 

Nanorchestes amphibius Top. et Trouess. 

1890 Topsent et Trouessart 47. 

An abundant species in the Orange Lichen, Pelvetia, and Spiralis zones 
on the rocky shore at Malahide. Large colonies of the larvae, nymphs, and 
adults may be found during the summer and autumn months ; and clusters 
of the salmon-coloured eggs are noticeable deposited round the edge of rock 
lissures in the early summer. At Ardfry it was found on the margin of a 
small saline pond close to the seashore. 

This is one of the few saltatorial mites, and it both runs and jumps witli 
great activity in bright weather, even on the surfaces of rock pools. It was 
observed at various dates from February to November. Hirst has recordeil 
it from the Isle of Wight. A figure of the peculiar modified hairs of this 
species is given in the present paper (I'l. XXIII, fig. 25). 

Bdella littoralis (L.). 
A common and characteristic shore species. At JMalahido and Ardfry it 
was found from the Orange Lichen down to the Vesiculosus zones, living in 

142 Proceedings of the Hoy al Irish Academi/. 

rock fissures, and it may often be seen running on the rocks. The shore 
records under the name B. capUlata Kramer in (25) should refer to the 
present species. Tlior records this as the type-species of the genus Molgus, and 
gives the following synonymy: Muhjiis lUtora/is (Linne), 1758. M. arcticus 
(Thorellj, 1871. M. viUosiis (Kramer), 1883. J/. Basteri (Michael), 1896 
(Zool. Auz. Xr.II, p. 30). 

Bdella decipiens Tlior. 

Equally common with the last at Malahide, and frequenting the same 

zones in from almost dry to moist place.s. It often occurs in company with 

the preceding species, and both have been observed feeding on Nanorchestes 

on the rocky shore at Malahide. The synonymy and distribution are recorded 

in (25). 

Cyta latirostris (Herm.). 

A few specimens found under stones in Malaiiide estuary, May, 1915 ; 
shore of Mweeloon Bay at Ardfry, June, 1916. 

The typical form of this species is figured by (2, Fasc. ux, n. 4) 
of a rosy-red colour, while the specimens from the above localities are of a 
dull yellow ; they are also larger, the lengtli being at least 900//, ii<iL 
including the mandibles. It is a widely distributed species. 

Rhaphignathos scutatus s\>. nov. (I'l. Will, 26 a, b.) 

Colour, l>right red. Length, 518/i; breadtii, 330/t ; shape, a rather broad 
oval; epidermis striated, except on the dorsal shields, which are minutely 
punctured, and are only very faintly reticulate. Cephalothora.x covered by 
a large shield, with three pairs of strong marginal hairs ; inimcdiately behind 
the first pair are the single-lensed eyes ; tlie hinder margin of the shield is 
weakly emarginate. The aMomen is also piotected by a large dorsal plate, 
carrying six pairs of haire ; front margin straight ; end margin evenly 
rounded, leaving a rather broad uncovered area at the end of the alxlDmon, 
where there are two pairs of haire. The sho\d<ier bristles are placed on small 
oval plate-s. Epiniera mucli as in B. sunihtn. Anal plate rounded in front 
and tapering to a point at end, rather distinctly reticulate on its anterior 
part (length, 170/u ; breadth, 125/1). Mandibles a little shorter and more 
robust than on B. sicitius. Palps (fig. 26 b) stout; a strong hair springs 
from the upper surface of second and third segments. Terminal appendage 
about reaching to end of fourth segment, with four hairs and a trifid hair. 

This .species st^inda nearest to B. ■■iicn/uJi Berl. (2 xxil, n. 3j, from 
which it differs in the larger size, less elongate shape, longer legs, and the 

IlAi,l3KitT — The Acarina of the Seashore. l43 

polygonal rcLiculaLiou is very I'aiiit ; il is clearly inaikeil only on llie Iront 
of the anal shiekl. 

Habitat. — Occurred under sLones on Lhe salt marsh on Malaiiide Island, 
MOth May, 1915. 1 have also t'ouiul it on a marshy sward Just above the 
I'elvetia zone at Ardfry, C'onnty Galway. 

Stigmaeus rhodomelas var. fissuricola nnv. (PI. XXIII, fij,^ 27a, c.) 

A species belonging to Stigmaens (s. str.) as recently defined by 
Berlese (10). 

Length variable, ranging from ;J30 to ."JSO^i in mature specimens ; breadth 
loOju; colour a shining orange; form elongate (fig. 27a). Cephalothora.x 
with rounded sides, well marked off from abdomen in most specimens ; 
central shield oblong, almost reaching the front and hinder margins, carrying 
three pairs of hairs (fig. 27 b), the second pair very long. Abdomen with 
pronounced " shoulders," and marked lateral indentations, one beyond the 
middle, the other close to the end of the body. Central shield long, oval, 
with two pairs of hairs ; behind this is a small plate, equally broad, but less 
than one-third as long as the preceding shield. On each side of the second 
plate are two pairs of small hair-bearing plates. End of body truncated and 
bordered by a narrow plate, carrying two long hairs. There are also two 
pairs of marginal hairs on the anterior part of the abdomen. The genito- 
anal shield is truncated in front, not quite reaching the last pair of epimera, 
with three stout marginal hairs on its anterior part. 

The mouth parts (fig. 27 c) are large, and the mandibles (length about 
70^) robust. The five segmented palpi are long ami stout ; third segment as 
long as the three terminal ones together, with three long hairs ; the terminal 
appendage reaches well beyond the claw. Legs comparatively long and 
robust; hair armature as in figure. The fourth segment of the last two pairs 
without hairs. 

Appears to differ from the typical form in the more elongate shape, in 
the absence of lateral plates at each side of the large central alidominal 
shield, and by the fact that this shield is followed by a smaller transverse 
plate. The hair armature is longer. I cannot find any trace of pigmented 
eyes in my specimens. 

Habitat. — An active, orange-coloured species, which is cdiunKui in ihe 
Orange Lichen and I'elvetia zones at Malahide. It lives chiefly in liorizontal 
fissures in the limestone rocks, in from almost dry to damp iilaees. 'I'he dutes 
of capture range from February to October. 

i44 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


Xo attempt has been made to refer the following species of Ehyncholo- 
phus to any of tlie genera or sub-genera described in i-ecent yeai-s. Anthoi-s 
are evidently at variance as to their application, and in one or two recently 
published papers the confusion has been increased. It seems to me that 
many questions of synonymy and priority must be definitely settled before 
these names can be used with certainty. 

The first three species recordetl here have been referred to the genus 
Aehorolophus by Dr. Berlese, either in the original descriptions or in lii. 
This was diagnosed as a new sub-genus in his Monograph on Italian Mites 
(2, Fasc. ux, n. 1), and Rhtftuhoiopmu nemorum is the type-species. It was 
subsequently (4, p. 87) raised to generic rank, and applieil to a group of 
species of which the first mentione<l is R. qui^uUinriii.i {Henn], but the earlier 
reference must apply, consequently the name Aehorolophus, whatever may Ije 
the fate of this genus, cannot l>e use«l for the ".B. rtibripts" group of species. 

Ehyncholophos araneoides (lieri.). (I'l. XXIII, fig. 28 a, b.) 

1910 AeJtoroii.'phias nranevides Berl. 14, p. :i49. 

An abundant species during the summer months on the limestone it>cks 
at Malahide, usually in the up|)er part of the Orange IJchen zone. 

An active, bright-re«l coloure<l mile. Tlie iKKly is comparatively small 
(length about lUOU^), and of a rather quadrate shape. The legs are robust 
and very long, the first pair Uieasuring about 1460/i, not including the pro- 
jecting part of the epiraera. The crista is mdimentar}*, consisting of a veiy 
thin median rod, of which there is sometimes scarcely any trace in the adult 
form. Both the anterior and posterior sensory hairs are present, but they 
are not so distinctly enclosed in chilinous extensions of the median rod as 
they are in other species. The most interesting feature of this species is 
the presence of a pair of lanje, lens-like tubercles lying behind the true 
eyes, close to the hinder margin of the cephalothorax. Hair vestiture 
moderately dense, short, and liearing excee<iingly minute secondary hairs. 

The active nyrophal form was obe«r\-ed in great numbers, running on the 
rocks during bright weatlier in May and June. When fully grown, it is 
about 950;i in length by 614^ in breadth. The shape is subqua^lrate, and 
the hairs are much more sparse than in the adulL The legs also are much 
shorter, feeble, and of more uniform length. The prodorsal tubercle, which 
is so conspicuous in the adult, is present, but is less developed. 

The l^les.'«, quiescent fonn of the nj'mph occurs between dry flakes in 
the Orange Lichen zone. It is very similar in shape and size to the active 

ITai.bkkt — The Aran'na of the Seashore. Ho 

iiyiiipli, except for the double indenUlions of the front inari;iii, characteristic 
of the encysted stage. The structure of the adult can be seen llimuL^li ibc 
enclosing skin. 

Originally recorded from Sicily (Palermo) by Uerlese. Figures i.f llic 
crista and thoracic tubercle are given in tiie present paper. 

Rhyncholophus Passerinii (Berl). (PI. XXIII, fig. 29 a, b.) 

1904 Erythmeus Passerinii Berlese, 8, p. 16. 

Found between rather dry Hakes in the Pelvetia zone on the rocky shore 
at Malahide, June and July, 191G. Also at Ardfry, in the Pelvetia zone, 
Tinder stones resting on mud, June, 1916. 

A sluggish species, of a dark purplish-red colour, and dense, silvery 
hairs. It may be easily recognized by the very elongate shape (fig. 29 a), 
and the strongly plumose hairs. The legs and palps are short, and lather 
weakly developed. The size varies in the Irish specimens from about 1160/u 
to i;3U0;u ; breadth 560^. The median rod of the crista is rather long, and 
a chitinous part projects beyond the hinder sensory area (fig. 29 b). lii the 
original figure (8, PI. L tig. 17) of this species there are only three hairs on 
the frontaT sensory area; possibly the drawing was made from an immature 
specimen ; in the fully developed form about ten long " featliered " hairs are 
present. Recorded from the Italian coast by Berlese, and found under roek.s 
sometimes covered by the tide. 

Rhyncholophus rubripes Berl. et Trouess. (Pi. XXllI, fig. 30.) 

1889 11. miiicutus var. rubri2}es Berlese et Trouessart 20. 1889 Moniez 38, 
p. 196. 1910 Ritteria hirsuta George, " The Nat.," p. 182. 1915 Halljert 
25, p. 115. 1918 Hull S6, p. 26. 

An abundant and conspicuous species on the intertidal shore at Malahide 
and Ardfry, occurring in fissures and running on the rocks at low tides. 
Apparently it was noted only in the Orange Lichen and Pelvetia zones, but 
there is little doubt that it occurs also in tire lower zones. A short descrip- 
tion of this species was given in (25), and the crista is figured in the present 
paper (fig. 30). 

Rhyncholophus tardus Halbt. (PI. XXIII, fig. ."1.) 

1915 Llalbert 25, p. 116. 

Found under stones on the seashore near Mulranny, Co. Mayo, 

A species of an orange-yellow colour and long oval shape (length, 1638/i • 
breadth, 844/i). Body witli a sparse covering of rod-like haiis, whicli are 

116 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

minutely spiculate. Crista fig. 31) long and slender , the anterior extremity 
is distinctly pointed, and there is only one bristle in front of the long sensory 
hairs. Eyes small, and set close to the side margins of the cephalothorax. 
I/Cgs slendei', rather feebly developed, the fii-st pair much longer than the 

Microtrombidium pusillum (Herm.) var. major nov. (I'l. XXIII, fig. 32 a,c.) 

lycngth, 1400^ to 1700/* ; breadth, about 900/i. Colour red ; shape ovate ; 
in the ovigerous female it is more elongate ; shoulders not prominent. 
Epidermis reticulate and densely covered with plumose spines (tig. •32a) ; these 
are slightly bent, constricted at the base, and have bristle-like extremities ; 
their length varies from -ibn to oO/i. Cephiilothora.\ very small ; the crista 
(fig. 32 b) is strong; anterior extremity ^vnth a striated expansion at each 
side; sensory area rather small, with a thick chitinous border, surrounded by 
a ring of pulmose spines A chitinous prwess of the median rod projects 
into the proximal sensor}* area. Eyes small, lying close to the crista. 

llie palps are of normal length, first two segments equalling those of first 
pair of legs in breadtli (55/i) ; last segment with a short appendsige and an 
inner comb of at least five strong spines (fig. 32 c) ; distal extremity slender. 
Legs short and stout ; the first pair measure about 760/i in length. The last 
segment has an almost straight dorsal and a rather convex ventral outline 
(length, 180;j ; breadth, 85,i). 

This variety appt-ars to differ from the typical form in the larger size, longer 
bo<ly hairs, the form of the tenninal segment of ihe first pair of legs, and in 
the pi-esenco of a distinct inner comb of spines on the fourth palp segment. 
In hi.s synopsis of the type, I'erlese remarks "spinis pectinis in latere 
segmenti quarti intcmis nuUis," though in his remarks on the species he .sajs 
there is a comb of very minut'e (pufhiwiimi) spint>s pre.'»ent. 

Habitat. — A few 8(XK:iniens occurred under stones in the Pelvelia zone, 
just below high-water mark, at Anlfry, Co. Galway,June, 1916. 

Halbeht — The Acarina nf the Seashore. 147 


Barrois, Tii. : 

1. Sur U71 Acarien nouveau ( f/'roywf?* Orchediida'ntrii) commowi^aX des 

Talitres et des Orchestes. Extr. des Mem. Soc, I>ille xv (4), 1SS7. 

Berlkse, a. : 

2. Aeari., Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Patavii, 

Florentiae, 1882-1892. 

3. Ibid., Ordo Mesostigmata (Gamasidae), 1892. 

4. 76td, Ordo Prostigniata (Trombidiidae), Patavii, 1893. 

5. Ibi'L, Ordo Cryptostigiuata (Oribatidael, Portici, 1896. 

6. "Diagnosi di alcune iiuovi specie di Acaiiitaliani, niirniecofili elibeii. 

Zool. Anz. xxvii, 1903. 
7a. Acari nuovi, Manipulus i. " Eedia " i, 1903. 
7b. Acari nuovi, Manipuhis ii. "Itedia " i, 1903. 
K. Aeari nuovi, Manipulus iii. "Eedia " ii, 1904. 
9. Acari nuovi, Materiali pel " Manipulus v." "Eedia" ii, 1905. 

10. Acari nuovi, Manipuli v-vi. " lledia " vi, 1910. 

11. Monografia del Genere Gamasus Latr. " Eedia " iii, 1900. 

12. Eleneo di Genere e specie nuovi. "Eedia" v, 1908. 

13. Lista di nuove specie. " Eedia" vi, 1910. 

14. Bi-evi Diagnosi di generi e specie nuovi di Acari. " Eedia " vi, 1910. 

15. Acari nuove, Manipuli vii-viii. "Eedia" i.\', 1913. 
16 Centuria prima di Acari nuovi. "Eedia " xii, 1916. 
17. Centuria secundi di Acari nuovi. " Eedia " xii, 1916. 
IS. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. "Eedia" xii, 1916. 

19. Jntorno agli Uropodidae. " lledia " xiii, 1917. 

Berlese, a., et E. Teouessaet : 

20. Diagnoses d'Acariens nouveaux ou pen connus. lluUi'iiu Biblio_ 

Scientifique de I'Ouest, 1889. 

Brady, G. S. : — 

21. A Eeview of the British Marine Mites, with Descriptions of some 

new Species. Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1870. 

22. Notes on British Fresh-water Mites. Proc. Zool. Soc, Londun, 1877. 

Canestrini, G. : 

23. Prospetto dell' acarofauna italiana. Atti. Soc. Venelo-Trcntina. 

Padova, 1885-1889. 

148 Proceedings of the Eot/al Irish Academy. 

Caskstrixi, G., and P. Kkajjkb : 

24. Demodicidae uud Sai-coptidae. Das 'I'ierreich, 7 I jef . Berlin, 1899. 

Halbebt, J. X. : 

25. Clai-e Island Suney. Acariuida. Section II. : Ten-estrial and 

Marine Acarina. Proc. Eoy. Irish Acad., xxxi, 1915. 

Hull, J. E. : 

26 Terrestrial Acari of the 'i'vne Province. Trans. Nat. HisL Soc., 
Xorthumbeiland, &c., v (New Ser.), 1918. 

King, L A. I* : 

27. Notes on the Habits and Characteristics of some Littoral Mites of 

Millport. Pr-x;. Hoy. Phys. Soc., Edinb., xix. 1914. 

Koch, C. L ; 

28. Deiitschlands L'rustaceen.Myriapoden und Arachniden. Kegensbui^, 

Kocil, li. : 

29. Arachniden ans Siberien und Novaya-Sendya. KongL Svenska Vet. 

Aka^l.. Han.llr.. xvi, 1878- 

30. Descr. de 4ucl<juea Acar. et d uiie Hydratrhne. Ann. S:«c. Eutoni., 
France, ix <2i l^^"'!. 

LKONAnni. G. : 

31. Nuove specie di Acari trovatea Portici. 1899. 


32. Lentungula fuses n. s. Eino marine Sarcoplide. Wiss. Meeres 
Uiitersiichungen voii der RioL Au.stalt aiif Helgoland, I, 1894. 

33. Fam. Halacari.lae. Das Tierreich, 13 Lief, 1901. 

:>4. Die Meeresmillien der deutschen Sadpf>lai-Expe*]ilion, 1901-1903. 
Deutsch. SiidpoL Kxpedition, ix. ZooL I, 1907. 
Mkgxd», P.: 

35. Note snr un Acarien ile la Terre de Feu, Hyadesia uncifer. Mission 

scientifique du Cap Horn, vi, 1889. 

Michael, A. D.: 

36. P.ritish OriVjatidae. Eoy. Soc, London, 1883-1887. 

37. British Tyroglyphidae. Roy. Soc, I»ndoD. 1901-1903. 

MosiKZ, R. : 

38. Acarien.s et Insectes marins <lt-.« Cotes dn Boulonnais. Rev. Piiol. 

du N.T.I .1.- li France, ii. 1889. 

IIalbkim' — The Acariua aj I In: Seashore. 11.9 


o9. Further Notes on Acari. ye.uoud Ser. Tijdsclir. \. Eiiloiii., xliii, 

40. Notes oil Acari. Third Ser. Tijilschr. Ned. Dierk., Ver., vii (2) 


41. Notes on Acari. Fourth Ser. Ihuh, 1902. 

42. Notes on Acari. Eii,rhtli Ser. Ibid., viii (2), 190::!. 

4o. New List of Dutch Acari. First Pt. Tijdschr. v. Entoiii. xx.xix, 

44. Benierkungeii iiber Sanreiiieser Acari. Tijdsclir. v. Entoni , xliii, 


Thor, S. : 

45. Verzeichnis der in Norwegens gefuiideii Eupodidae. Zool. Anz., 

xxxix, 1912. 

TiETZE, F. : 

46. Contributo all acarologia. d'ltalia. Osservazione snll' Acarofauna 

del litorale di Malamocca (Venezia). Atti. Soc, Veneto-Trentina, 


47. Sur un iiouveau genre d'Acarieii sauteur (Nanorchesies amphihiiis) 

des cotes de la Manche. Coinpt. Itend. de I'Acad. des Sciences, 

TrAgaedh, T. : 

48. Beitrage zur Fauna der Baren-Insel., o, Die Acariden. Kongl. 

Svenska Vet.-Akad., Handlr., xxvi.', 1900. 

49. Acariden aus deni Sarekgebirge. Naturi\ Unteisuch, d. Saiekge- 

birges in Schwed.-Lappland, iv. Zoologie, 1910. 

50. Zur Keuntniss der Litoralen Arten der Galtung lldella Latr. 

Kciiigl. Svenska Vet.-Akad., IJaiuirr., xxvii. 1902. 

51. Monographie der arktisclien Acariden. l^'auna ArcLica, iv, 1904. 

Trouessakt, E. L. : 

52. Note sur les Acariens recueillis [lar M. Giardau laboratoire maritiine 

de Wimereux. Comptes-rendus de I'Acad. des Sciences, 18SS. 

53. Note sur les Uropodinae el description d'espccos imuvellos. I'.nll. 

Soc. Zool, de France, xxvii, D'U'J. 


Proceedings oj the Royal Irish Academy. 



Agaue, . 

Aliens, . 




Cyta. . 

























Leptulicus 1-10 





. 122 



. 13S 



. 146 



. 141 



. 136 



. 131 






. 122 


I'eiiLlialeus, . 

. 139 



. 129 





PimcLuri bates, 









liiiodacaius, . 



Khi)iiil)ogiiallins, . 








130 , 















1 :;.s 



120 1 

Zurcosuiu'j, . 


IIai-iskkt — The Acdn'.iKi nt Ike Scaihorc. 151 


Plate XXL 

1. Ithodacarus roscus Ouilm.s. var. pallidus Hull. «, Fenialc, iiiicler sirle. 

6, Male, front uf steniuni. 

2. Gamascl/us incrmis sp. uov. <(, Female, under side, h, Pore at end of 

dorsal shield, c, Steruum of male, d, Chelicerae of male. 

3. Hydrogamasus littoralis (G. et E. Can.j. Protonymph. 

4. Rijdrogamttsus Giardi (Berl. et Trouess.). Chelicerae of male. 

5. Pac/ii/lac/aps littoralis Halbt. a, Female, under side, h, Tarsus of second 

leg seen from below, e, Male, under side, d, Armature of second 

6. Laelaps denttdus sp. uov. a, Female, under side, b, Male, under side. 

c, Anterior part of sternum, d, Chelicerae seen from below. 
e, Fourth segment of second leg. 

7. Lasioseius sa/imis sp. nov. Female, a, Under side, b, Extremity of 

fourth leg seen from below. 

8. Lasioseius fucicola sp. nov. Male, a, V])\)er side, h, Dorsal spine. 

c. Under side, d, Capittilum and first tarsal segment seen from 

Plate XXII. 

9. Thinoseius Bciicsii gen. et sp. nov. Female, a, Upper side, b, Under 

side, c, Chelicerae. d, Ambulacrum, c, Nymph, under side. 

10. Thinozcreon Michaeli Halbt. Female, under side. 

11. Phauloci/lliba littorcdis (Trouess.). Male, under side. 

12. Phaidodini/chm rcpletus Berl. «, Upper side, i, Nymplia homeomor])ha, 

under side. 

13. Fhaidodini/chtis orchcstiidarum (Barrois). a, L^pper side, b. Female area 

genitalis, c, Fossula pedale of fourth leg. d, Tritosternum. 

14. Tmchyuropoda minor (Halbt.). Upper side. 

15. Oribiitit quadrivertec sp. nov. a, Upper side, i, Pseudostigniatic organ. 

16. Oribidulii saxicola sp. nov. n, Upper side. /', I'seudostigmatic organ. 

17. Scutovertex Sjioofi Oudms. ", Upper side. b. Claw armature. 

18. iSciitovcrtc'x hilincattts Michael. Claw armature. 

l/)2 Proceedinys of the Royal Irish Academy . 


19. Scutovertex pcr/oi'dtus Berl. Cephalothorax and anteiior part uf clorsuni. 

20. Tijroglijphus lUtora/Ls sp. uov. a. Female, upper side, b, 'J'arsal 

segment, c, Male, under side, d, Tarsal segment. 

21. Mi/'ide-sia/iisca (Lohm.l. Tarsal armature. 

Plate XXIII. 

22. lAisioti/diiciis btrrisli/liis sp. nov. (/, Upper side. /', 'I'eiiiiiiial .seginenls 

of palp. 
2:i. Alicus ohfongiiK sp. imv. ((, Ceplialuthorax. h, Clielicerae and palp. 

r, Hair ai mature. 

24. Aliens lull's sp nov. a. Upper side, h, Shoulder liair. <•, liudy liair. 

25. NanorcheHtes amphibius Topsent et Troiiess. Hair armature. 

26. liluiphitjimthus scutattis sp. nov. <i, Upper .side. h. Palp. 

27. Sli'fmaeus rhfidomcli:'^ Berl. var. fissnrieola nov. k, Upper side. I>, Hair 

of cephalotliorax. c, Palp and clielicerae. 

28. Jk'hi/ncIwIophiiJt nmncoidea (Berl.). a, Crista, b. Tubercle near liimkr 

mai-gin of cephalothorax. 

29. JlliifUf/iolo/ihuji I'lia^-rinii (]'ter\.). f, Upper side. /», (/'ri-sta. 
.'!0. J{hi/ne/iolo/ihi(n ridiri/>e^ Berl. et Trouessart. Crista. 

'M. lihi/nc/wliijdiits tnrdiis Halht. Crista. 

32. Microlrumbidiutn /ntsiUum (Hcriu.) var. mojui- nov. n, Body hair. 
b, Crista, c, End seguients of palp. 

Proc. R. I. ACAU., Vol. XXXV, sect. B. 

Plate XXI. 

H 3a 

Halbert — The Acarina of the Seashore. 

Paoc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Platf. XXII. 

16a 17a 

Halbert — The Acarina ok the Seashore. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate XXUI. 

Halbekt— The Acarina of the Seashore. 

[ 153 ] 





Plates XVI— XVIII. 

Read Apuil 12. Published DECEMnEU 29. 1920. 

It would be difficult to conceive within the whole vast range of natural 
knowledge the existence of a subject lending itself more readily to dogmatic 
expression and subtle phrase than that of " The Origin, Evolution, and 
Transmission of Biological Cliaracters " ; but though it is always easy to 
dogmatize, it is generally very difficult to pin an indi\'idual protagonist down 
to a definite pronouncement. To avoid this reproach — to provide at the 
outset a te.Kt or postulate wlierein our general view of the question is concisely 
e.xpressed — we opened our contribution to the discussion which took place 
under this "title " at the Bournemouth meeting of the British Association 
with the following axiomatic statement : — 

" Variation from type in any group of organisms is either sporadic or 
epidemic. If it is the latter, the variation becomes specific. Going a step 
further, variation from species is likewise sporadic or epidemic ; if it is the 
latter, the variation becomes generic." 

And so a circle, not wholly vicious, would seem to be closed, but it will 
presently be seen that in our opinion it is not a circle, but a triangle — a 
triangle which takes its place (not always a very firmly established one) among 
a series whose inter-relations admit of wide-reaching, and often apparently 
anomalous, results. 

We shall naturally confine our arguments to tlie group witli which we are 
particularly concerned — the Foraminifera ; and we open the subject by 

• Held at the joint meeting of Sections D (Zoology) imd K (Botany), at the meeting of 
the British Association at Bournemouth, 12th September, l!tl9. 


154 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

remarking that for nearly seventy years the authorities have agreed on one 
point at least, viz., the difficulties attaching to any attempt to define specific 
or even generic houndary lines. 

Nearly every student of that brancli of the subject with which we are 
especially occupied, the bionomics, no less than theclassification, of theForamini- 
fera, has contributed his pronouncement, which has almost invariably taken 
the form of a warning. As long ago as 1848 Williamson in his paper upon 
the I^ageuae observed that " extreme forms which appear to be \ ery distinct 
from one another may be connected together by specimens of an intermediate 
aspect to an extent only to be believed by those who examine a large series 
of specimens side by side."^ In 1864 H. B. Brady pointed out that " in the 
Protozoa a much larger range of variation must be allowed, within specific 
limits, than it is usual t<i grant in more highly organized behigs "^ —an observa- 
tion which may be read usefully side by side with E. A. Jlinchin's statement: 
" It is certain that, with increasing knowledge, many species of Protozoa now 
regarded as distinct will prove to be developmental stages of others, as has 
happened so frequently in the case of the Metazoa"' — a remark to which we 
shall refer again when we come to discuss the question of multiformity. But 
Minchin himself became his own adrocatus diaboli when, in the same work, 
he stated that a specific distinction lietween two things which shade off into 
one another I>y infinite gradations is not by those gradations rendered invalid 
any more than the gradual transition from spring to summer does away with 
the distinction between the seasons.* 

'l"he case has been admirably summed up by J. .1. Lister as follows: — 
" The question appears to be, not whetlier all internu'diate forms do or do not 
exist between dissimilar forms, but whether liio whole body of forms, as they 
occur in nature, t«nd to group themselves or are aggregated about certain 
centre-s. . . . To refuse to recognize the existence of these centres because 
transitional forms between them is to ignore an essential fact. 
In a very large number of cases, at any rate, such centres do exist among the 
Foraminifera as among other organized beings, and the characters of the 
viiddU individuals of them are those of the species."^ 

' W. C. Willinmioii : "On the Recent British Species of the Genus Lagena." Ann. 
M.ig. NHt. Hist., Ser. 2. 1S48. vol. i, p. 10. 

' H. B. Brady: "On the Rhizopodal Fauna of the Shetlands." Trans. Linn. Soc, 
vol. sxiv, 1H64, p. 464. 

^ E. A. Minchin: "Introduction to the Study of the Protozoa." London. 1012, 
p. 164. 

* Loc. cif. , p. 07. 

'J. .1. Lister: "The Formminifera," in E. Ray Lankester's "Treatise of Zoology," 
Ft. 1 , Fasc. 2. London. 1903. p. lU. 

Heuon-Allkn and Eakland — Stuthj oj Vernewlina polijslroplin. lo/i 

In studying the evolution of species we must, as Frederick Chapman has 
pointed out, make an arrangement taking the form of a net, in whicli tlie 
species are represented by tlio knots which unite the threads, the threads 
standing for the series of intermediate forms connecting the species/' Such 
a pUxn was adopted in our Clare IsUmd Monograph,' in an attempt to group 
the salient species and intermediate forms of the genus Discorbina. 

Eeturning now to our triangle theory, we postulate that every group of 
organisms may be graphically represented by a series of triangles, the three 
sides of which represent respectively Varieties, Species, Genera; 

and these triangles may find themselves juxtaposed in any way. The 
juxtaposed faces of the triangle would be connected by x:cx, representing 
" sports,'' or intermediate specimens, which might eventually take the form of 
epidemic varieties linking one species, genus, or variety with another species, 
genus, or variety; and such intermediate specimens " .r," would vary both 
indefinitely and infinitely. 

Let us give another homely illustration of what appears to us to take place 
in the evolution of genera and species. At all stages it would appear that 
evolution may be illustrated by a hollow sphere (or pyramid, if we would 
pursue the triangle theory), the sides of which are formed of a network. 
Within this hollow figure we put a freely moving ball, appro .ximately the 
same size as the meshes of the network. The ball represents the species ; the 
network the accepted limits of variation within specific range. If the moving 
ball sticks in the network, it becomes an established " variety" ; but if, under 
some biological or local impulse or stimulus, the ball forces its way through 
the meshes, it will not return, but will have evolved into a new "species " or 
" genus," and will thenceforth move freely within its own new cage (or triangle 
or pyramid). It will, in fact, have established its own triangle, and settled 
into its place juxtaposed to its nearest ally, which is not necessarily the parent 
form from which it derived its origin. 

'^ F. Chapman : " The Foramiuifera." London, 1902, p. 55. 

" E. Heron-Allen and A. Earland : " The Foraniinifera of the Clare Island District." 
Clare Island Survey, Pt. (U. Pioc. R. Irish Acad., vol. x.\xi. Dublin, 1013, p. G4 


156 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Quite apart from our specific triangles and the nebulous No Man's Land 
occupied by .rxx (the intermediate specimens) are tliose rare monstrosities 
in which the organism appears to pass at a bound from its immediate 
congeners into a far distant group. These monstrosities constitute the 
teratology of the Foraminifera, and up to the present have received little 
attention. For the purposes of the present paper they may be almost dis- 
regarded, but a closer study of such monstrosities may, perhaps, in the future 
afford the solution to many problems. 

It is the object and purpose of tliis paper to attempt to throw some light 
upon the origin of biological characters and variations in tlie Foraminifera — 
in a phrase, to explain, or at any rate to suggest, how these new biological 
charactei-s have their origin, are evolved, and transmitted ; and we propose to 
illustrate this attempt by a description of the results obtained by the cultuie 
of two species of Foraminifera, both of common or almost woild-wide occur- 
ence, and phylogenetically (according to existing systems of classification) 
almost as widely separated from one another as is possible, viz , Massilina 
serans (d'Orbigny) and VernaiUina poli/Mroiiha (Eeuss). 

Before entering upon the description of our experiments it is necessary Lo 
call attenlion as sliortly as possible lo tlie modificaLions or variations of 
biological charactei-s whicli have already been recognized in the Foraminifera, 
and to some other conditions to whicli we take tliis opportunity of calling 
attention for the first time. 

Tiie three forms of variation in the Foraminifera which have already been 
recognized (apart from isomorphism) are — 

1. Variation in the size of the primordial chamber, including its influence 
on the aftergrowth of the test. 

2. Variation in the plan or arrangement of chambers in difl'erent stages of 
the life-history of the Foramiuifcr. 

3. Variation of external form, or simple " variation." 

In addition to these, we propose to offer a few remarks on certain forms 
of variation and habit which have attracted little attention hitherto : — 

4. The occurrence of gigantism and nanism. 

5. Chitinons variation. 

6. Variation due to sessile habitat of a normally free form, or vice versa. 
11. " Encryptment ": excavating or burrowing Foraminifera. 

(i) The leading variation, concerning which a great deal has been written, 
is the problem of the co-existence in a species of individuals differing 
essentially in the size of their primordial chambers, which, under the now 

Heron- A I, LEV and FvAki.ani) — Hliuhi of Ycrncuilinn pohjslropha. \-')7 

generally accepted naine of (liniorjiliisin, has deeply interested students of the 
l)iiinoniies ol' tlie Fnraiiiiiiii'era ever since it was established Ky MiiniiT- 
Clialinas in 1880 in the Numniulites.' Since that date the phenomenon lias 
been established in a great many Foraminifera. Few authors have devoted 
more attention or eonlributed more to our knowledge of this phenomenon 
liian -I.J. Lister." The subject is too invol\ed to claim more than a passing 
reference in this place, especially as we are still in ignorance as to its influence 
or conuexion if any, with the problems under discussion. 

(ii) The second form of variation, viz., the adoption by a Foraniinifer, at 
consecutive stages of its existence, of different plans of growth, has been 
recognized ever since the study of the Foraminifera had its inception, and was 
originally known as dimorphism and trimorphism. As early as 1826 a sub- 
genus e.xhibiting this phenomenon was named Dimorphina by d'Orbigny.'" 
But since Munier-Chalmas' discovery of the dimorphism of the primordial 
chamber the older sense of the word has been generally abandoned, and the term 
" dimorphism" has been restricted to his definition. Various substituted terms 
have been suggested for the earlier discovery. Chapman in 1898 suggested 
bigenerism,^'^ which was not happy, in view of the fact that such variations 
sometimes include more than two generic plans of growth. Moreover, a genus 
presenting tliis feature had been named Bigenerina in 1826 by d'Orbigny." 
Ehumbler in 1895 suggested using the adjectives '• bi-formed " or " tri-formed " 
to describe this kind of variation ;^^ but Lister may be said to have established 
a more convenient term in the word " multiformity," i' and this term we have 

This is neither the time nor the place to deal with the lengthy arguments 
as to whether multiform shells are progressive or retrogressive in their plans 
of growth. Probably in most cases the change of plan during the growth of 
the shell marks a progression or evolution to a higher and more complex 
system, and in such cases the complete shell may exhibit its full ancestry in 

' E. C. P. A. Munier-Chalmas: " Sur le Dimorphisme des Nummulites." Bull. Soc. 
Geol. France, Ser. 3, vol. viii, p. 300. 

" See especially, J. J. Lister, "Contributions to the Life History of the Foraminifera," 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, vol. clxxxvi (1898), B, pp. 401, et sei/., and loc. cit. (note 5), pp. 59, 
et passim. 

'" A. d'Orbigay : •' Tableau Methodique de la Classe des Cdphalopodes." Ann. Sci. 
Nat., vol. vii, 1826, p. 264. 

" F. Ch-vpman : " P'oraminifera of theGault of Folkestone." J. R. Micr. Soc, 1898. 
p. 14 (foot-note). 

^- Loc. cit. (note 10), p. 261. 

" L. Rhumbler : " Entwurf eines natiirlicheu Systems der TliaUuu)i>lioren." Xachr. 
d. k. Ges. d. VViss. zu Gottiugen, 1895. iMath. pliys. Kl., Pt. 1, p. 03. 

'■* Loc. cit. (note o), p. 58. 

158 Proceedings of the Itoi/al Irish Academy. 

the completed plan. Such progressive multiformity is admirably shown in 
the genera Peneroplis, Orbiculina, Orbitolites in the family Peneroplidinae, 
and in their perforate isomorphs Opereulina, Heterostegina, Cycloclypeus in 
the family Xummulitinae. 

Reti-ograde multiformity, assuming the transition from a complex to a 
simple plan of growth, is well represented in many genera of the family Textn- 
laridae — for example, Spiroplccta, Clavulina, and Gaudryina; but perhaps 
nowhere better than in the genus Orbiculina, which, in addition to the multi- 
formity alluded to in the last paragraph, exhibits a form of variation which has 
been briefly alluded to by Carpenter" and Lister," and which is probably 
unique in its kind. The generic distinction between Peneroplis and Orbiculina 
lies in the subdivision of the chambers in the latter genus into chaniberlets 
by the growth of internal septa. Apart from this distinction, there is little 
difference observable between small individuals of Orbiculina and specimens 
of Peneroplis of the arklimis group. Carpenter first noted that the septa 
dividing the chambers into chaniberlets are sometimes wanting, "not merely 
in fully developed peneropliform varieties, but even in good-sized adunciform 
specimens," which, as he remarks, " is a fact of not a little significance." 
He proceeds to state his deductions that " in such cases no absolute line of 
demarcation can be laid down between Peneroplis and Orbiculina ; for 
although there may he practically little or no difficulty in referring any 
given specimeu to one or tlie other type by the aggregate of the characters 
it presents, yet no one of these characters taken by itself is sufficiently 
constant to serve as the basis for a precise definition." 

With this remark we entirely agree. No xhizopodist familiar with the 
appearance of both genera would have any hesitation in referring these 
abnormal forms to their correct generic position in Orbiculina. And yet, 
structurally, they are not Orbiculina, but Peneroplis ; and in them the 
Chinese wall separating the two genera, normally quite diflerent in outward 
appearance and internal etnicture, is broken down. 

Lister adds very little to our knowledge of this particularly interesting 
form of variation. He states that in some "stunted forms" of Orbiculina, 
"though by no means in all," the "subdivision into chaniberlets may be 
incomplete or wholly absent. Sometimes the subdivisions die out in the 
terminal chambws after Ijecoming established in their predecessors; in 
others it is absent throughout the test. 1 am inclined to regard these latter 
forms as examples of Orbiculina which have lost their secondary septa by 

'* W. B. Carpenter, W. K. Parker, and T. Rupert Jones : ' ' Introduction to the Study 
of the Forarainifcra " (Ray Society). London, 1862, p. 98. 
" Loc. cit., note 5, p. 100. 

Hrron-Ali,kn and Karlano — Stiidij of Vcrnetdlina pohjstrophn. loO 

degeneration, rather than as representatives of Poneroplis, because of the 
existence of the intermediate forms just alluded to, in which the subdivision 
dies out in the terminal chambers, and also because they agree so closely in 
external features with small examples of typical Orbiculina that they cannot 
be distinguished from them by the external characters of the tests." 

Lister compares these specimens with Schlumberger's figure of Archiacina 
munieri, and suggests the identity of Schlumberger's form." This seems 
highly probable, and it is not the only instance in which Schlumberger has 
obscured knowledge by the erection of fictitious barriers. Tlie difficulties 
attached to an explanation of the abnormal variations are increased, and not 
diminished,, by the removal of the specimens to another sub-genus. 

Our own experience of this interesting form of variation differs from 
Lister's, inasmucli as we have not hitherto observed any specimens such as 
he describes, in which an individual, having started growth with an 
"orbiculine" shell, subdivided into chamberlets, subsequently degenerates 
into the peueropline form, with individual chambers. All the specimens we 
have examined (and they are very many) have proved to be constant in one or 
other form ab initio, and a series of mounts of baby shells in balsam contirms 
this view. Subdivision into chamberlets either occurs from the very begin- 
ning (tig. 1), following the primordial chambers, or is entirely wanting. 
Moreover, although no peaeropline specimen which we have seen attains 
any large size as compared with the comparatively huge dimensions some- 
times attained by Orbiculina, the specimens can hardly be described as 
".stunted," for they differ little as regards external form and condition from 
typical Orbiculina of the same size, abundant in the same gatherings. 

These peneropline variations are, however, few in number as compared 
with the typical shell. A noticeable feature, when the tests are examined 
in balsam, is the marked thickening of the septal face of the shell (fig. 2), 
so that the concentric septa become enormously thick as compared with 
typical Orbiculina. Thus the strength and rigidity lost by the suppression 
of the secondary septa are to a great extent recovered. 

We have already referred to Orbiculina as presenting a remarkable 
resemblance to our genus Cycloloculina.'* The resemblance is entirely super- 
ficial so far as the typical Orbiculina is concerned ; but in these degenerate 
varieties the undivided chambers raise the resemblance to a point approaching 
true isomorphism. 

'' 0. Sulilumberger : '" Notes .suv iiuolques Foraininiferes .... tin (iolfe ilo Gascogne." 
Fuuille des Jeuues N.iturali.stes, 1883, No. 153, j). '22, PI. iii, figs. 2, 2". 

'* K. Heron- Allen and A. Earlaud : " On Cycloloculina : a new Generic Type of the 
Foramiuifora " .1. R. Micr. Soc, 190S, p. 536. 

160 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

But it nmst be confessed that we have no certain proof that a complex 
plan of growth implies a higher scale of organization tlian a simple plan, and 
the fact that some Miliolidae exhibit multiformity in some specimens and 
not in others shows that it is impossible to disregard trne dimorphism in 
tlie consideration of multiformity. To mention one classical example only, 
we should note .Schlumberger's discovery that Biloculina depressa d'Orb. is, 
in the megalospheric form, biloeuline throughout, while in the microspheric 
form it passes throngli a quinqueloculine stage, followed by a triloculine, 
before commencing its normal biloeuline arrangement, and ihnsis, at diHerent 
stages in the life-history of a single specimen, referable to three different 
genera. Again, in Aiiiculina conico-artiadata (Batscli) the megalospheric form 
is adelosine, and tlie microspheric form milioline in its earlier stages, before 
taking on the rectilinear form of growth." Orhitolitcs tenuusima Carpenter 
in its earliest stages is identical witli Opthalmidinm, and at a later stage it 
proceeds on a vert^braiine plan of growth, before adding the concentric 
orbitoline chambers.'" Remarkable specimens, showing this mulliformity, 
are among Cai-penter's original type-.specimens in the Exeter Museum. 

Mr. Sidebottom has recently brought to onr notice an interesting example 
of multiformity exhibited in a series of specimens from a dredging made oti" 
Darvel Bay (North I'.orneo, Slofnis.). Nvdosaria radictda (Linne) occurs in 
various forms, typically straight and nodosarine in the variety figured and 
described by Neugeboren as Nodotaria bet/richi, and curved and dentaline 
(= Dentalina hreris d'Orbigny). Both of these forms are megalospheric, but 
microspheric specimens also occur. In these the primordial is followed by a 
short series of cliambere, arranged on a polymorphine plan, and the shell then 
completes its growth into a series of dentaline chambers. These microspheric 
specimens are taxonomic^illy inseparable fronr d'Orbigny's type, iJimorphina 
nodoxnria, which is usvially regaided as a degenerate Polymorphina, and, taken 
without consideration of their surroundings, would be placed by syslematists 
at some distance from Nodosaria radiada (Linn^), whereas an association with 
a series of specimens from the same dredging proves that they are merely 
biological mutations -' 

These instances suHice to prove the biological futility of all our systems 
of taxonomy based on the external shell, and compel us to admit that at 

" We illustr.ite<l and described thi.s multiformity fully inourKerimba Monograph (see 
notelMn). p. 686, PI. xlv, figs. 2(>-;;;5. 

" De8<-ril>ed and illustrated hy Li.-ter (see note 6), p. 108, el teq., and 6g8. 39,40. 

"These .specimens are figured and descrilted in H. Sidebottom: "Report on the 
Ilccent ForHmiiiifera Dredged off the Eaat Coast of Australia, etc." J. R. Micr. Soc., 
1918, p. 162, I'l. iv, tigs. 1-5, and p. 146, Pl.v, figs. 18-22. 

Hkuon-Ali.I'.n and Kahi.ani) — Shuhj (ij Verncuilinapoli/titropha. 161 

present we know piacLically nolliiiig cm wliicli a truly seienlific system can 
be based. Indeed, as J. J. ]>ister has jnstly observed, "until these early 
stages have received fuller attention, and we have arrived at a conclusion as 
to the relation of tlie early to the later stages t>f the multiform tests, eflbrts 
at forming a ' natuial classitieation ' appear to be premature. "-- 

(iii) The tliird form of variation, already recognized, is ^■aliation oi 
e.xternal form, the intermediate or "passage" forms, " o^:x," to which we 
have already referred. The extreme aspect of this modification is to be found 
iu the monstrosities to which we have also referred, and shall refer again 
later. Some of tliese variations are inexplicable, being combinations of 
widely difl'erentiated genera, such as the specimen half Globigerina and half 
Nodosaria, figured by Heron-Allen iu his paper on Bionomics in 1915." 

Since that time we have come across other equally incomprehensible 
combinations of widely separated (so-called) genera, notably a Textularian, 
which, after completing its biserial shell, became in the later chambers a 
perfect Glohigcrina dntertrci, d'Orbigny, found in the " Terra Nova" dredgings 
(Stn. 96, New Zealand Benthos., Stn. 4) (tig. 3). A Miliolina terminating in 
a series of chambers set at an angle to the test which were cornuspirine with 
a tendency to Opthalmiilium, gives us a further instance (fig. 4), in this case 
the later growth taking the form of more nearlv related genera. 

It is a question whether the fistulose Polyniorphinae should be regarded 
as "monsters." We are inclined to the view that all free specimens of 
fistulose Polyniorphinae have originally lived in the sessile condition, aud 
that the fistulose out-growths represent no more than a protective covering 
secreted by the animal to protect the streaming protoplasm emerging from 
the orifice. In other words, that the fistulm are homologous with the sandy 
tubes radiating from Valvulina and other forms which are normally sessile. 
Alcock has suggested"* that this listulose cimdition results from senility and 
weakness, the protoplasmic body of the organism being no longer able to 
control its own development and the fashion of its calcai'eous investment. 
But it seems to us that if Alcock's theory were correct, fistulosity would be 
found at least in all species of Polymorphina, and probably in other genera 
as well, whereas this form of variation is practically confined to a few species 

-- Loc. cit. (note 6), p. 140. 

-' E. Heron- .\lleii : "Contributions to the Study of the Bionomics and Reproductive 
Processes of tlie Foniminifera." Pliil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ser.B, vol. ccvi, 1915, p. '2o\, 
PI. xvi, fig. 34. 

-^T. Alcock: " Proc. Lit. Pliil. Soc. Mancliester," 3rd Ser., vol. iii, 1806-7, aud 
vol. xxii, 1883, p. fi8. 

162 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

'iv) There is a fourth form of variation which has been familiar to. us for a 
long time, but which does not appear to liave been definitely recognized, 
although scanty references to it may be found in the literature of the group. 
This is the occurrence of both giant and pygmy forms of species having 
normally a definite range of size, and without environmental conditions, such 
as superabundance or deficiency of food supply, etc., to explain the variation. 
It may be granted that pygmy forms are likely to escape observation, or, if 
seen, to be regarded as immature, while giant forms are likely to attmct 
observation. Cornvspira strioluta Brady, in the deep cold water of the Faroe 
Channel at a temperature of -lO-i'C , attains a size of over an inch in diameter, 
whilst in other gatherings from various parts of the world it does not reach 
a quarter of that size." Tcchnilella hijitmtn Norman occurs in some numbers 
in one of Earland's dredgings off St. Kilda in 1.448 metres. The majority of 
the species are normal, about y, inch long, but fragments greatly exceeding 
that size also occur, which show that the perfect shells must have been quite 
1 inch in length. There is little doubt that the lai-ge coarse variety 
Haptophraginium erassimargo Norman, is a giant form of the normal H. 
caiuiricme (d'Orb.), but in this case the giant variety either replaces the 
type, or, when both are present, is as common as the normal." 

Many other instances of gigantism could be quoted, but they are as a rule 
baseil on single records, and the phenomenon will require a good deal of 
careful study before its exact meaning will be discovered. 

The evidence in support of nanism, of the existence of pygmy forms, is 
very slight, apart from one particular example, with which we shall deal at 
some length. We have observed such pygmies in CristeUaria crepidula 
(F. and M.j, and a few otlier species, but they are ditticult to separate from 
young and immature specimens. The exceptional instance is the pygmy 
form of Vfrtuuilitm polystropha (Reuss), figured and recorded by us from the 
West of Ireland in 1913," and subsequently identified from several widely 
separated localities. We were at first inclined to regard this as the 
microspheric form of the species, but our subsequent researches have proved 
it to be an adult pygmy form, showing all the modifications of the normal 
shell of the species. To these we sliall refer in greater detail when dealing 
with the s[>ecie3 Vtnifuilina pohjstropha. 

The biological significance of this phenomenon of gigantism and nanism 
is, in the present state of our knowledge of cytological bionomics, extremely 

*" Described and illastnUed by us in J. R. Micr. Soc., 1913, pp. 274-5, 6g. 36. 
*• Describt.'d and illustrated by us in '■ Knnwledge," vol. xxxiii, Xo. 508, Ifov., 1910, 
pp. 422-425, tigs. 2. 3, 4. 

*' Loc. c'U. (note 7), pp. 95-56. 

Hicron-At.lkn and KaIiLAM) — SliiJfj of Verneuilina polystropliK. 1 fi3 

obscure, bill, tlic cuuvicUon grows alinosL diiily sLrongur LliuL Lbe biolugical 
problems which confront us in Uie study of Ihe higher and highest organisms 
must eventually lind their solutiim in llic study of the unicellular organism. 
As Sir James Paget observed in liis " Lectures on Surgical Pathology," so 
long ago as 1849, " if we are ever to escape from the obscurities and uncer- 
tainties of our art, it must be througli the study of those highest laws of our 
science wliich are expressed iu tlie simplest terms in the lives of the lowest 
orders of creation." A remarkable lead in this direction is indicated in the 
late E. A. Miiichin"s Presidential Address to Section D (Zoology) at the 
British Association in 1915, " On the Evolution of the Cell," in which 
" swan-song" he recorded the bases of the remarkable line of inquiry which 
was cut short by his untimely death. It is not, we think, in any way 
preposterous to suggest that as science arrives — as arrive it must — at a 
clearer comprehension of the nucleus of the primordial cell, and of its 
constituent chromidia, the origin of such phenomena as that which we are 
discussing will be revealed." 

(v) Yet another form of variation to which insufficient attention has been 
hitherto devoted is the occurrence, in numerous species of widely separated 
genera, of tests which are either wholly or in part chitinous. It has been 
generally accepted that the replacement of the normal calcareous test by a 
chitinous investment is evidence of starved conditions of existence. But, 
however true this may be in some cases, as where foraininifera have 
extended into very brackish water, we are not prepared to accept this as a 
general explanation of the existence of chitinous \ ariation. All the evidence 
in our possession tends to show that in most, if not in all foraminifera, a 
chitinous membrane, perfoiate or imperforate, according to the type, exists 
between the protoplasmic body which it encloses and the external shell.-' 
And this chitinous wall is subject to hypertrophy, perhaps atrophy, and all 
the other variations wliich normally occur. Tests of Foraminifera, perfect 
in all respects, but formed entirely of chitin, are not uncommon objects, and 
one occasionally finds damaged individuals who have repaired their lesions 

■ * It may seem a startling and breathless generalization, but we would suggest, with 
all due caution, that in the nuclear matter may be discovered the causa ainsans of such 
phenomena, even to the rudiuieutary occurrence of the pituitary body, upon the condi- 
tions of which the phenomena of gigantism and nanism would appear to depend. 

■■^' Mr. F. Chapman writes to us from Melbourne, in answer to our inquiry, that he 
had identified "an undoubted chitinous lining" to the shells of SpiriUina gruumii, 
Chapman, recorded by him from the Upper Cambrian of Malvern (Q.J. Geol. Soc, London, 
vol. Ivi, p. 259, PI. XV, figs. 1, 10, and 11), and subsequently identified by us, as the 
oldest existing specific form of life from Clare Island {loc. cit., note 7, p. 107, PI. ix, 
figs. 2, 3). 

1 64 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

with ehitiii, or have added a chitinous ehamberlet to their otherwise normal 
shells. Amoug the monstrosities found in our Selsey Tanks was a perfectly 
twinned specimen of MassUina secans (d'Orb.), which had added at the 
junction of the shells, to serve as a general aperture, a wild-growing tube, 
and the whole of this monster was purely chitinous (fig. 5). 

In 1884 von Daday recorded a form, a chitinous polythalamian Ehizopod 
from the salt-pools of iJeva in Transylvania, for which he established a new 
genus and species Entzia teirastomcUa'", which appears to be closely related 
to if not identical witli the accepted genus Trochammina — a genus which, as 
we have recorded elsewliere, is peculiarly apt to form its test for the most 
part of chitin, supported by very few and separated quartz grains." This 
chitinous depauj>erati<>n in our specimens has usually been due to a deficient 
salinity, whereas in von Daday's organism the same variation appears to 
arise from a contrary condition of things — viz., excessive salinity. The most 
interesting feature in von Daday's discovery, and one which is very germane 
to the question.^ at issue in this paper, is the origination and evolution dc novo 
in inland watere of a polythalamian form, hitherto invariably connected with 
a marine habitat. 

We desire to speak wiili great i-eserve and caution upon this subject, in 
view of the very limited amount of information as yet obtainable I'especting 
the nature and origin of chitin. We have yet to learn how it is secreted by 
the foraminifer, and how it may be definitely identified, but we may put 
upon record the facts recorded above, and also that such cliitinous specimens 
have been found under all conditions of normality, starvation, and satiety, 
at all temperatures, and at widely dilferent depths. Wliat is required is 
data upon which to form an opinion whether the secretion of chitin in 
abnormal quantity is (a) merely a diversion of the normal function of the 
protoplasm — viz., the secretion of a shell either by the use of adventitious 
material, or by the separation of carljonate of lime from the sea-water, in 
which case this form of variation may prove to be the key to the problem of 
isomorphism : or (6) whether chitinous variation lias a distinct biological or 
pathological meaning. 

(vi) It may become a question — but it is one upon which we are not at the 
present moment prepared to enter — whether to the five modifications which 
we have now considered a sixth should not be added. This is the question 
of free and adherent forms of the same species. Many forms are found at 

*^ E. Daday: "'Ueber eine Polythnlamie tier Kochsaltztvimpel bei Deva in 
Siebenhurgen, " Zeiuchr. f. Wiss. Zool., vol. xl, 1684. p. 46.5 «/ «7. (Transl. Ann. Mag. 
X«t. Hi«., Ser. 5, vol. xiv, 18&4, p. 349. ei atq.) 

" L->c. cit. (note 7), p. S2. 

Heron-Allen and Earland — Studij of Verneuilinupoli/iitropha. 165 

some period of their iife-liistory, or in certain specialized localities, firmly 
adherent to sand grains, mollnscan fra^mcTits, or other organisms, by means 
of a distinctive cement formed of quartz grains. The biological significance 
of this modification is still obscure. It reaches, perhaps, its highest develop- 
ment in Vahndinn fnsca Will., but it has been noted by many authors." 
Williamson records Lagenae, found adherent to Fuci and Byssus by 
MacGilli^'ray, and to Antedon rosacea from Plymouth by Jeffreys," and 
among the "Euna" dredgings of Professor W. A. Herdman from the West 
of Scotland wc found a remarkable series of Tcxtularia sagittula, Defr., 
firmly adherent to algae by their apertures." 

Among the " Terra Nova" material at Antarctic Station 388, Truncatulina 
refulf/cns (Montf.) occurs abundantly in a sessile form on Bryozoa. This 
would be a normal habitat, but nearly all the specimens present an abnormal 
variation in the presence of radiating tubes of sandy material, either attached 
to the surface of the Bryozoa, or projecting freely from the organism. 

An interesting illustration of the variation due to sessile habit can be 
found in Pohif reran minictceirin, Pallas." This organism appears to ns to start 
life in one of two ways, and wliat may determine the plan it adopts is entirely 
obscure, (a) It usually starts life as an adherent primordial chamber 
surrounded by a typically rotalian series of chambers, plainly distinguishable 
when the organism is removed from its liost.^" This is immediately followed 
by an expanding encrusting base, and the organism then rises into arbores- 
cent pillars, composed of acervuline masses of irregularly shaped chambers ; 
(b) but this rotaline base is in many cases invisible when the specimen is 
detached from its base. In these cases it would appear that the creature 
has started life as a free and independent organism, consisting of a central 
chamber surrounded on all sides by smaller ones on an irregular rotaline 
plau. This was first noted by Schlumberger." This free organism then 
attaches itself to a base, and proceeds to grow on the familiar arborescent 

•'- See F. Chapman : " On the appearance of some Foraminifera in the living condi- 
dition from the Challenger Collection." Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. xxiii, 1901, 
pp. 391-395, Pis. i and ii. 

-"■^ Loc. cii. (note 1), p. 11. 

^E. Heron- Allen and A. Earland : "The Foraminifera of the of Scotland." 
Trans. Linn. Soc. (London), Ser. 2. Zoology, vol. xi, 1916, p. 229. Chapman ha.s re- 
corded and figured similar specimens from the Ki Islands ("Challenger," Stn. 232). 
Loc. cit. (note 32), p. 392, PI. i. 

■'•' See Lister. Loc. cit. (note 5), p. 123, et seq., fig 51. 

^^ .\r. Schultze : " Ueber Polycrema niiniacenm." Wiegmann's Archiv fur Naturges, 
Jahrg. 29, vol. i, 1863. p. 81, et seij., PI. viii. (Transl. Ann. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3. vol. xii, 
1863, p. 409, et seg., PI. vii, fig. 6.) 

■*" C. Sihlumberger : "Note pie'liminairo sur les Fiir.iminilerus draguus, par S A. 
le Prince Albert de Monaco." Mem. Soc. Zool., France, vol. v, 1892, p. 196, tig. 5. 

166 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

plan, and quite recently, in preparing our monograph of the Foraminifera 
biought home by the "Terra Nova" Expedition of 1910, we have found in 
dredgings from Xew Zealand specimens of these free forms, some at the 
actual moment of developing their earliest " adherent " chambers, and a series 
progressing to the most fully developed arborescent forms. 

Similar specimens from an nnrecoided locality are to be found in the 
W. B. Carpenter collection in the Museum at Exeter. It should be pointed 
out that the number of specimens of this early and free form observed is out 
of all proportion to what might be expected if it were a normal method of 

(? vii) It would be perhaps premature to establish a variation of habit 
upon what is at present, in our experience, a solitary instance ; but it will 
not be out of place to refer to the remarkable specimens of Cymhalopoia 
taMlaeformis, Brady, recorded by us from the Kerimba Archipelago,'* and 
suljsequently discussed at length by Heron-Allen." These oi-ganisms had 
" encryptetl " themselves in pits in the surface of molluscan fragments, 
enlarging their cr>pts as they grew to maturity by a process which is at 
present unknown. The instance was unique in our experience, and has not, 
so far as we are aware, been recorded by any student of the Foraminifei-a. 

It is, however, time to address ourselves to the description of our 
experiments and observations upon Vtmeuilina jtolt/siro/Jta (iJeuss). We 
were led into the inquir}', the results of which are now recorded, by two 
groups of circumstances, arising out of experiments carried out in our tanks 
at Selsey, the earlier results of which have been recorded by us elsewliere. 

The first was an experimental culture of the robust and common Miliolid, 
MasfiJina sfcam (d'Orb.) in sea-water unintentionally rendered hypertonic 
by the continual addition of well-water of marked hardness (owing to the 
presence of line), to make up for evaporation from the surface of the tank. 
The results of this experiment were first recorded in 1910.'* Not only was 
a remarkable series of wild-growing monsters produced, but a large number 
of the specimens came to maturity showing all the distinctive features 
of three previously established " varieties," to wit, jVassiJiiia dentindata, 
Costa, M. obiigvesiTuita, IJalkyard. and .\f. ftiiuisiriata, Earland." It afforded 
an excellent object-lesson and warning as to the multiplication of specific 

* E. Heron-Allen and A. Euimnd : "The Fonminifera of the Kerimba Archipelago." 
Tnms. Zool. Soc. (Loudon), vol. xx. 1915. p. 688. 

» Lor. eU. (note 23). p. 258, PI. iviu. figs. 55, 56. 

*> E. Heron- Allen and A. Earland : "The Recent and Fossil Foraminifera of the 
Shore Sands at Selsey Bill, Sussex." J. R. >licT. Soc., 1908-11 (1910). pp. 693-695. 

♦' These induced variations and monstrosities, and the three resulting species, were 
fitfured in 1915 by Heron- Alien. Lor. cit. (note 23), p. 262, PI. xviii, figs. 57, 58. 

Heuon-Ali.en A^D Eari and — Shidy of Vcrneuilwa poJystro'pha. 167 

names which, as Parker and Junes observed so early as 18G0, " keeps up a 
false notion of the value of external characters which are rarely essential, 
whilst no clue is thereby obtained to the morphological law of eacli real 
specific type."'" 

The second was the observation of the fact that certain arenaceous 
Foraminifera exhibit a tendency to select and incorporate heavy minerals 
and gems in their tests. Thus Haplophragmium agglutinatus, d'Orb., builds 
magnetite grains into its test whenever that mineral occurs in its surround- 
ings." We have recorded the same affinity for magnetite iu specimens of 
lieophax dijfiugiforinis, Brady, from the West Coast of New Zealand," and 
have recently found Jaadella acuta, Brady, from New Zealand ('' Terra Nova " 
Station 96, TO fms.), incorporating magnetite and other heavy minerals 
largely in the outer layer of its massive tests, while constructing the whole 
of the interior test of white quartz grains. Verneuilina folystroflia (Reuss) 
betrays a similar tendency to select and incorporate in its test minerals of 
all kinds, and, regard being had to the much higher specific gravity of these 
minerals as compared with that of ordinary siliceous sand-grains, the habit 
becomes highly significant. The phenomenon was fii'st forced upon our 
notice in the case of a number of specimens gathered from the Mixon 
Eeef at Selsey in 1907, described by us in 1909,*° and at greater length by 
Heron-Allen in 1915," and the experiments described below were then set 
on foot. 

The "history" of the species Vernnnliiui 'polydro^pha is in itself 
interesting as recording the stages in the evolution and diagnosis of a species, 
and we may introduce the subject with a brief summary of that history. 

The species was first described by Eeuss in 1846 as Bulimina 2}oh/st roplia, 

■•- T. Rupert Jones and W. K. Parker : " On the Rhizopodal Fauna of the 
Mediterranean." Q. J. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi, 1S60, pp. 293-294. (See also T. R. Jone.s : 
" Remarks on the Foraminifera." Monthly Micr. Jour., 1876, p. 72.) The too little 
remembered observations of W. B. Carpenter upon systematists who described 
" specimens " instead of "species," require no excuse for quotation. '-Everyone who 
makes a bad species is really doing a serious detriment to science ; whilst ever3'one who 
proves the identity of species previously accounted distinct is contributing towards its 
simplification, and is therefore one of its truest benefactors." (Royal lust., Gt. Britain, 
1858, Mar. 12, Reprint, p. 6.) In this connexion we may refer to our recently 
published paper on Tliitrammiiia papillata, Brady. A Study in Variation. (J. R. Micr. 
Soc, 1918, pp. 530-557, Pis. xxvi-xxx.): in which we established tlie morphological 
identity of all the previously recorded " species" of Thurammina. 

^^ Described and figured by us in "Knowledge." Loc. cit (note 2t)), p. 421, fig. 1. 

■** Luc. cit. (note 23), p. 2G7, PI. xviii, fig. 64. 

■1^ Loc. cit. (note 40), 1909, p .327, and E. Heron-Allen. J. R. Micr. Soc. 191.% 
pp. 548-549. 

«ioc. cit. (note 23), p. 2()7. 

168 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

with the following diagnosis, in which the arenaceous constitution of tlie test 
is not referred to.'' 

" Bulimina jpob/s/ropha. Distinguishes itself from all other species hy 
the great number of its convolutions, and by its slender elongated-egg 
configuration. It is 1-1"5 mm. high, rounded off above, obtusely (bluntly) 
pointed ; 9-10 obscure convolutions, each consisting of three moderately 
arched chambers separated by slender but distinct septa. The upper 
chambers, especially the last, extremely arched. Ou the inner edge of the 
last chamber is the aperture, as a small semicircular cutting-out. 

" Eare in the Planer chalk of Weisskirchlitz." 

In 1854 the species was described anew by Schultze as Pol i/morphina 
silicca.*' It must be borne in mind that at this time the arenaceous Foramini- 
fera had not received tlie attention, separation, and classification which 
resulted later from the work of Brady, Parker, and Jones. The diagnosis 
of Schultze was as follows : — 

" Polymorphina silicea nov. spec. A botryoid (grape-cluster-like}, 
sometimes slightly compressed sliell, on which only the last- formed, rather 
strongly prominent chambers arc distinctly \ isible ; the small older ones 
are covered up. The shell is yellow in colour, marked by many quite 
irregular and non-perforating depressions, and is composed for the most part 
of silica. A single, large, round aperture is situated ou the prominent part 
uf the last chamber, through which the animal protrudes numerous fine 
pseudopodia. Greatest diameter of the ."hell, 0'2-lniin. 

" This remarkable species, of which 1 found one living and many dead 
specimens at Ancona, and which is distinguished fiom all hitherto known 
Foraminifera by its siliceous cuirass, I have left in the genus Polymorphina, 
on account of its jirecisely similar construction to the other species of the 
genus, although the different anomalous) chemical constitution of the shell 
might properly justify the institution of a new one. I have not hitherto been 
able to establish (identify) the presence of silica in the shell in any other 
species of this genns." 

Schultze came to the erroneous conclusion that the sand-grains forming 
the test were not gathered from its suiToundings by the organism, but were 
secreted by the animal itself, in the same manner as the plates of Dilllugia. 
He goes on : — 

"That the silica (which is identified by its complete insolubility in 

*• A. E. Rsu&s ; " Die Versteinerungen der Bohmischen Kreideformation." 
Stuttgart, 1845-C, Part 11 (1*46). p. 1U9, PI. xxiv, fig. .'.3. 

** M. S. .Schtiltze: " Ueber den Organismus der PolythnUniien (Foraminiferen)." 
LviprJii. 18."»4, p. fit, PI. vi. fis;». lU, 11. and Earland — study of Vcrneuilina folyniropha. 169 

mineral acids) docs uoL arise from a mixing into Lhc shell of sand-grains 
cemented together appears to be probable from the smooth upper surface of 
the sliell, and the histcilogical facts revealed liy fragments." 

He records that his F. silicea is not the only Foraminifer " with a 
siliceous cuirass," as he has had under Ins observation a living arenaceous 
polythalamian (which he describes, but does not figure or name), and calls 
attention to ilie two d'Orbignyan species, Spirolina {llaplophraf/mium) 
agglutinans and Bigcnerina af/i/lutmcms "" {B. nodosaria, d'Orb.). 

In 1858 Williamson described the form as Bidimina scabra,^" calling 
attention to Schultze's species {ante), and noting the difference in the aperture 
as described. He properly doubts the accuracy of Schidtze's figure in this 
respect, and regards the two as identical, which they are. 

It was Carpenter, Parker, and Jones, in 1862, who recognized H. arcnacca 
(scaira) Will, as an arenaceous Textularian,*'' transferred it to the genus 
Verueuilina of d'Orbigny, and suggested in the Appendix (p. 311) the name 
Vcrne^dlina polystropha. The genus Verueuilina was created by d'Orbigny, 
and was subsequently diagnosed as follows by Parker and Jones in 1 865 " 
in describing this species : — 

'J'extularia agglutinans, d'Orb., var. ( Vcrneuilina) polystropha, Eeuss., sp. 

" When Textulariae have a triple row of alternating chambeis, as is not 
unusual with them, they are termed Verneuilinae ; having commenced 
triserially, they may afterwards take on a biserial or uniserial arrangement 
of chambers, and are known as Gaudryina, Clavulina, &c. Some that have a 
triple series of chambers are so much twisted on the axis as to liave a 
buliminoid aspect ; a slight approach to tins condition is shown in 
VerneuiUna polystropha (refs. as above). In Verneuilina the aperture ceases 
to be transverse, becoming drawn upwards, as it were, across the septal plane 
more and more in the later chambers, until it ceases to be even a notch, and 
becomes terminal and round, as it is in Bigeuerinae. 

" F. polystropha may be said to be a small, vesicular, arrested verneuiline 
Textularia ; sandy, twisted on its axis, and very red in colour. It is of wide 
distribution, living in all latitudes ; it is found fossil in the Tertiary and 
Cretaceous beds." 

*" A. d'Orbigny : Forarainiferes fossiles du Bassin Tertiaiie de Vienue. Paris, 1S46. 
p. 137, PI. vii, tigs. 10-12, and p. 238, PI. xiv, figs. 8-10. 

™ W. C. Williamson : " Recent Foiaminifera of Great Britain " (Ray Society), 1868, 
p. 65, figs. 136, 137. In the explanation of the plates it is called B. areiuicea. 

*' Loc. cit, note 15, p. 192. 

s- W. K. Parker and T. R. Jones : " iS'orth Atlantic .uid Arctic Foraiiiiiiifci.i," Phil. 
Trans. Roy. Soc, 18G5, p. 371, PI. xv, fig. 20. 

K.l.A. PJSOC, vol., XXXV. SKCI. IS. [ C* J 

170 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The species is recorded witli more or less description in 1870 by Fischer ; " 
in 1878 by Brady ;" in 1884 by Brady in the " Challenger Eeport ;"" and 
in 1893, with a good diagnosis, by Egger ; ^'^ but the next (and last) important 
lecords are those of Goes, who in 1894 " gives one of his condensed but 
always satisfactory diagnoses : " Arenaceous, bulimine, oval, or fusiform. 
Aperture either sutural, an oblique fissure ; or extra-sutural, comma-shaped." 

He figures a series of specimens of the normal form, but he also figures 
(figs. 262-3), under the name of V. pi/f/muca (? Egger) Brady, the pygmy 
form to which we have already referred in this paper as an example of 
nanism or dwarf variation." (Joes was incorrect in his identification of 
these specimens as V. pygmata, Egger, which is a form of entirely different 
aspect and construction. In 1896 Goes appears to have recognized his 
mistake, for he figures the form again from the Pacific Ocean (995 fms.)," 
and names it V. pusUla, which varietal name for ta.xonomical reasons it is 
desirable to retain for the dwarf form. Gol'S regarded his V. pusilla as an 
immature form of Oaudn/iiui scuhrn Brady, to whicli, however, it bears little 
resemblance. It may be noted that the 1894 figure represents a long, narrow 
form, and the 1896 figure a broader form 

It should be observed that the normal V. poli/stropha is a remarkably 
"constant" form, singularly free from the variations and monstrosities 
which occur under normal circunisLances among other foraminifera. It may 
also be remarked that thougii the normal test is constructed of minute sand 
grains, closely and neatly cemented together by means of a deep-brown 
ferruginous cement, with their flattest sides turned outwards, individuals are 
far from uncommon which a)>pear to be white or light in colour owing to the 

^^ P. Fischer: "' Fonniiiiifure-M iiiariiih du Departeinent do In Gironde," Actes Soc. 
Linn. Bordcnux. vol xvii, 1870, p. 3!)3 (in tlie reprint, p. Go}, JS'o 32. 

** H. B. Brady : " Kcticularian . . . Uhizopoda of the North Polar Expedition of 
1875-6," .\nn. and .Mag. Nat. Hist., .Scr. 5, vol. i, 1878, p. 43<i, fig. 9, a, b, c. 

" H. B. Brady: " Iteport on the .Scientific Results d the Voyage of H.M.S. 
'ChalloDger' (/oology)," vol. ix, Ixmdon, 1H84, p. 386, PI. xlvi, figs. 15-17. 

^ J. G. Egger: " Furaminiferen aus Meeresgnindproben gelothct . . . von S. M. 
Sch. • Gazelle ' .\bh. d. K. bayer. Ak. Wias. (Munich)," II CI. vol. xviii, 1893. Pt. IT, 
p. 280, PI. vii, figs. 17. 18. 

~ A. Goes: '"A Synnjisis of the Arctic and .Scaiidin»%'ian Recent Foraminifera," 
K. Svensk. Vetcnsk. Ak. Handl. Stockholm, vol. xxv (189^), p. 32, PI. vii, figs. 247-255. 
• ■ '" Loe. cU. : Goes gives as references for the synonymy of this dwarf form, J. G. 
Egger: " Die Foraminiferen der Miocan Schichten bei Ortenburg in Nieder Bayem," 
in Leoohard and Bronn's .Jahrbuch, 1857. p. 284, PI. xii, figs. 10, 11 ; Parker and Jones, 
1865 (u< supra), and Brady, 1884 (i<< lu/ira), PI. xlvii (misprinted " t. 4. 7."), figs. 4-7. 

".X. Goes: '• Heiwrta on the Dredging 0|>«ratiuns . . . carried on . by the U.S. 
Steamer ' Albatross,' " Pt. zx, Foraminifera, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 
Cunbridge (L' S A.}, 18!m;. p. 39. I'l. v, tigs. 6-8. 

Heron-Ai-lkn AN11 KAiM.ANn — Stud/i of VeniciiUiiKi poliislrnjilui. 171 

absence of ferruginons material in theii* cement (figs. 34, 35). Not infre- 
quently a test is brown (ferruginous) for tlie greater part of its length, and 
then the later and latest chambers are white. In some gatherings also, and 
especially among young tests, the organism abandons its smooth haliit, and 
presents a rough exterior surface, the sand grains not being so carefully 
arranged as to present a flat surface to the outside. 

We have made a close study of the form based upon a great number of 
specimens, gathered from widely separated localities, and have also cultivated 
a great many living specimens in our tanks at Selsey, and we have succeeded 
in demonstrating that the species exhibits the phenomena of dimorphism 
in {a) a long form, which is megalosplieric,*" and {h) a short form, which is 
always microspheric.^' This demonstration was arrived at by means of 
skiagraphs made for us by Mr. J. E. Barnard, f.k.m.s. The nature of the 
test, and the extreme minuteness and obscurity of the primordial chambers, 
made it impossible to produce satisfactory sections, but the skiagraphs, which 
we illustrate, demonstrate clearly the dimorphism of the species (figs 49, 50, 
on page 177). 

The megalospherie form [a) is long, blunt, and rounded at tlie aboral 
extremity (or apex), and more or less parallel-sided in its growth, the taper- 
ing being very gradual (fig. 6). The primordial chamber is large, spherical, 
chitinous under a sandy investment (fig. 7), and sometimes divided into two 
chambers by an internal chitinous septum (fig. 8). This megalospherie form 
is textularian at the commencement. The normal triserial arrangement of 
the chambers commences immediately after the first pair of chambers, the 
second chamber being sometimes set by the side of, and flattened against, the 

This subdivision of the primordial chamber by an internal septum (fig. 8) 
is too striking not to be at once credited with a distinct biological signifi- 
cance. It has already been noted by Wedekind in connexion with certain 
species of Nummulites ; but he regarded it as being merely an abnormality 
resulting from the primordial union of two individuals." The same pheno- 
menon has been figured by d'Archiac, de la Harpe, and Pre\'er in other 
Nummulites. Keferences to their figures will be found in an important 
paper by H. Douville under the title " Les Foraminifferes sont-ils toujours 
unicellulaires ? "" He deals at some length with the subject, and ascribes 
■the phenomenon to karyokinetic division of the nucleus, and 

^ Loc. cit. (note 7), PI. iv, fig. 1. "' Ihid., fig. 2. 

"- Scarfl' and Wedekind: " Dcr oberkarboue Sapropslit Spitzbergeu," Bull. Geol. 
Inst. Univ. Upsala. vol. x, 1910-11, Nos. 19, 20, p. 103. 
<» Comp. Rend. Ac Sci. Paris, vol, clxvii (1918), p. 140. 

[67 21 

172 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

suggests a sexual association as a possible explanation of the condition in 
question. He lays stress upon the fact which we have ourselves observed in 
the tests now under discussion, viz. : that the first chamber of the spiral series 
is placed as it were astride of the flattened or plane septum dividing the 
twin primordial chambers, which he regards as proof that this latter chamber 
is formed by the equal fusion of the protoplasmic contents of "the two 
primordial chambei^. 

The diameter of the megalosphere, measured across the interior of the 
chitinous wall so as to eliminate tlie varying thickness of the sandy wall, 
averages 70/i, but primordials have been measured as low as 50/<, and as 
high as 90/i, though ihese exceptions are rare. A primordial exhibiting an 
internal septum was found to be 50 x 6S/i. 

The mierospheric form (b), on the other hami, is short, and has a sharply 
pointed test, commencing with a number of minute chitinous chambers 
invested with very fine sand (fig. 9). The arrangement of these chamber's is 
not always easily identifiable. They are sometimes acervuline, sometimes 
in a flatt«ned, rotaline spire, sonietimcs apjiarently spimjileetine. Or it may 
perhaps Ije always a spiroplectine armngement, set at uitl'ering angles to the 
main axis, and so presenting different aspects. These early chambers are 
followed by numerous triserial chambers, very small at first, and then 
rapidly increasing in size so as to give a turgid appearance to the test. The 
chambers are chitinous under a sandy investment for some distance from the 
apex, and they are very numerous as compared with the megalospheric form 
(fig. 10). The microsphere is not always easy to discover or measure, as it is 
often surrounded by a mass of small chaml>eis, spirally or irregularly arranged ; 
but a careful series of measurements gives an average of i:5-1.5/i. A few 
individuals were found with larger microspheres, including one of 2bfi and 
one of 30m. 

All the (6i short broad forms appear to be invariably mierospheric. A 
few of the long forms are to be found which, instead of lieing blunt and 
rounded at the apex, are finely pointed, and these are mierospheric also. 

We had in past years observed an occasional dwarf specimen of 
VirntuUina ]>oii/siro]iha in seveial Goldseeker dredgings, but without 
realizing that they possessed any particular interest. But in 1913, when we 
found these dwarfs in material which we were examining for our Clare 
Lsland paper, we realized that they were exact facsimiles of the normal 
type in constructi'^n, number of chainbers, and the existence of a long form 
and a short fonn." The only points of difference appeared to be the relative 

♦* Loc. cU. (nute 7), fig*. 3-5. 

Hkron-Aij.en and Kaki-anu — Studi/ of Verneuilina pob/strophd. 173 

size of the long and short dwarfs, as compared with tlie uoniial forms, wliich 
was about as 1 to 10, and their extreme rarity. ]u many of our dredgings 
the normal V. polystroplia was a common type ; but the dwarfs, even when 
present at all, formed hut a minute fraction of the specimens, probably less 
than •! per cent. We had not up to this time identified these dwarfs with 
the figures of V. pusilla Goes, and in our paper we inclined to the view that 
they might prove to be the microspheric type of V. polystro/iha, but admitted 
that there was no evidence to prove this theory. 

Since that time we have devoted a considerable amount of work to this 
little form V. pusilla, and in view of our demonstration of dimorphism in 
the normal types of V. polystroplui, our theory of the microspheric nature of 
V. piisilla must be abandoned. All the evidence we have accumulated tends 
to show that it is merely an example of dwarfing or nanism. 

V. pusUla is unquestionably very rare. In searching for it we have 
re-examined some dozens of dredgings in which the normal V. /lolyslropha 
occurs, but liave added very few records to those previously known. More- 
over, with one exception, the specimens found in any particular gathering are 
in the infinitesimal proportion already mentioned. The single exception is 
a very muddy dredging made in 15 fms. off the Tan Buoy, Millport, in the 
Clyde area, where V. pusilla occurs in considerable numbers, forming 
perhaps as much as 1 per cent, of the total specimens of V. piolystropha. 
From these specimens we have drawn up the following diagnosis of the 

Test free, minute, very finely arenaceous. Colour usually deeply 
ferruginous, but often white in the later chambers, and sometimes white 
throughout. Occurring in two forms — (1) a long form gentl)' tapering to 
the aboral extremity, commencing with a spherical primordial chamber of 
chitin, without sandy investment, which projects from the apex, followed 
immediately by a triserial arrangement of sandy chambers regularly 
increasing in size (figs. 11 and 12). Average length of full-grown specimens, 
about "3 mm., but attaining at times '4 mm. 

(2) A short form rapidly increasing in breadth owuig to turgidity of 
chambers. Aboral extreniity, when perfect, terminating in a spherical 
primordial chamber, but in most of the specimens examined this was wanting, 
and the test commenced directly with a triserial arrangement of chambers 
(fig. 13). Average length, -17 mm., but attaining -il mm. 

The long and short forms are exact facsimiles in miniature of the normal 
V. polysiropha occurring in the same gatherings, but their size varies 
between one-sixth and one-tenth of tlie normal. The long dwarf form 
is of much more frequent occurrence than the short, which has uot been 

174 Procfedingf of the Royal Irish Academy. 

observed at all in some (hedgiiigs wliere the long form occurs. At Tan 
Buoy, Millport, the proportion of long to short is about 50 to 1. 

Measurement of the primordial chamljers reveals the striking fact that 
the globular primordial chamber of the long dwarf form averages about 
15^. It will be observed that this agrees with the average primonlial of 
the microspliere of the nonual form, and we are therefore faced with the fact 
that a tapering shell is connected with the megalosphere in the normal form, 
but with the miciosphere in the dwarf. As with the normal form, there are 
exceptional specimens in which the microsphere measured as little as 12/i 
and as much as 18//. 

Tlie measurements of primordials of the short dwarf form offer no solution 
to the problem. Of the relatively few specimens available, some agreed with 
the long form, having a diameter of 15/i, but other specimens gave a 
diameter of IS/i, 20/i, 25|i, the last being nearly double the average size, and 
noticeably large and thin walled. As already stated, the primordial is 
frequently missing in the short form, though very rarely wanting in the 
long. What the significance of these differences may be we cannot at 
present say. The only localities from which these pygmy forms have been 
recorded are as follows : — 

(i) Greenland, 35-50 m. {passim, Goes, 1894). 
(ii) Pacific Ocean, 995 fms. Goes, 1896. 
(iii) Clare Island (W. of Ireland,\ H.-A. and E., 1913. 
(iv) Millport (off the Tan Buoy), H.-A. and E. 
|(v) Loch Striven, 70 fms. (W. Scotland), H.-A. and E. 
(vi) Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada), 212 fms., H.-A. and E. 
(\-ii) Terra Nova Stn. 355 (Antarctic Benthos, 13), 300 fms. 
H.-A. and E. 

We have never observed the dwarf in the living state or found it in our 
tanks. This dwarf, or pygmy, form cannot be confused with young specimens 
of the noi-mal form. The latter occur in quantity in any material in which 
the species is common, and exhibit as a rule a primordial chamber, and one, 
or perhaps two, triserial groups of chambers (fig. 14). They are, exteriorly, 
rough in texture, and cannot be mistaken for the smooth and many-chambered 
dwarf V. piisilla Goes. 

The marked tendency of V. polystropha to select and incorporate heavy 
minerals among the nonual siliceous sand gi-ains, of which it constructs its 
tests, presents a biological problem which is still far from solution, but the 
fact stands out with striking prominence (figs. 15, 16). We have referred 
above to our eailiest observations of this phenomenon, which aroused con- 

IIkimn-Ai.i.KM AMI! V.KH\JiH\i~-StuH^ nf Verneuilina polyttmphn. 17i 

niiicrnblo intormt wluni wu linil |>ii)iImiIim1 ilicm. With • view to mrryinit 
llio matter further, wc had made for un s fiiic muhI — »liiii«'. n tnuii— hj llie 
oniahing of rough gems, inoluiJing ruby, fuip|ihirv, omorald, topaz, olivine. 
|H<ndi>t, t;nrnot, t'>uriiialiiii% •ml nthfrn. Tliin wm hhkxI «ritli >'0 |H'r r«*nt. 
• >f ordinary naiul atul n luiinU'r of living ii|K*ciiiiftiit of T /N>/ys/ii'/>A>i, wajihr<l 
from wwhIs nt the Mixmi Kcvf ^a grtuip of ruck* osponctl at low tide about 
a iiiilo Houth of the |M>inl of Svlaoy Kill, Suhmx), were placed with thia 
gt'innaiMl in two tjinkit. one litlml with iionnal M-n-wnler, an<l ihc odirr Tillrd 
with (M>u water ruudcrvd hy]>urt<>nic by doubling' thi- noniial lime cuntcht by 
the addition of 2*8 gr. of Chloride of Calcium [>er litre of aea- water. 

The linil attempt proved a failure. Owing lu the faet that the gems liad 
Uvn (tuMkhI with *\w\ rollem, the itand contained no much iron that all lift* 
in the tAiiktt died. The nand wait removed. Im>iIo<I in acid to eliminate thi- 
iron, wa«he<t and dric<l, and the experiment renewed. As a renult of tiie 
wajihing.a good deal of the finer aand waa inevitably lont, but thijt iinexpcct4xl 
factor ban in the result incn-jwed the interejil of the e.\|>erimenlii. which 
were commcnce<l in the nprin^of 1915. The creatures were left undiiilurt«<l 
(excepting that the ovaiMtration waa compeiiwitc<l by the addition when 
re«|uire«l of rain-walcrj to increaao and multiply until the spring of 1910, 
when the (onteiila of lM>th (ankft were removed, wa«hed, and examined. 
In lM)tli taiikM the rc«ult« exceeded our aiiticii«tions. 

MoMl of the adult testa, and all the younger ones, which had been bom 
in the tankn liad incorporated gem-sand in their testa (figs. 17, 18), and a 
profMirtion of the creatures had utiliziil g(>m-splinteni of a niu* and shape 
ull4-rly ili8pro{Kirtioiiate to the size of the testa, thus prtHlticing a variety 
which preseiitu a striking contrast to the iionual ly|>e, which, as we have 
observcii, is usually of a neat and smooth external texture (figa. 19-'J.'t). 'Dm- 
tendency of y./>o/^ilrv/>ha to utilize heavy minerals and its selective |iowers 
appear therefore to us to be conclusively establishetl. for the speciBc gravity 
of the gems employiHl l>eing much higher than that of quarlx sand, 'J°6*> 
(gamot. the commonest gem in the aaiid, having a ap. gr. of 3*7 to 4), the gem 
fragments always sink in the saml at the bottom of the lank. Ivbiw tin- 
surfoco Uyer, whiob would form Uio norw*l habitn' -' •* - K rtiiunifor." 

*'<hirfnand. Mr AtLftn U Dick, «rb<>luui nuuir ■ ajiocukt •tuiij >>l thr lic-«i ) niinvrmla 
to Iw (iiuiid in ftlmiMt «ll •And*. h«i> •ug(mlr<l lh>( in inoting ••let (hv lighicr *»iiii M 
cualiniMlIx Imiiiik ii«*))c<1 •••jr b)r vlutruklKHi, la^Ting th» hc««y ipib«r*l> on lltv turiMw, 
bal wo rKniv>t accwiit ihu ihpor; in (kc« •■( the comtilii-iui ubtAinini; in <^t laiik>. aiul (•>! 
ottirr rv**-iui ahich ate aol uut •! Irnijlh in lipn>u Allrn* " Ktalvotcnl i>a tits T)tc<i<7 
•od l'hon<-raciui u( l'ur|>iMi and Ini< " > ihibtled I7 ihc l*rM»«i«. •« illtwtrKlod by 

HelocUoii utd ILcluktioiu m ihr f : h," Juurn. II. Mxt. Nc , i'.fl.:'. |> Ma 


176 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Auother surprise awaited us when we came to examine the material from 
the tank which had been filled with superlimed (hypertonic) sea-wat«r. A 
considerable proportion of the specimens of Vcrnatilina pohjstroplia were 
monsters. They include specimens witli supernumei-ary or abortive ch'ambers, 
in some cases almost fistulose. Other specimens born in our tank were 
actual monstrosities. There were complete pairs of tests joined together 
mouth to apex (fig. 24\ and other specimens joined apex to apex (figs. 25-27), 
and yet others presenting every conceivable eccentricity of foini and 
development (figs. 28-33). The influence of artificially enriched wat«r upon 
the life-habits of the Foraminifera appears therefore to us to be established 
in the case of V. pohjstropha in the same way as it was in the earlier 
esperiment with MassUina secans. 

As a check experiment, we placed in the same superlimed water a 
quantity of living Massilina secans. When examined it was found that tests 
presumably adult when placed in the tank had added later monstrous 
chambers, whilst others born in the tank were wholly monstrous ah initio, 
the chambers running riot, as it were (figs. 36-43) ; and again we found, 
sometimes combined in a single test, the characteristic features of the three 
species produced in the earlier experiment. Other specimens had proceeded, 
after the completion of the milioline shell, to add rectilinear chambers in the 
manner of Vertebralina or Articulina(fig. 44). In one instance a perfectly 
chitiaous shell had added a terminal chamber perfectly and normally 
calcareous (fig. 45). 

Whilst this paper has been in course of preparation, we have received 
fronj Mr. Henry Sidebottom a small sample of material dredged in eight 
fathoms from " White Dog's Anchorage, River Min, China," containing a 
remarkable series of tests of Tertulnria lucidtmta, Brady, some of wliich 
exhibit the same striking feature of projecting mineial fragments as our new 
Selsey variety of V. pdyistropha (figs. 46-48). The occurrence is of greal 
interest, because the Textularians are as a rule very neat builders. Indeed 
outside the Astrorhizidae the inxariable habit of species constructing 
adventitious tests is to incorporate the material employed as evenly as 
possible. We have no information as to the nature of the dredging, but it 
seems possible that the Eiver Win Textularians suffered from the same lack 
of fine material as the Verneuilinae in our Selsey tank, and so were forced 
to employ mineral fragments of abnormal size. 

To sum up the results of the observations which are recorded in this paper, 
it seems clear that if the biological characters which determine species are 
originated and evolved, as appears to be the case in the Metazoa, by the 
circumstances of environment, the argument holds good with enormously 

Heron-Allen and Eaki-ano — Study of Verneuilina polystrojjha. 177 

superior force in tlie Protozoa — and for lliat very reason should be approaclied 
and dealt with with the utmost caution. As far as the Foraminifera are 
concerned, it seems to us that the various systems of classification which 
have been successively suggested, and accepted, are more or less artilicial 
and unscientific. Taking a single example, it seems to us that the whole of 
Brady's Family, the Lituolidae, should be redistributed (as suggested by 
Biitschli and lister) among their hyaline and porcellanous isomorphs 

Until the time arrives, if it ever does, when science will be able to 
discriminate between the protoplasm of different protozoa, it will be necessary 
to employ the plan of construction and arrangement of the chambers as a 
basis for the taxonomical arrangement of the Foraminifera, although we 
already possess proof that such plans of growth are subject to change even in 
individual species. But the time must come when the genera of Foraminifera 
will be grouped on a more natural system than at present; on a system in 
which tlie processes of construction, and habits of growth and reproduction, 
will be counted of more value than the material employed in the construction 
of the test. For, if a box-maker had no wood, he would use some other 
material ; he would produce a different kind of box, but it would nut neces- 
sarily be a dill'ereut " species " of box ; and so if the animal of Technitella (for 
example) had no spicules to work with, it would use something else, but this 
should not result in a different genus, even though v/e should not be able to 
recognize its origin, or to identify it as a Technitella. 




'P^G, ^Q.— Venieutiina polysiropha (Reuss). Skiagraubs 
normal microspheric specimens. 

I'lG. 50. — Vertietiiitua polystropka (Rlmiss). ifkiaRrapIis 
of normal raegalosphcric spccmifus. 

H.I. A. PUOO,, VOL. XXXV, SECT. 11. 


t 178 J 



IJy T. a. STErHENSON, M.Sc, 
Deinonsti-atoi- in Zoology, UniveisiLy College of Wales, Aberystwyth. 

(Plates XIX, XX.) 


Rt-ad May 10. I'ublUhed Auau»T I'J, l'J20. 

The si>eciineii.s wliicli imjvide tlie inatt-riiil for iliis .sliort ijaptr are part 
of a colleclioii of Actiniaria taken oil' Ireland by the Fisherie.s Urancli of tiie 
Department of Agricnlture and Teciinical Instruction for Ireland during the 
yeare 1899-1 9 li! ; and a dcsciiplion of other species in this collection will be 
found in a recent number of these Proceedings (vol. .\.\.\iv, section U, No. 7, 
pp. lOG-164). 

The genus Coralliniorphus was founded by Moseley in Trans. Linn. Soc., 
Second Series, vol. i, Zool., 1879, p. 2!)9, with V. jyrofuiubts described first in- 
onler, then C. ri/fuiii.s. li. Hertwig wrote a good deal more about the genus 
in his Report (and later in the Supplementary Report) on the Challenger 
Actiniae, and it has been mentioned by other authors. 

Corallimorphus, Moseley, 1879. 

Stichodactyline Actiniaria, with weak musculature throughout. Body- 
wall ectoderm has weak longitudinal musculature. No sphincter. No ciliated 
streaks to the mesenterial filaments, and no true actinojiliaryngeal grooves. 
Body-wall and oral disc may be very thick and cartilaginous, and animal 
may attain fairly large size. Tentacles simple, and all knobbed at the tip, 
divided into two sorts, marginal and discal. There is never more than one 
tentacle of each sort arising from one and the same endocoel. The exocoelic 
tentacles are the smallest of the marginal series, taken on the whole, and the 
discal tentacles correspond to the endocoels of the inner marginal tentacles. 

Stephionson — Tlie Oenus Coratlimorphus. 17'J 

C. rigidus, Moseley. 
(Plates XIX, XX ; text-ligr,. 1 ami 2.) 

Locality.— SR. 330. May 12, 190G. Lat. N. 51^ 1'.)'; Lniig. VV. 12'' 20'. 
Trawl, 673-720 fathoms. 2 specimens. 

Measurements : (i) Larger Specimen. — Diaiiiw. of pedal (Hhc, 5'6 x ■4'4 cm. ; 
oral disc, 7'0 x 6'1 cm. Length of a large tentacle, lo cm. Height of 
body, 23 cm. Length of month, 1"75 cm. 

(ii) Smaller specimen. — Height of body, L4 cm. Diam. of oral disc, 
3-8 cm. 

External characters. — The two specimens are photographed in PI. XIX, 
and this shows the general appearance very well, as seen from above. I am 
indebted to Mr. F. Culliford, of Aberystwyth, for the photograph. The 
smaller specimen is attached to a piece of stone like coal. The body is rigid 
and glassy ; so is the oral disc, into which the body-wall directly passes, 
without any special margin. The mesogloea is interesting. In the oral disc 
and most of the body-wall it is extraordinarily thick (as a glance at Y and Z, 
text-fig. 2, will show), and is firm and semi-transparent, rather like soft 
cartilage. In the actinopharynx and pedal disc it is not usually thick (see Z). 
The larger specimen has the pedal disc very scarred, and smaller than the oral 
disc, whereas in the smaller it is well expanded, and hardly if at all smaller 
than the oral. The oral disc has not very distinct radii. The large speci- 
men has 42 ridges and furrows on its body-wall, the furrows corresponding 
to the mesenterial insertions, the ridges to the exo- and eudocoels. Text- 
fig. 2, Y, shows a diagram of a transverse section of body-wall, actinopharynx, 
and directive mesenteries in one-half of the larger animal. It displays the 
thick wall with its ridges, and shows how the furrows correspond to mesen- 
terial insertions. These insertions are indicated by breaks in the boundary- 
line of the inner side of the wall, and it will also be noticed that the exocoels 
and endocoels are often pointed in section ; the mesenteries themselves, 
except the directives, are omitted ; they are too complicated for inclusion in 
an outline sketch. The ridges on the body are less definite in the small 
specimen. The oral disc is fiat and thick, and the tentacltjs pass through it 
as tubes lined by endoderm. Text-iig. 2, Z, sliould be referred to here ; it 
represents in outline a vertical section through one-half of the body of the 
large specimen, passing through a directive endocoel, and thus including 
2 tentacles, one marginal and one discal. All the tentacles, both marginal 
and discal, consist of a shat'L and a terminal knob, the shaft being ruliier 

[A- 2] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

flaccid. There are two sorts of tentacles : some occur near the margin of the 
disc, and are arranged in alternating cycles, decreasing in size from within 
outwards, though there may be irregularities about size ; others occur on 
the disc itself, between the peripheral series and the moutli, and these too 
are arranged in cycles, but are placed on the same radii as some of the 

Kio. 1. 
Number* indicntc lentacle-cydes. 

marginal set. In the large animal the maipnal tentacles are 6 + 15+21 t 
26 = 68 in number ; in the small one they are 6 + 14 + 20 + 20 = 60, and 
here one of the secondary tentacles is double. Tlie disc-tentacles occur on 
radii l>elongint,' to the o inner cycles of marginal tentacles ; they run 5 + 15 
+ 11 = 31 in the large si)ecimcn (one of the directive radii having no tentacle 
but its marginal one), and 6 + 14 * I in the smaller. In each case the 3rd 

S'lKPHioNKoN — The Genus Coralliinorphvs. 181 

cycle is incomplete. Text-fig. 1 i.s a \\\a\) of the teiitacle-anaiigenicnt of the 
large specimen. Actual )iropoiti(inK arc not meant li> be rcjiresentecl in it. 
The marginal tentacles are shown in dutline, the others as circles, and the 
main mesenteries are shown as single lines radiating from the actinopharynx. 
It will he noticed that where 4th cycle tentacles appear at the margin they 
come one on each side of a 3rd cycle tentacle, and that ord cycle disc- 
tentacles do not occur over the endocoel of any iJrd cycle marginal tentacle 
which has not yet attained its 4th cycle neighbours. 

Internal slrv.ctvir. — There are 21 pairs of laige mesenteries whieli join the 
actinopharynx. They include 2 pairs of apparent directives, and 10 lateral 
pairs on one side, 9 on the other. This and all subsequent anatomy applies 
to the large specimen ; the small one I did not dissect. There are smaller 
mesenteries, apart from the 21 main pairs, probably occurring in all sectors 
where 4th cycle tentacles are found. 1 confirmed their existence in 2 sectors, 
but did not wish to damage the specimen enough to do so in all ; however, 
they doubtless exist. I could not exactly determine their extent, nor can I 
say much about the other mesenteries, because the internal preservation is 
not good, and more could not be ascertained without complete destruction of 
the specimen. The large mesenteries fill up the coelenteron, and are 
thick and much twisted and complicated in places. They have a most curious 
appearance in sections. The endoderm is thick, the mesogloea variable— it 
is typically thick and curiously lobed in outline where the mesentery leaves 
the body-wall, then very thin and irregular, and twisted up in the middle 
part of the mesentery, and thick again close to the actinopharynx, at the 
level taken by my sections. The part of a mesentery where it joins the wall 
is shown in I'l. XX, fig. 2, which includes the lobed and thickened part of 
the mesogloea, and also the beginning of the thin part, and shows the general 
look of the endoderm. The body-wall is at the bottom end of the figure. 
Fig. 4 shows simply the mesogloea from another mesentery, anil only the 
pare adjacent to the body-wall, as a less lobed example. The musculature of 
the mesenteries is merely a feeble fringe, hardly visible in the ligure, and not 
forming processes, as iu most anemones. The directives arc slmrlcr and 
thicker throughout than most of the others. 

There is no perceptible dillerentiation of siphonoglyphcs. The mesen- 
terial filaments in my sections are simple (PI. XX, fig. 1), but they have at 
the proximal side, on either side of the stem, a concentration of nuclei wliich 
rather suggests the forerunner of a ciliated lobe. There is no sphincter. The 
musculature in the ectoderm of disc and tentacles is weak, but better 
developed than elsewhere in the body, sometimes even rising into siiort 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

processes, with tufts of fibres ou them. This applies to the shafts of the 
tentacles only ; the heads have little or no nmsculature. A vertical section of 
a portion of oral disc is shown in PL XX, fig. 5, and here some of these 
short processes may be seen fringing the uiesogloea (which is below) and 

Fio. 2. 

J, nclinopharynx. II, lio<ly-wall. D, dircclive. K, <]iic-tcnlacle. 

'V, nmrginal-tcntAvle. 0, oral diac. F, pcdul disc. 

projectiuf^ into the ectoderm (above). The ectodermal longitudinal muscle- 
fibres in the body-wall are perfectly clear : I can confirm Hertwig's 
observation of their existence. I have not given figures of them here, but 
prefer to do so in jiencil in a later publication. I am doubtful about the 
existence of ectodermal muscle in the actinophaiynx, however. 

I do not wish to discuss the histology here, except to say that the species 

Stephknson — The Genus Cnrallimorphus. 183 

possesses very largo neniatocysts. One of these, taken from the body-wall 
ectoderm, is figured in PI. XX, fig. 3. It is not very clear, because it was 
surrounded by other cells in a section, but will serve to show the size and 
general appearance. Its outline was traced with a camera lucida under 
oc. 3 and a -j-V oil-immersion lens, and the size therefore is accurate. 

General coiisiderations. — Three species of Corcdlimorphvs have been 
described by Moseley and Hertwig, not very different from each other. 
These Irish specimens are not quite like either, but are nearest to C. rigidus. 
The question arises : are the three species really distinct (for, if so, the Irish 
form would probably require a fourth), or do they all belong to one variable 
species ? We only know the entire genus from partial descriptions of a 
limited number of specimens, of which hardly two are quite alike. One 
criterion of separation used by Hertwig is that in C. riyidus the furrows on 
tlie body-wall correspond to mesenterial insertions ; and in C. oUcctvs they 
correspond, at any rate in part of the body, to the middles of the exocoels 
and endocoels. This seems a trivial feature, and one liable to individual 
freaks of growth of the mesogloea. When we come to tlie tentacular arrange- 
ment, we find tliat the distinction of C. profundus is that its disc-tentacles 
do not exceed 12 or 13 in number, however large it gets, whereas in 
the others there are more, up to 31. This may be a valid distinction, 
but would require a laiger amount of material for verification. As a 
matter of fact, the arrangement of the tentacles varies a good deal, and forms 
a sort of series in the genus, as the accompanying table will show. It may 
be noted that the number of marginal tentacles runs from 42-48 in the 
rUjidns and ohkctus of Moseley and Hertwig, 48-52 in ■profundus, and 60-68 
in the Irish form. Again, the disc-tentacles in Hertwig's and Moseley 's 
rigidus and oUcdus run 12 (young specimen), 20, 22, 24 in difVerent 
specimens. \\\ 2wofund%ts there are 12 or 13; in the Irish 21-31. It 
is worth noting also that in tlic small specimen referred to in tlie table 
as rifjidus 1, and whicli Hertwig assumed to be young, the full number 
of marginal tentacles was present, although only 12 discals. The Irish 
specimens are quite distinct in one way — the number of secondary marginal 
tentacles is 14-15, whereas the other forms have only G-7 of them ; and 
there are corresponding changes of number in the 3rd and 4th cycles. Again, 
although one Irisli specimen is much smaller than the other, it has nearly as 
many tentacles — a fact which points to its being adult, but poorly nourished. 
A point Hertwig mentions is the relative diameters of oral and pedal discs. 
This is not valuable here as a specific character — the two Irish specimens, 
obviously the same species, diller in this respect. C. ohtcdus had 24 pairs of 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

mesenteiies, 12 pair.s perfect ; the [rish t'oini has 34 pairs, 21 pairs perfect, 
at least. 


Disc Tkstaclbs. ' Mauoinal Tentacles. 


Name of Specimen. . f. 

2nd 3rd 
cycle, cycle. 




1 3rd 



lArge Iiish, ... 5 



1 ' 








SniMI Irisli, 









Ucrlwig'a obltcliu, . 




















llHrlwig'g lijirffiJ 2, 
(l^irgcr lli.'in I.) 






«! • 




IIorKiK'n iiyirf«» 3, 


6 6 




lliTl»is'»pr«/Mi»rf«< 1, 



6 7 




Hertwig'n pn/uMJiu 2. 



6 ! 




" i 


III tlie li^ht iif thes» facts, it loolts as if in this f];e.iins the iiidiviiliial 
werea law unto iUHelf,nii<l as if the ililFereiice.s in tentacle numbers and body- 
wall furrows were imlividual, nutritional, or other variations. It is 
coneeivable that " C. jnofnndm" is constituted by sporiincns which grow up 
quickly and attain large size Ijefore forming more than 12, and, 
perliaps, ihen cease growth, as far as tentacle-formation goes. The Irish 
8l>ecinieus seem to be a case of difference in rapidity of growth in size, but 
not in tentacle formation. The unusual body-wall ridges of " oWrr^jts " may 
similarly lie a sjiecial individual overgrowth of me.sogloea, which at some 
point of development started its fastest increase in bulk at points inter- 
mediate betwi^n the usual and original growth-centres. One is bound to 

' Hertwii; had 5 s|>eciniens of rigidnt, of which I have included :< in the t^tblc, and 
hare uunibcred 1, 2, 3. He described another a.s rujuliis in 1882, and changed it to 
obltct^u in 1888. His 2 riijulm 8[>ccimens not in the talde »ecm to be regular ; same 
arrangement of tentacles aa ol>lerltis. A certain number of the figures in the table are 
not .•vctually stated by Hertwig, but can be deduced from his account. 

Stephenson — llie (Ictius Corallimorphus. 185 

leave the matter open peiKling exaininatioii of numerous speciiueiKS, Ijut it is 
advisable to keep in sight the likelihood of all forms belonging to one 
species. On this supposition 1 liave called the Irish forms (J. rigidus, to 
which they are nearest, but that is using the term as inclusive of all the 
otlieis ; and if the names profundus and uhkdus are kept too, the Irish form 
must probably have a new name. 

Tliere reniaius the niuie interesting (juestiun of tiie allinitie.s of tlie wholu 
genus and the family to which it belongs, and of its adaptation to its mode of 
life. 1 will not go far into its allinities at present, because I am waiting to 
form a linal opinion until certain work with other Stichodacty lines is finished ; 
but I should like to uicutiou a [loint or two. Tiie creature is a very 
interesting one: it lives in deep water, and apparently, in conelation with 
that, it has a very thick body-wall, and seems immobile. Moseley made his 
account from living nuiterial, and, as far as one can gather from this, it was 
rigid even in life. What we cannot tell is liow changed it was Ijy leaving 
the deep sea, and, if it was as rigid down there as it is now, how it fed ! 
llertwig thought it a primitive form, because of its very weak generalized 
niuscukiture ; but we have to set over against tliat some other features which. 
as I have tried to show elsewhere, seem to be the reverse of primitive. These 
are the thick body-wall, tiie preponderance of diameter over height, and the 
large size; the numerous perfect mesenteries, the specialization of tentacles 
into two sorts, and of each of them into a head and a stem, and the large size 
of tlie nematocysts. The generalized musculature is perhaps a survival of 
priniitiveness, or a degeneration connected with mode of life. 


187ii. H. N. MosELKY. — On new forms of Actiniaria dredged in the deep 
sea ; witli a description of certain pelagic surface-swimming 
species. Trans. Linn. Soc. Second Series, vol. i, Zoology, p. 295 
(includes both description and coloured figures of Corallimorphus). 

1882. li Hertwig. — Report on the Actiniaria diedged by H.M.S. 
"Challenger." "Challenger" Reports, Zoology, vol. vi. 

1888. R. Hemtwig.— Supplement to above Report, vol. xxvi. 

1900. 0. Caulguen. — Ostafrikanische Actinien. Mitth. Naturliist. Mus., 
Hamburg, xvii Jahrg., p. 21. 

(Carlgren here mentions the genus, and associates with it 
Corynactis and Isocoralliou, a genus founded by him for tlu^ 
Corynactis sp. of Hertwig's supplement). 

'This is not a complete bibliography of the lieiius, but mentions the chief p.ipers 
connected witli it. 

K.I. A. PKOC, VOL. .\X.\\ , SECT. U. [Y] 

186 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



From a photogiapli of two liisli speciiiioiis ol' CvraiUmorpkus riij'uhui, 
viewed from above, ami somewhat reduced. I'lioto, F. Culliford, 


Aiiat«>iiiy of CurailiiiiorjihiUi rU/idits. 

Fij;. 1. T.8. of a mesenterial tilamciit. Oc. .">. Ulij. i;. 

Fig. 2. Part of a T.S. of a mesentery, sliowing that portion of il wliitli is 
adjiuient to llio Wdy-wall. Uc. o. Ul'j. l.^. 

Fig. 3. frtmi ectoderm of Imdy-wall. Oe. '■',. Ul>j. -,^ oil imm. 

Fig. 4. T.S. of llie mesogltHM nf ili.' jmiI nf a nu\-<entery adjaecni. In the 
botiy-wall. Oe. M. Uhj. U. 

Fig. 5. Vertiuii section ]>ai>sing thron^h the ecloderin and part of the 
mesogloea of the oral disc, and sliowing tlic ectodermal muscidatiire. Oc. '6. 
Obj. •• 

Proc. K. I. Acad., Vol.. XXXV, Skct. B. 



pRoc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 


vX^- "^^ 





i -..^ 






Stephenson— CoRALLiMORPHus. 


Plate XVI. 

Descrdtios of Figures. 

Fio. Page 

1. Orhiculiiva adunca (F. and M.). Xormal type, showing sub-di\-ision 

of chambers into chamberlets by transverse septa, . . .159 

2. Orbiculina adunca (F. and M.). Peneropline variety, showing un- 

di\nded chambers, with thickened septal walls, . . . 159 

3. Abnormal variation. A specimen combining the characters of the 

genera Textularia and Globigerina, 161 

4. Abnormal variation. A specimen combining the characters of the 

genera Miliolina, Comuspira, and Opthalmidium, . .161 

5. Massilina secatis (d'Orb.). Abnormal twinned specimen, with 

chitinous test and produced nubecularine tube. . . .164 
(For fig. 6, see Plate XVIL) 

7. Vemcuilina polystropha (Reoss). Initial chambers of a megalo- 

spheric specimen viewed as a transparent object, . . .171 

8. VtmetiUina polystropha (Reuss). Megalosphere, sub-divided by 

internal chitinous septum, 171 

(For fig. 9, see Plate XVIL) 

10. VemeuUina polystropha (Reuss). Initial chambers of a micro- 

spheric specimen Niewed as a transparent object, . . 172 

11. VemeuUina pusUla, Goes. Long form >iewed as a transparent 

olyect 173 

(For fig. 12 (t s<q.. see Plate XVIL) 

44. ^fnsgil\na secans (d'Orb.). Abnormal tank-grown specimen, with 

terminal articuline chambers and supplementary orifice, . 176 

Massilina secant (d'Orb.). Tank-grown specimens exhibiting 

various abnormalities in growth, 176 

I'unr. R. [. ACAP., Vci. XX W. Ski'T. li. 


li-Farlinc li Ei>kmt. Ulli tim 

Heron-Allen ani> Eaklanh.— t)N VRRNiitiu ina roLVSTRoi-HA. ktc. 


Plate XVII. 

Descriptios of Figueks. 

Fig. page 

6. Vemfuilina polyslropJia (Renss). Normal m^alospheric form, . 171 

9. „ „ „ Normal microspheric form, . 172 

(For figs. 10. 11. see Plate XYL) 

12. Venuuilina j/usilla. Goes. Long form, 173 

13. , „ Short form, 173 

14. r<mi/i(t/iiui /w/ys^ro/iA^i (Beiiss). Young normal individual. Con- 

trast contour and texture with fig. 13. . .174 

15. I V^mfuilina /■oltfstropha (Reusa). Specimens from shore-sand, 

16. j Selsey Bill, Sussex, selecting heavj- mineral grains for building, 174 

1'- j Fenuuilina jolystropha (Reuss>. Normal tank-grown specimens. 

18. I incorporating pern sand, ....... 175 




Vemeuilina polyttnpka (Beuss). Abnormal tank-grown specimens. 

incorporating gem splinters, '175 

(For fig. 24, see PUte XVII L) 

VemeuUina polyttropha (Beuss 
26. J specimens, joined apex to apex, 176 

1 Vemeuilina polyttropha (Beuss). Abnormal tank-grown twinned 

Vkoc. R. r. Acad., Vol. X'XXV. Sect. B. 

»' ' '■' Xd'^ior. 


Hlatf. .WU. 





<^ qr 



Heron- Allkn and Earland.— On Verneuii.ina tolystroi-ha, ktc. 


Plate XVI IL 

]5escriptios of Figures. 

Fig. Page 

2-t. Vemeuilina polystropha ^Keuss). Abnormal tank-grown twinned 

specimens, joined month to apex, ...... 176 

(For figs. 25. 26, see Plate XV IL) 
27. Vemeuilina polystropha (Reuss). Abnormal tank-grown twinned 

specimens, joined apex to apex, ... . . 176 


1 Vemeuilina poli/stropfui (Reiiss). Tank-giown specimen-s, exhibit- 
ing various abnormalities in growth 176 

34^ I VemeuUina pofi/stro/Jia (Reuss). Normal specimens from shore- 
■> sand, Selsey Bill, Sussex. Li;;ht colour due to absence of 
( ferruginous cement, 171 

(For. fig. 36 ft seq., see Plate XVI.) 

45. i/asnlina gecans (d'Orh.). Abnormal tank-grown chitinous speci- 
men, with calcareous terminal chamber, .... 176 

46. y 

,- I Textulana luculcnta, Brady. Abnormal local variation from River 

i ■ ■ ■ 

Min, China. Incorpoi-ating large mineral fragments, . 176 

Hroc. K. I. AcAU., Vul,. XXXV, Skct. H. 

Pi.ATi; XVI 1 1. 

K-Firiini k Ei>ldiia.L>lk.E«>. and Eaklani).— On Vkrneuii.ina polvstrofha, ktc. 

( 1«7 ) 




[Communicated ky Ti:ofessoi; Gi!KNvii,r,E A. J. Coi.k, vm.s.] 


Read Junk 2S. Published AuGi'sr 20, 1920. 

The fossils which form the suhject of this paper were found in the 
Kilkenny Coal-Measnres by one of the officers of the Geological Snrvey of 
Ireland during their recent revision of tlic Gastleeonier area, and through the 
courtesy of the Director they were given to the author for description. 

The best thanks of the author are due to Dr. W. T. Caiman, Assistant in 
the Zoological Department of the British Museum, for his valuable help 
and guidance in the study of these ancient representatives of a very 
interesting and highly specialized order of Crustacea ; and to Professor 
G. H. Carpenter, D.Sc, for many useful hints to a former student. 

The Conchostraca, the order of small bivalved fresh-water Crustacea to 
wliich these fossils belong, are a group of animals of peculiar interest. 
Representatives of the order are found in nearly all the great land-masses 
of the globe, but their distribution is generally restricted to regions of 
meteorological extremes, where there is a marked contrast between summer 
heat and winter cold, where prolonged drought i.s f(jllo\ved by sudden 

AH known Conchostraca occur in inland waters, none having been found 
in the ocean. 

Details of the life-history of the Conchostraca appear to be practically 
unknown, as far as the literature accessible would show, but the study of 
Sars on the development of Limnadia' doubtless gives an indication of the 
mode of life of Conchostraca generally. The little animals appear in small 
and shallow fresh-water pools, which dry or partially dry in summei'. 

'Fauna Norvegiae, Bd. I. 

E.I.A. PKOC, VOL. XXW, SHOT. li. [Z] 

188 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 

Their living period is limited to a couple of months and sometimes even less. 
The perpetuation of the species is secured by the production of eggs, which, 
when discharged from the carapace, drop to the bottom of the pool, remaining 
in the mud when the poul dries up. Sars has shown by experiment that 
these eggs will not hatch out until they are dried thoroughly, perhaps during 
several successive years or drouglit periods. Each egg is provided with 
curious wing-like expansions, not unlike the "wings "of many of our tree- 
seeds, and in all probability these enable the eggs to be dispersed liy wind. 
The eggs are produced in great numbers, have tremendous vitality and by 
reason of their tenacious germinating power may be compared ro the seeds 
of many plants. They seive lo carry the species over one or more probably 
several long droughts, and hatch out into simple Nauplins larvae when the 
hollows are once more filled with pools of water. 

The larval development only occupies a few days, during which time great 
changes tjxke place and tlie rudiments of the carapace appear. This stage is 
followed by a post-larval stage, in the course of which the carapace develops 
as a bivalve shell, the lines of growth, as in the case of most Concliostracan 
shells, representing successive moiilts, and finally, after about one month. 
the adult animal is perfected. It lives in a sexually mature form rarely more 
than a month, during which lime it provides for the continuance of the 
species by laying, in successive batches, many thousands of eggs. Kaf h ImIi h 
of eggs is laid in the interval between two moult periods. 

Thus these animals fhow a inarkeil degree of adaptation to their environ- 
ment The pools in which they hatch out may never be pools again, and 
so their brief life is spent in producing eggs, specially adapted for wide 
distribution and great drying, so that in whatever hollow the rain may 
accumulate in tiie next season it will provide a suitable hatching pool for 
the eggs brought there by the wind. 

The order Conchostraca is divided into two families— the Limiiadiidae, 
which includes the seven genera — Liniiiadia (Brongniait), Eiiliiiinadia 
(Packard), Liiniiadella ( Packard), Estheria (Iliippell , Cyclestheria(G. O. Sars , 
Leptestheria (G. O. Sars), and Limuadopsis (Spencer and Hall) ; and the 
Limnetidae, which includes the single genus Limnetis (Loven). 

Very little is known as regards the fossil representatives of the Con- 
chostraca. P.ivalve shells referable to the order appear in the Old Eed 
Sandstone, and are found in fresh-water deposits of all the formations 
from that era up to the present day. In the early days these shells were 
considered to be inollu.scan, and were referred to such genera as Posidononiya 
and Cyclas. In 1862, however, T. Kupert Jones' demonstrated that their 

' T. Rupert Jokes : A Monograph of the Fossil Estheriae. Pal. Soc., 18C2. 

WuiGiiT — Liinnostherid : A New Conchoslracnn Genmt. ISO 

cimaiiieiitiitimi ilisiiliiycil dislinclivc ciusliiicaii diaracters. I'.y lliis piece of 
Work he uiuliiulilrilly diil a Nury great scrviue In '^coloify in reiulciiiig possible 
a iiioie exact rccoiistnuliuii of tlic (.•oiulilidii.s mulcr wiiicli llie Vieils con- 
taining these fossils were deposited, and in setting free stratigiaphers from' 
the apparent necessity of regarding such beds as marine or estiiarine. None 
of his material, however, gave any liint of tlie liody-characters of the animals 
whose remains he was studying, and it was not until 191-1 tliat an advance was 
made in this direction. In this year I'h. 0. liilU described some impressions 
of an Estherian animal found by him in association with other crusta- 
cean remains in the Buntor of Alsace. These impressions appear to liave 
been ratlier indelinite, and the figure given is certainly lacking in detail. 
The head-parts with the fornix, antennules, antennae and mandibles are 
shown, also the very simple telson and portion of the outline of the shell. 
The trunk and associated appendages are only vaguely suggested. Bill 
refers these appendages to Estheria minida on the ground of association with 






Fio. 1. — A. Specimen 11, sliowing antennae and valves of carapace spread apart. 

B. Specimen S, showing claspers ciisplaced from normal posilion, ,iiid also, more lli;m 
usually well preserved, ihe spine-lil;e dorsal prolongations of tlie hodv segments in 
tlie posterior legion. 

the fossil shell to which that name has been given, but it is to be noted 
that he did not regard the evidence as entirely satisfactory. The shell 
impressions of the actual fossils do not show the concentric rings character- 
istic of Estheria viinuta, but as he also found shells, one end of which showed 
the rings while the other was quite smooth, he considers that the gap is to 
a certain extent bridged, although he expressly states that the meaning of 
the phenomenon is not clear to him. Neither these composite specimens 
nor the normal specimens of Esther ia minula found in the same beds are 
figured, so that it is impossible to make any comparison of the outline of the 
shell with that clearly attached to the appendages. 

' Ph. C. Bill; Mitt, der Geol. Laiidesaiisl alt vmi Els.iss-Lothriiigen. Bil. \'ltl, 
p. 326, l'.>14. 


Procp.eilinfj!< at' the Royal Irish Academy. 

This failure to get anything but the outline of the shell in those cases 
where the limbs are preserved is characteristic also of the Kilkenny material. 

The best of the Kilkenny fossils show the two valves of the carapace 
'either lying on top of one another (fig. 5 a) or .spread apart in the same 
plane (fig. 1 a). These, however, show only their outline and delicately 
ciliated mar^ns. The ornamentation of the shell surface has, with the very 
doubtful exception of a single penultimate ring in specimen 5 (=fig. 2 a), 
either completely disappeared or was never present. 

Fir. j — T<ro itpfcimens with the valvn of the carapace spread apart : — 

A. SpM-imen 5, ihoving antennae anJ telsnn viih an indication of the outline of the 

body. For <ieuils of telaon, ace fig .1, IM. XXV. 

B. Specimen C, ahoviog antennae and one mandible The nature of the small V-shaped 

markinfi adjoining the mandible it unknoirn, but thoT possibly represent portions 
of the triangular bale. (Cf. PI. XXIV, 6g. I.) 

No known living Conchostracan, with the single exception of the aberrant 
genus Limnetis, is without the concentric ridges which mark the moulting 
perio*!.", and they are present also in the fa<wil carapaces of Estherian type 
that have hitherto l>een described. Lying generally in their proper relation 
to these outlined valves, but often much distorted, are various lx)dy- 
memlxTS — antenna/>, claspcrs, mandibles and tclson — in a Ijeautifiil state of 
preservation, and all of normal Rstlii-rian type. The Itody-segments are 
less api>arent, but can V detected in s<^>mc instances. 

Fio. 3.— Shell fSpetimen 1 
which ne^' 

tted vith murh-crushod appendage material, to 
/trapace ralves were attached. 

The non-appearance of the shell omamonUition is the more remarkable 

Wkiciit — Limncstheria : A Mow CiinchoiilriK-uii dniiis. 


ill that Conchustracau shells are well ineseived in llie same beds and 
sometimes even on the same slab of rock. The shell shown in fig. 3 lies 
close beside a very mueli enished animal, which, however, has two valve 
outlines of its own. It corresponds well both in size and shape with the 
outlined valve. The danger of judging from mere close association of this 
nature is, however, exemplified in fig. 4, where two fragments of antennae 

Fio. 4. —Shell (Specimen 10) of unusiiuUy large dimensions associ;iteJ willi antennae. The imnctule 
surface cbaracteristic of Oonchostracan shells, modern and fossil, is shown in a small 
area near the centre of the shell. 

which differ in no respect from the antennae of tlie more complete animals 
are found in contact with a relatively mucli larger shell of distinctive 
shape. Another well-preserved large carapace of Limnadopsis type — 
Limnadopsis being the giant of the order — also occurs in these beds. 


Fig. .5. — A. Distorted specimen (No. 12), showing viJves, anteninic, and one maniible. 

B. Specimen 13, shuwing straight candal fiiroae comparable to those of Specimen 4, 
figured on PI. XXV, tigs. 2 and 2a, and traces of three of the branchial legs. The 
relatively small size of the antenna .and Iclsun in this .specimen may possibly indicate 

so that it is clear that we are dealing with a fauna embracing a number of 
Oonchostracan forms, any of which miglit have become accidentally associated 
with the body-parts of which au account is given here. 

192 Proceedings of the ttoi/al Irish Acadcmi/. 

The rock in whiuli tliese fossils occur is an onliiiaiy dark, almost black, 
Carboniferous shale. Tlie surface of I lie slialc is traversed by a grain or 
structure resembling cleavage, but probably merely due to the direction of 
fracture. The efiect of this on the visibility of the fossils was very serious, 
but the dilliculty was to a considerable extent overcome by mounting them 
in Canada balsam and covering with a ^hiss slip. This procedure also 
liad the advantage of preventing tlie decomposition of the pyrites, in 
which the fossils appear to be preserved. The usual dilUculties of opaque 
illumination were experienced, but the best results were ultimately obtained 
by condensing the light from a single electric bulb along (he grain of tlie 
rock. In i)reparing the plates and te.xt-figures all the outlines, and as far as 
possible the details, were I'Ut in with the camera lucida, the sketches being 
completed fiueliand. 


The folliiwing details as to the stratigraphy of the beds in which these 
Estherian fossils were found have been kindly supj)lied to me by theollicers tif 
the Geological Survey of Ireland : — 

The fossils came from a deptli of 830 feet in a boring put down by 
Mr. IJ. H. I'rior Wandesforde at Ardra, a mile and a half N. 30° E. from the 
cross-roads in Casllecomer. Tiiey were eolleeled by the Geulogiwil Survey, 
tlie oRicers of wiiicli, through the courtesy of Mr. Wandesforde, had access 
to the cents of all tlic borings put down by liim in search of coal in this 
district. Tlie beds in which they occur lie some live and a half fathoms bchiw 
the position of the Skehana coal-seam, on or just above a well-detined 
slraligrapliical horizon, which has been recognized in many parts of the 
Kilkenny coallieUl. This horizon has been called the " lleck-rock " by the 
geologists working in the Held— a name which fairly well describes its nature. 
1 1 was recognized by Mr.Wandesforde atan early stage of the boring (jperations 
OS (Kisscssing distinctive characters, and he drew the attention of the 
Geological Survey t<j it when they came to work on the field. It is a dark- 
coloured massive rock of remarkable tougliness, having innumerable small 
Hecks of slightly darker colour along the very obscure bedding jilaiies. It 
generally yields badly preserved gouiatites and otiier marine fossils, and 
where normally develoiicd to the south and east of Castlecomer is obviously 
of marine origin, while the shales immediately alx)ve generally yield a very 
considerable marine fauna The origin of the flecked structure is, however, 
quite unknown. As far as can be ascertained this is the normal condition 
of things as i-egards this horizon over the greater part of the coalfield, but in 
the Skehana district to the north-west of Castlecomer very marked lateral 

WiaCiiir — fJmncii/hcriu : .1 New Cone has tracan Genus. ty.'i 

variation sets in, and the place of tlie niaiine band is oucujjied by a massive 
sandstone, now knuw n as the Woodview Sandstone. The strata on the same 
horizon in the Ardra bore show a condition internieiliate between these two 
phases of sedimentation, and probably represent a transition from deltaic 
to marine conditions. The fleck-rock is present and shows the very 
characteristic flecking or mottling, but there is a complete absence of marine 
fossils. Moreover, the bed is much divided up and interleaved with sandy 
shales and sandstones, and the laminae of the fleck-rock have a much more 
shaly structure than it possesses in places where it is more typically 

The fossils described in the present paper do not occur actually in the 
fleck-rock, but in the sliichtly sandy shales about eiglit or nine feet above its 
upper layer. These shales may be equivalent either to the marine shales 
normally found above the fleck-rock in the districts lying to the east and 
south, or to the non-fossiliferous shales above these latter. Purther, as regards 
correlation to the west, in the Skehana area, they may be equivalent either to 
the upper portion of the Woodview Sandstone or to the thin band of shales 
which occurs between the Woodview Sandstone and the Skehana seam. It is 
not possible, on account of the great lateral variation of the beds, to attain 
any greater precision than this; but, as regards restoring the conditions under 
which these remarkable animals existed, we can with fair confidence make the 
following statement : — • 

Just before the establishment of the conditions which made the existence 
of the Estherian fauna possible, Ardra w-as on the edge of a sand-bank or delta 
which lay to the north-west, while to the east and south at no great distance 
lay open sea or estuary. Sometimes the sand was pushed east over the site, 
and sometimes the sea with the organisms, whatever they were, that caused 
the decking, crept west. Then the sand finally failed to reach the site, the 
sea no longer encroached, and the mud-stones in which the fossils are found 
were laid down. At this period the sand-bank was probably still in progress 
of formation a short distance to the north-west, and the sea with its marine 
fauna lay to the south and east. Finally, the muddy conditions led up to 
the growth of the Skehana coal-seam. This seam attains its ma.ximum 
development in the area to the north-west, and appears to be thinning 
somewhat at Ardra ; but the horizon on which it lies is marked by a thin 
coal-rod extending far into the previously marine area to the south and west. 

Although shells referable to some small species of Estheria (using the term 
in the palaeontological sense) are found at various horizons in the strata of 
the Kilkenny coalfield, yet there is no known case of a fauna equal in 
abundance and state of preservation to that of the Ardra borehole. One migiit 

194 Proeeedingf of the Royal Irish Academii. 

therefore conjecture tbat some special conditions favourable to its develop- 
ment were present at this spot, and the stratigraphical relations indicate that 
some such special conditions might have been produced as a consequence of 
the rec-ent retreat of the sea and the development of fresh or possibly brackish 
water lagoons along the margin of the sand-bank. 

HI. — Slmmakt of Piikviocsly Described Gexeka. 

Tlie order Conchostraca is divided into two families — the Limnadiidae and 
the Limuetidae. 

Limnetis, the sole genus of the Limnetidae, is simpler in structure, 
particularly as regaitis the tail-segment and the reduced number of trunk- 
liml-s, than the . ' the Limnadiidae. It differs from all these, with the 

exception of Cy,. : ,,of which the position is uncertain, in the possession 

of only one pair of claspers in the male. 

Cyclestlieria resembles limnetis in this respect, but in others is much 
more closely '' ' ;.i and the othor Limnadiidae. 

Thedes'.: , lug Conchostracan genera are scaltei-ed through 

a variety of publications. In order to give an idea of the relationships of the 
fossils described, it has been thought ad\'isable to include here the following 
synopsis of generic characters : — 

I. — LiMXADU : 

(1) i>\ib\\ large, oval, greatly compressed, very thin, smooth, wiih about 

IH lined of growth. 

(2) Uead small, but furnished with haft-organ. 

(3) First pair of aiileuuae, or antenuules. couiparaUvcly short. 

(4) > iir of aiilenaae ^^ - r than outer, but both 

into numerous la:. u inner edge with long 

natatory bristles, on outer with short spines. 
1 5) About 24 pairs of tmnk-limbs. 

(0) In males two anterior pairs of irunk-limbs are modified as clasping organs. 
(7) Caudal lamellae drawn out below to a sharp, not claw-like, augle, and 

finely dentated posteriorly. 
II. — EcLuccADU : 

(1) Shell narrow oblong, with 4-a lines of growth. 
{2) Head similar to Limnadia. Uaf t-organ present. 

(3 & 4) Antennae do not differ essentially from those of Limnadia, but the 

gills are larger. 
(a) About la pairs of trunk-limbs. 

(6) In males two anterior pairs of trunk-Umbs are modified as clasping organs. 

(7) Telson similar to that of Limnadia. 

lUmark*. — Eohmnadia is closely allied to Limnadia, the only essential 
difference being that Uae species of Eulimnadia, like those of the genus Estheria, 
are bi-5«xual, while males of the genub Limnadia have not yet beien found. 

Wi;if:itT — Liiiincsthcrla : ,1 New Conclmatracan Genus. 195 

111. — JjlJlNADHl.LA : 

(1) Cypridoid shell, i.e., flattened alonj; the vuntnil iiiai-gin. 

(•2) Head fui'iiishod witli one eye only. 

(,3 & 1) Auteunae .sub-equal, and joints provided with numerous spines. 

(5) Twenty-four pairs of trunk-limbs. 

(C) In males two anterior pairs of trnnlc-limbs are modified as claspiiij,' organs. 

(7) Large telson. 

ItciiKirka. — This genus differs from Liumadia in having its antennae almost 
equal, while it differs from Estheria in the fact that the antennal segments bear 
numerous spines, while in Estheria those segments have only one spine each. 


(1) Shell oval, more or less globose, with 18-22 lines of growth. 

(2) Head very large. No halt-organ, 

(3) First antenna or antennule remarkably long and jointed. 

(1) Second antenna with a stout, multiarticulate scape, and sub-equal flagcllae, 

which extend well beyond the edge of the shell ; 15-20 antennal joints. 
(5) About 20 pairs of trunk-limbs. 

(Gj In males two anterior pairs of Lruuk-limbs arc modified as clasping organs. 
(7) Telson with finely dentated caudal lamellae and claw-like furcae. 

v.— Cyclestheria : 

(1) Shell cyclas-like, inequilateral, with few lines of growth. 

(2) Only one eye. No haft-organ. 

(3) First antenna or antennule simple, cylindrical. 

(1) Second antenna rather stout with strong recurved spines along the upper 

branch and part of the scape. 
(5) Sixteen pairs of legs. 

(0) In male only first pair of trunk-limbs modified as clasping organs. 

(7) Caudal plate short and broad, with two slender mobile claws at lip, with 
great development of very strong and unguiform dorsal spines. 


(1) Shell ovate, compressed, very thin, 25 mm. long, being very large for the 

Conchostraca. Union between the two valves extending all along the 
dorsal line, which is raised into a much-compressed, spined keel. Lines 
of growth well marked. 

(2) Haft-organ present. 

(3) First antenna or antennule small. 

(4) Second antenna stout, multiarticulate. 

liemarkx. — Limnadopsis is Estheriau in character, but distinguished from 
Estheria by the presence of a haft-organ, and from Limnadia and the other 
Limnadiidae by the spinous processes on the carapace. 

VII. — Leptesthekia : 

(1) Shell much compressed, oblong in form, with the umbones very small and 
placed far in front, dorsal edge straight, ventral slightly curved, both 
extremities rounded. Valves thin, pellucid, with the lines of growth 

rather slight, not I'idge-like. 

196 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

VII. — Lkptestheria — continued : 

(2) No haft-organ. Rostrum tipped with a slender and apparently mobile 


(3) First antennae Estheria-like. 
{Vj Second antennae Estheria-like. 

(5) Number of pairs of legs comparable to Estheria. 

(G) In males two pairs of claspers. Hand very complicated. Peculiar transfor- 
mation of the upper lappets of the exopodites in the 10th and 11th pairs of 
branchial legs in the female to sausage-like appendages— somewhat 
resembling those found in Limnetis. 

(7) Caudal plate but slightly deflexed, and without any spines above the caudal 
setae. Posterior segments of the trunk in neither sex with dorsal 
processes, but ha\ing the posterior edge minutely spinous. 

VIII. — Limnetis : 

(1) Carapace nearly spherical, sraoolli, without distinct beaks or umbones. 

(2) Head very large ; the front region bearing the eyes 'enormous and produced 

into a large rostrum-pointed in female, abruptly truncated in male. Eyes 

(3) First antenna minute, slightly elbowed, with indications of three joints. 
(\) Second antenna, wiih scajx; or base rather short. Flagellae short, scarcely 

longer than scape, but with remarkably long setae. 
,5( Ten to twelve pairs of trunk-limbs, upper lappets of the exopodites of the 

nintii and tenth pairs in the female tran^jforiued into cylindrical cords 

bent at the top. 
(Ii| In nuilc only first pair of trunk-limbs modified as clasping organs. 
(7) Caudal segmunl blunt, without deutated lamellae or furcae. 


Of the luatcriai obtained from tlie above-described horizon in the 
Ardra Iwrc some twenty-four specimens were available, showing body-parts 
iif suflicicnt similarity to be considered referable to a single genns. Ail the 
appcmlagcs observed are definitely Eslherian in character, and it would be 
jKJssible to consider the fo-ssils as belonging to the genus Estheria were it not 
for the presence of a single distinguishing character of some importance. 
Claspers were jireisent in six of the specimens, wliicli were thn.s shown to be 
males, and in eath of these six there was only a single pair. 'J'hat the 
second j>air, which are characteristic of Estheria, could have been present 
and unobserved is rendered very improbable from the perfect state of 
preservation of the pair seen. It is necessary, therefore, to set up a new 
genus for the reception of fossils : — 


Caraj>ace bivalve, pii>i>aiily inmni. Valves oval, of the order of 5 mm. in 
length, with fringed or ciliated margin. 

Wkigiit — Limnoithcrio : .1 Nnv Conchofitracan Oenun. 197 

ycuimd ;iiituiiii;i sLcjut, liiriuninis ; scapu sLidiig ami jiarlially .Sfi^iiieiiled. 
Flagellac very long, sub-equal, with 15-20 joinl.s, sclose. Second antenna 
very similar to that of Estheria. 

Mandibles sickle-shaped, wilbout palps. 

Trunk-limbs numerous, apparently coniparalilu l.o those in Estheria. In 
males only one pair of trunk-limbs modified as claspers. 

Telson l^lstherian in type ; brnail caudal plate, witli Iwd denlaled lamellae, 
terminating in two strong curved spines. Caiulal I'urcae claw-like. 

Hcinarhs. — The essential feature of this genus is the association df 
Estherian characters in general with a single pair of claspers in the male. 
The genus Cyclesthcria has this character, but appears to be so di.stinctive in 
other features, such as details of structure of antennae and telson ami Ihi' 
circular shell, that it is impossible to place the present forms in it. 

V. — Desci;iptiok of Type Species. 
Limnestheria ardra sp. nov. 

Shell. — As seen in outline (Plate XXIV, fig. 1), the shell is oval 
probably equi-valve, 5-6 mm. in length and o mm. high. The free edge of 
the valve is delicately ciliated. 

The Budij and Us Appendages. — It is probable that in life the body could 
be completely withdrawn inLo the shell, as in so many of the living 
Gonchostraca. This conclusion seems justified by the relative magnitude of 
the shell and body-parts (Plate XXIV, fig. 1). 

In the following description the body will be divided into three regions — 
the head, the trunk, and the tail-segment. 

'fhe Head (Plate XXIV, figs. 1, la, Ic). — -In living forms the head region 
bears three pairs of appendages — the antennulae or first pair of feelers, the 
antennae or second pair of feelers, and one pair of mandibles or biting jaws. 
The preoral region was not sufficiently well preserved to enable its details to 
be described. 

In spite of careful search the antennulae were never found. It seems 
more than probable that they were present, and if so they must have been 
very simple in form, more of the nature of the antennulae of Limnadia, 
Eulimnadia, Cyclesthcria and Limnadopsis than of those of Jiimnadella or 

Second Antennae {V\a,tQ XXIV, figs. 1 and Ic). — As is nsual in members of 
this order, the second antennae are powerful, biramous, swimming and son.sory 
organs. Each consists of a strong basal joint or scape (fig. Ic, sc, the 
protopodite. showing imperfect segmentation, with wliicli are articulated two 
many-jointed branches or rami. The two branches are practictiUy equal in 

1 98 Proceedin<fs of the Royal Irish Acadeni!/. 

length. The joiniiug iu- the upper bmuch or eudopodite (r^) was very 
ditticult to trace iu places, so that it is possible that this l.aauch is couiposed 
of uineteen segments, whereas the eighteen segments of tlie lower branch or 
exopodite (rj> were beautiftiUy preserved and readily counted. 

Many of the joint.« bore long bristles or setae (s), and it is clearly 
indicated that in life all the joints must have carried such setae, which were 
doubtless ciliated, tlnis serving to help the animals in swimming and to waft 
the plankton, on which these creatures feed, into their mouths. 

Antennae of other si>ecimens, as those figured on I'lateXXIV, fig. 2, and 
te.xl-fig. 5a, show the presence of short stt.nt spines on the upper side of the 
organ (Plate XX I Y. fig. 2a sp.). Thus not only in general appearance, but 
also in details of structure, the antenna of Limuestheria is remarkably 
similar to the antenna of the living Estheria. The beautiful state of 
pi^servation of these delicate biramous oigans first attracted the attention 
of one of the officers of the Geological Survey to this interesting appendage 

MamUU'- (V\a.\.i: XXIV, fig. 1;. — In this specimen the mandibles were 
not well preserved, but the impression of one (md.) showed distinctly near 
the head region and nlxive the anlcnnae. The mandible is simple, oval 
or sickle-shajied. and presumably strongly chilinised, without any evidence 
of pjilps. It is articulat<Ml to the head by a triangular base. 

Mandibles were found iu at leasl five other si>ecimens, and are seen in 
figure* 2b, .5a. Plate XXIV. tig. 1, and Plate XXV, figs. 1, 2 \ 4. 

The Trunk (Plate XXIV, fig. 1) —The segmentation of the body is not 
well preserved, so that we cannot say of how many parts it is composed; 
but in several specimens other than that taken as type the segmentation could 
be made out, though poorly, as is indicated on Plate XXV, fig. 1. The dorsal 
margin of each segment, at least in the posterior region, is produced into a 
backwardly directe<l keel-shaped process, which probably carried spines 
(Plato XXIV, fig. 1 ; Plate XXV, fig. 6). Similar keeled prolongations of 
the segments are depicted by Packard in his engraN-ing of Estheria morsei 
(Packard),' and they are also doubtless comi»ardble to the lamellar dorsal 
] = borne by the eight posterior segment* in Cyclestheria hislopi,- 

ihese latter, may aid in retaining the eggs within the shell (cf. also 
text-figs. lA, 2a. Plate XXV, fig. 6). 

' A. S. I'vCK-iRii, Jr. k Monogrnph of the Phyllc.pod Crustacea of North America, 
with remarks on the order Phylloc*ricU . U.S. Geol. Surv. Wy<,niiDg and Idaho, 1878. 
Part I. 

= G. O. Sa»8: On Cydesthena hislopi (Baird), a new generic tyi>e of BivaWe 
Phyllopoda. Forh. Vidcnakab-selsk. i. KrifltuaU, 1887. 

Wkight — Limnesthcria : A Netv Conchostracan Genus. 199 

The Limbs of the Trunlc. — The delicate foliaecoiis ajipcndages, the 
branchial feet, cannot liu studioil, as they only nccm' as very nmcli crushed 
impressions, thougli three of Hk^ih were indicated on specimen 13, fig. oB. 
I'lUt the strongly ehitinizeil i-lasper, into whifh tlirco segments of the first 
trunk-limb have been modilied in the male, is well adapted for preservation, 
and has been studied in three of these specimens. 

First pair of Trunk-Zimbs (Claspers) in Male (Plate XXIV). — In all the 
material examined, six specimens were males, showing these highly modified 
trunk-limbs. There were never more than two claws found ; therefore, it may- 
be asserted with confidence that, as in the genera Limnetis and Cyclestheria, 
only the first pair of tvunk-limbs are liiodified as clasping organs. This 
" hand " or clasper is formed by the three last segments (4th, 5th, & 6th) of 
the normal trunk-limb. The 4th segment fb.) is broad, sub-triangular in 
shape, and is projected on its inner margin into a rounded lobe, which 
carries two rows of strong setae — the " comb " (c). The thumb-like movable 
process which in living genera usually arises from the distal end of this joint 
(Plate XXIV, figs. 3 and 4, p.) was not seen on specimen 1, but is represented 
in specimen 2 by a small triangular, setiferous appendage (Plate XXIV, 
fig. 2b, p.). The 5th segment is a strong curved claw (cl.), bearing at its tip 
nine small setae, which probably represent the basal portions of long, slender 
bristles, similar to those borne in this position by the claw of Cyclestheria 
hislopi. One long bristle occurs near the tip of the claw, and a row of 
seven small setae near its base. The last or 6th segment — the " forefinger " 
(f.) — has the form of a slender appendage and shows no ti'ace of setae. 

The remarkable similarity of the clasper of Limneslheria ardra to that of 
Estheria is seen by comparing Plate XXIV, fig. 5, with figs. .3 and 4, which 
represent the claspers of two species figured by Packard. 

The Telson (Plate XXIV, fig. la).— The telson or tail is the last abdominal 
segment. It consists of a broad, somewhat compressed plate (pi.) of 
approximately rectangular form, bearing terminally two claw-like appen- 
dages — the caudal furcae (c.f.). The ventral edge is smooth, gently curved 
and prolonged posteri<irly into two curved denticles (d.;. The dorsal edge is 
produced into two lamellae (1.), each bearing a row of small bristles, the 
terminations of which have not been preserved in this specimen, but which 
may be presumed to have existed (see Plate XXV, figs. 5 and 6). Each 
lamella terminates in a stout, strongly recurved spine — the caiulal spine — 
(c.sp.). Alauy tclsons were preserved, and, besides that of the type-specimen 
on Plate XXIV, those of five other specimens are sketclicd on Plate XXV 
figs. 2a, ."., a, 6, 7). 

The es,scntial structure of all these telsoiis is the same, but they diller 

200 Proepedirufs of the Royal Irish Acadevii/. 

somewhat in foiia, and to an extent that can hardly be ascrilied to the 
different disposition of the animal when it was biuietl in the mud. At firet 
sight the telson of specimen 4 (Plate XXV, figs. 2 and 2a) seems to differ 
from that of the type almost sulliciently to wan-ant separation into another 
species: but, as no other oljserved variation is as marked as ihis, this 
procedure hardly seems justifie<l. 

VI. — Notes ox tok Specimkxs. 

In preparing the foregoing descriptions of the genus and type species, 
attention has oidy been paid to such parts as are well pi-oserved and easily 
• iljservable in the selected .specimens. When we come, however, to consider 
the remainder of the available material, wliicli is inferior in point of preserva- 
tion, we find ourselves on more doubtful ground. The visibility falls ofT in 
some cases to such an extent that the mere changing of the power of the 
microsco[>o or the direction of the illumination endows an organ with a 
lafHinjjly difTorent a.spect. Under these circumstances it has .seemed 
ina«Ivisable to lay any great stress on the differences between individual 

Certain individuals do sIjow a distinct variation, which is perhaps most 
marked in tlie case of the tebon. Thus the animal figured in Plate XXV 
figs. 2 and 2a, has caudal furcae of unusual shape, lacking the curvature 
characteristic of those of the type specimen. These straight furcae were 
also apparent in specimen 13 (le.xt-fig. 5b), but in this case the preservation 
was ver)' poor and the creature small and possibly immature. It should be 
note<l also that in both the specimens with straight furcae the caudal spines 
are less erect than in those with curved furcae. The shape of the mandible 
was very elusive, .<o that, though wlien associated with these straiglit furcae, 
it is marke<ily more sickle-sliaj>ed (Plate XXV, fig. 2 than in the more normal 
specimens (Plate XXIV, fig. 1 ; Plate XXV, fig. 1, and text-fig 5a), in the 
absence of more information and further specimens it seems more than rash 
to claim a .sjiecific s , -^ for these variations. 

To facilitate futu: nee to llic original material, a list is appended of 

the existing specimens, with the number attached to them : — 

Specimen 1. — Limnestbcna anlra, <J : type ; figured Plate XXIV, fi^. 1, la, lb, Ic. 
Deptli in bore, about asO feet. 

Specimen 2. — Good antennae and claw of one cla.sper, J ; figured Plate XXIV 
figs. 2, 2«, 2b. Depth in bore, 833 feet. Good " Esllierian " shells, in 
rbidin^ one large one (about 25 mm. long), not di.stingiii.shable from the 
niotlcm Linina<iopsis, were found on this slab of rock. 

Wkight — TAninestheria : A Nnv Conchos/nii-fn) Genux. 201 

Spoeimnn S. — Impression of wholo animal, 3 ; ligurcd on I'late XXV, figs. 1 
and 7. In uxeellcnt preservation. Two clasper claws fouml lying on 
antennae, ami impressions of claspers displaced above specimen, probalil^ 
belonging to another individual. Outline of mandible and telson shown 
well, also imperfectly the segmentation of body. Depth in bore, 830 feet. 

Specimen 4. — Antennae, telson, and mandible ; figured in Plate XXV, figs. 2 and 
2a. No claspers; possibly female. Much-crushed body impression. 
Telson with straight caudal furcae. Outline of carapace valves some 
distance from specimen. Depth in l)ore, about 830 feet. Same horizon as 
specimen 1. 

Specimen 5. — Outline of two carapace valves and antennae spread apart, figured 
in text-fig. 2a, and telson on Plato XXV, fig. 3. Poor telson outline, 
but caudal furcae straighter than in type. No claspers. Depth in bore, 
834 feet. 

Specimen 6. — Outline of two carapace valves and antennae spread out, figured in 
text-fig. 2b and Plate XXV, fig. 4. Good outline of mandible seen in 
position near base of antennae. Articulation in scape of antenna very 
oblique. Depth in bore, 830-835 feet. 

Specimen 7. — Outline very similar to specimen 3. Impression of the whole 
animal and outlines of two carapace valves. Antennae beautifully pre- 
served ; two claspers much displaced ; much-crushed body-parts ; telson 
rather poor. Depth in bore, 880 feet. From same slab as specimen 3. 

Specimen 8. — Outline of two carapace valves spread apart, $ ; antennae rather 
poor ; well-preserved telson and dorsal processes on posterior segments 
much-crushed body impression ; two clasper claws. Figured in text-fig. 1b. 
Telson figured on Plate XXV, fig. 6. Depth in bore, about 830 feet. 
From same horizon as specimens 1, 1, 13, and 19. 

Specimen 9. — Only antennae and partial outline of valves. Poor. Not sketched. 
About 830 feet in bore. From same horizon as 1, 4, and 8. 

Specimen 10. — Large shell (8-5 mm. long), with lines of growth, punctate surface, 
and associated antennae. Figured in text-fig. 4. Depth in bore, 833 feet. 

Specimen 11. — Outline of valves of carapace and antennae spread apart. Figured 
in text-fig. 1a. Depth in bore, 827 feet. 

Specimen 12. — Outline of two carapace valves overlying each other ; antennae and 
one mandible. Figured in text-fig. 5a. Depth in bore, 827 feet. From 
same horizon as specimen 11. 

Specimen 13. — Outline of two carapace valves ; antennae and telson poor. Caudal 
furcae straight. Indications of at least three of the phyllopodous limbs. 
Figured in text-fig. 6b. Depth in bore, about S30 feet. From same liorizon 
as specimens 1, 4, 8, 19. 

Specimen 14. — Outline of carapace valves and antennae spread apart. Similar to 
specimen 11 (tig. 1a). Depth in bore, 832 feet. 

Specimen 15. — Outline of one valve and antenna; poor. On same slab as 
specimen 14, 

202 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish A eaiJctini. 

Specimen 16. — Outline of two carapace valves and antennae ; poor. Depth iubore 
832 feet. 

Specimen 17. — Shell only ; 4 mm. long. Identical with fipecimen 19. Depth in 
bore, 831 feet. 

Specimen 18. — Outline of one carapace valve and one antenna. Antennal segments 
and hairs well shown. Depth in bore, 831 feet. From same horizon as 
specimen 17. 

Specimen 10. — Shell (6-5 mm.) as sketched in text-tig. 3, and, lying near it, much- 
crushed animal, with antennae, telson, etc., and outlines of two carapace 
valves. Depth in bore, alH>ut 830 feet. From same slab as specimens 
1, 4, 8, 13. 

Specimen 20. — Outline of carapace valves and crushed remains. Depth in bore, 
about 830 feet. On same slab as specimen 19. 

Specimen 21. — Good .^ihell inipre-^sion (5-5 mm.), identical with specimens 
19 and 17. Depth in bore, 830 feet. 

Specimen 22. — Narrow Estherian slidl. about G mm. Depth in bore, about 
830 feel. 

Specimen 23. — " Estherian " shells of approximately same type as specimen 19. 
Depth in bore, 827 feet. 

\' 1 1 .— «;oKci,USION. 

The cosmopolitan distributinn of most of the Conchi^stracau genera has 
lieen said by Tackard to indicate their high antiquity. The present fossil 
rouiains certainly snpport such a conclusion. Tliey are essentially Estherian 
in character, (lifTering only in the absence of a second pair of claspers in the 
male, which character allies them to Cyclestheria and Limnetis. Without 
claiming for them direct ancestry, one can recojpiize in them something 
closer to the stem from which the divergent gcnem of the order originally 
sprang. One is foicibly struck, however, with the absence of any niarkcil 
evolutionary development in the long interval since Carboniferous times. 
This may possibly be connected with their adaptation to a mode of life very 
clearly defined by stre.-.s of physical conditions, and affording no outlet for 
elalwration of stnicture. 

In how far the general pnnciple followed by palaeontologists of reasoning 
from the habits and surroandings of a li^^ng fortn to those of a closely allied 
fossil can be applied to the ca.'^? of the Conchostraca must as yet remain in 
the region of speculation. It might, perhaps, fairly be argued that the 
appearance of animals of such a high degree of specialise*! a<laptation to 
peculiar conditions must imply the recurrence throughout geological histor}* 
of similar conditions in whatever place or period they occur. This, however. 

Wright — Limnisthcria : A New Conchostracan Genus. 


implies the assumption that the fonn of ihe animal is in some way an 
expression of its environment, or rather of the life-history conditioned by its 
environment , and in order that any such assumption could be made with 
confidence it would be necessary to demonstrate that such-and-such organ or 
character was an adaptation to the peculiar conditions. Zoological studies of 
the modern Conchostraca provide such a demonstration only in the case of 
certain characters, such as the winged eggs of Limnadia; and it cannot be 
claimed that even in the very remarkably preserved fossils now described any 
such specially signiticaut characters have been recognized. 

It is generally considered that confirmation of any such deduction is 
provided by convergent evidence in the associated fauna. The associated 
faiina in the present instance, however, embraces only some different genera 
and species of Conchostraca, and the confirmation derived from such is very 
limited. One is tempted, nevertheless, to put forward the suggestion that 
the occurrence of such a fauna m the Carboniferous would be more easily 
comprehensible under climatic conditions very different from those usually 
supposed to characterize this period. 


G. 0. Saks. — Various papers on Conchostraca in Archiv. f. Mathematics og 

G. 0. Saks. — Fauna Norvegiae, volume i. 

A. C. Packard, Jr. — A Monograph of the Phyllopod Crustacea of North 
America, with remarks on the order Phyllocarida. U.S. Geol. Surv. 
Wyoming and Idaho, 1878. Part I. 

T. KuPEKT Jones. — A monograph of the Fossil Estheriae. Pal. Soc, 1862. 

Ph. Bill. — Uber Crustaceen aus dem Voltziensandstein des Elsasses. Mitt. 
Geol. Lande.sanstalt. Elsass-Lothringen, Band VIII. 1913 and 

Dapav. — Monographic des Phyllopodes Conchostraces. French synopsis. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., xx, 1915. p. 39. (Original published in 

[Explanation of Plates. 


[2 A] 

204 Froceedings of the Royal Irish Academti . 

Fig. Plate XXTY. 

1. I-imnestliei'ia ardia : <? ; specimen 1, outline ; x 10 ; (zh, antenna ; A, hand 

or clasping organ (1st trunk-limb) ; m, mandible ; t, telson. 
la. Telson of Limnesthei-ia ardra; x 40 ; *-, outline of shell; pi, plate: /, 

lamella ; d, denticle ; c sp, caudal spine ; cf, caudal furca. 
lb. Claspers of Limnestlieria ardra: x 40 ; h, segnienl iv ; <, comb; d, claw 

(segment v^ ; /, forefinger (segment vi). 
Ic Antenna of Limnestheria ardra; x 20; sc, scape or protopodite; »•,, 

exopoditp; r-,, endopodite; .s, setae. 

2. Antennae of specimen 2 ; x 10 ; r/, claw of one clasper. 

2a. Antenna of specimen 2 ; x 26 ; «c, scape ; s, setae : s/>, spines. 

2b. Clasper of specimen 2 ; x 70 ; h, segment iv ; d, claw (segment v) ; 

p, thumb. 
.!. Estheria morsei (clasper), much enlarged, after Packard ; b, segment 

iv ; d, claw (segment v) ; /<, thumb; c, comb ; ./, forefinger (segment 

4. Estheria me.xicana (clasper), mudi enlarged, after Packard ; lettering as 

in figure 3. 
j. ].,ininesthcria ardra (clasper) ; x 68 ; lettering as in figure 3. 

Plate XXV. 

1. Limnestlieria; Specimen 3 ; Outline; x 14; «vi, antenna ; m, mandible ; 

d, claws of clasping organ ; h. hand or clasping organ ; /., telson. 

2. Specimen 4 ; * 14 ; an, antenna ; m, mandible ; (, telson. 
2a. Telson of specimen 4 ; x 40. 

.". Telson of specimen 5 ; x 40 (see text-fig. 2a) ; pi, plate ; I, lamella ; c sp, 
caudal spine ; cf, caudal furca. 

4. Specimen 6. Base of autenna and mandible ; x 40, showing relationship 

between positions of scape and mandible (see text-fig. 2n) ; .sc, scape ; 
m, mandible. 

5. .">i)ccimcn 7. Telson ; ^ 4U ; cj, caudal furca ; c s/), caudal spine. 

C. Telson of specimen 8, showing shell outline and dorsal ; x 40 ; 
pi, plate ; /, lamella ; d, denticle ; csp, caudal spine ; cf, caudal furca ; 

dp. dorsal processes ; s, shell. 
7. Telson of sjiccimcn 3 ; x 40; d, denticle; c sp, caudal spine ; cf, caudal 


Proc. R. I. AcAix, Vol. XXXV, Sect. B 


Platr XXIV. 

Wright— LiMNESTHERlA. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate XXV. 

Wright— LiMNESTHERi A. 

[ 205 ] 



By jane STEPHENS, B.A., B.Sc, National Miiseuui, Dublin. 

{Beiiuj the Thirteenth Refort from the Fmma and Floret, Committee.) 

Plates XXVI-XXIX. 

Read Mav 10. PuUislied Septembeh 24, 1920. 


Sponges constitute the phylum Porifera, the lowest of the Meta^oa or 
multicellular animals. They are a very isolated group, without any 
connecting links between them and other groups of multicellular animals. 

The vast majority of sponges are marine, living at all depths, from between 
tide-marks to the farthest abysses of the oceans. One family only, the 
Spongillidae, live in fresh water, and certain species belonging even to this 
family have occasionally been found in brackish ponds and estuaries in 
different parts of the world. 

Fresh-water sponges exhibit a considerable diversity of structure, and are 
divided into a large number of genera and species. Of these species, Ireland 
possesses only five, a contrast to the marine sponges found off our coasts, 
which are already known to numlier nearly two hundred different kinds. 

Certain marine sponges, namely, the bath- sponge and some of its nearest 
allies, were known at an early period. There are several allusions to them 
in the literature ol classical times. Aristotle realized that sponges belonged 
to the animal kingdom, but after his time opinions on the subject varied. 
Writing in the year 1824, Gray (" Zoological Journal," vol. i) summed up the 
views of the earlier naturalists. He writes : — " The true nature of these 
curious bodies has for a long while been an object of great doubt to all 
Naturalists, for we find that most of the Aneient Natural //-w^ojv'ww apparently 
regarded them as animals . . . On the revival of learning ... all those who 
would examine for themselves considered them as vegetables." Thus we see 
that during a long period sponges were considered by some writers to he 
animals, by others plants. As plants they were thought to be most nearly 
related to the fungi or to the algae. More often they were classed as 
Zoophyta, or " plant-animals," belonging neither to the animal nor to the 

B.I. A. PKOC, VOL. SXXV, SECT. B. [2 B] 

206 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

vegetable kingdom, but possessing a " third or middle nature," serving to 
connect the two. Or, as another authority writing in the year 1633 
expressed it, they " are not wrought together of the froth of the sea as our 
Author affirmes, but rather of a nobler nature than plants, for they are 
said to have sence." They are therefore referred by the writer to the 
" Plant-animalia," that is, " such as are neither absolute plants nor yet living 
creatures, but participate of both." While yet another writer defines the 
Zoophyta, among wliich he classes sponges, as " having stems vegetating and 
changing into animals." Several authorities maintained that sponges were 
merely sheltor.s built by worms or oilier animals for their own use, or were 
nests built by certain aquatic insects for the reception of their eggs. 

During the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth centuries 
naturalists still diflered as to whether sponges should be regarded as plants 
or animals, and it was not until the middle of the latter century that their 
auimal nature was definitely established. 

The earliest references to the fresh-water sponges must be looked for in 
works on botany. The first mention of them was apparently made by John 
Ra}' in the first volume of his " Hisioria I'lanlarum," published in 168G. He 
describes a sponge from the River Yare under the title " Spongia ramosa 
fluviatilis Newtoni." From his description it is evidently a branching 
specimen of S/xnu/Ula hriuiru. A few years later, in 1691, I^eonard 
Plukenet in his " Phytographia," Part I, Plate 112, fig..*?, gives a clearly 
recognizable figure of SjxmgUla Incustris from the River Isis, near Oxford 
under tlie description " Spongia fluviatilis anfractuosa perfragilis ramosissima 
nostras." The later references to the fresh- water sponges in Ray's books are 
cliieUy quotations from the two preceding works. 

Linnaeus in his earlier writings classed the Spongillidae with the lower 
fungi under the name Lilho(iliy ta. Later on he introduced the names Spongia 
laetuUris and Sponrfia fliiriaiUii. Although it is impossible to determine with 
accuracy what were the sjwnges referred to, these two specific names have 
become established, and have long been applied to the two commonestEuropean 
species, now named SpontfiUa laciistris and Ephijdatia fluviatilis. These two 
species were apj>areutly the only ones known for a considerable number of 
years, although they were descril»e<l from lime to time under dilFerent names. 

In 1848-9 Carter published papers on the fresh-water sponges of the 
Island of Bombay, thus making known for the first time the occurrence of 
fresh- water si>onges l>eyond the confines of Euroijc. In 1863 P.owerbank 
published his " Monograph of the SiKuigilliilae "(11), adding to the previously 
known forms several new species from North am! South America and one 
from Australia. Carter's paper on the known sfiecies of Spongilla followed 

Stkphrns — The Frexh-ivntcr Sponf/ra nf TrelaiuJ. 207 

in 1881 (14), and Potts'- important ninnnrria])!! in 1887 (33). It would be 
impossible to enumerate in this short snrvey even all the more important 
papers on the fresii-watcr sponges pnlilislied about this period, but a complete 
and valuable list of the literature on the subject up to the year 1892 is given 
by Weltner (51). 

During the last thirty years much work has been done on the structure, 
physiology, and dexelopmcnt of the Spongillidae, while scientific exploration 
carried on during recent years in many parts of the globe has proved that 
fresh-water sponges may be found under suitable conditions throughout the 
world, and new species are being continually added to the number already 

Fresh-watek Sponges in Ireland. 

Although the fact tliat fresh-water sponges occur in Ir-eland has been 
known for just one hundred years, and although systematic search has 
recently been made for them in many different parts of the country, only five 
species have so far been found. They are as follows : — Spongilla {Euspomjilla) 
lacustris auct., Spongilla {Eiinctpius) fragilis Leidy, Ephydatia Jluviatilis 
auct., Ephydcdia MiUlcri Lieberkiihn, and H deromeyenia Ryderi Potts. 

Key to the Irish Spongillidae. 
I. Genimule-spicules rod-like (strongyla or oxea). Genus Spongilla. 

1. Skeleton-spicules, smooth oxea; free mieroscleres present. 

Gemmules occurring singly, and provided with a 
pneumatic-coat of very minute cells (sub-genus Euspon- 
gilla). No foraminal tubule. Spongilla lacustris. 

2. Skeleton-spicules, smooth oxea ; no free mieroscleres. Gemmules 

in a pavement-layer at base of sponge, and in small scattered 
groups, enclosed in both cases in a common covering of 
large polygonal cells (sub-genus Eunapius). Foraminal 
tubule present. Spongilla fragilis. 

II. Gemmule-spicules amphidiscs of one kind, with equal discs which are 
serrated at the edge. Genus Ephydatia. 

1. Skeleton-spicules typically smooth, but some microspined. 

Shaft of amphidlsc longer than the diameter of the disc; 
disc not deeply serrated. Bubble-cells absent. Ephydatia 

2. Skeleton-spicules smooth and spined. Shaft of aniphidisc 

shorter than the diameter of the disc ; disc deeply serrated. 
P.ubble-cells present. Ephydatia Miilleri. 

[2 8 2} 

208 Proceedings of the Rotjal Irish Academy. 

III. Gemmule-spieules amphidises of two kinds. Genus Heteromeijenia. 

1. Skeleton-spicules densely spined. Genininle-spieules (a) 
long-shafted amphidises, the disc formed of several strong, 
recurved teeth united at the hase ; (h) short-shafted 
amphidises, with finely serrated edges to the discs. 
Heteromeyenia lli/dcri. 

Although the numl>er of sjjecies is small, yet the fresh-water sponge-fauna 
of Ireland compares favourably with that of the conntries lying nearest to 
her. England and Scotland together possess the same species. France has 
the fulliiwing five : Spongilla lacustris, H. fragilis, Kphydatia JluviatUis, 
E. Mulleri, and Trochospongilla Jiorrida. Six species occur in Germany, 
namely, the five that are found in France, witli the addition of Cartcrhis 
Stepanotci. Only about eight species are known to occur in the whole of 
Europe. One of these, Utteimncyaiia Ryderi, as far as its European distri- 
bution is concerned, is limited to the extreme western outposts of the 
continent, while the gemmules only of another North American species, 
lleteromeytnia re/>ms, have on one occasion been found in Europe, namely, in 
a pond in Galicia. Several species of doubtful value have been described 
from time to time ; but the following are generally recognized as comprising 
the fresh-water sponge-fauna of Europe: — 

S,t,,nffilla lacustris. Jleleromtyenia liyderi. 

■filla fratfUis. Hcteromeymia repcn<i. 

Kphydatia flurintUis. Trochosjiongilla horrid/i. 

Kphyd'itiii iliJlrri. Cartfriim Stejmnoun. 

Thus Euiojio is p<M)r in nuuiln-r of species a.«i compared with other parts of 
the wtirhl. At the pi-esent time North America is known to possess about 
twenty-eight 8iK?cie.<», the Aniazun region of South America about twenty, 
the Continent of Africa over thirty, and India, including I'.urma, at least 
twenty-fivt' - md .several varieties. 

The geu^ -i : . >i distribution of the fresh-water sjionges found in Iieland 
is wide. JIfteromryenia Ilydtri has the most restricted range, being known 
up to the present only from Nortli America, Ireland, and Scotland. Tlie 
remaining sjiecies occur lliroughout the entire Holarctic region. E. Sliilleri 
api)ears to W confined to tlial region, where it extends through North America, 
Europe, and Northern Asia to Japan. S. lantstris, S. frayHis, and E. fltivia- 
tUis are represente«l by at least local races or varieties in other parts of llie 
world. Thus S. IntuMris is re[>resented in India. S./rayilis occuis in South 
America, tropical Asia, and Australia, wliile forms of E. fliitialilis are found 
in tropical Asia, South Africa, and Australia. 

Si'iopjiKN.s — The Fresh-wuler Sponfjes of Ireland. 209 

HisTOKK'Ai, Account oi'' Iiasii Fkiosh-watki; .Sponges. 

'I'he following is a list, in cluunulugical uidcr, ui' the papers in which 
reference is made to the occurrence of fresh- water sponges in Ireland. 
Works wliich mention such sponges only in connexion with the ]injblenis of 
their geographical distribution are included in l^lie general bibliography given 
at the end of this paper, to which the numbers iu brackets refer. 

List of Eefekences to Ikisii 1''i!Esh-watek Sponges. 

1822. Fleming, J.— The Philosophy of Zoology. Edinburgh. 

1826. Grant, E. E. — On the Structure and Nature of the Spcmc/ilia friabilis. 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, xiv. 

1836. Te.mpleton, E. — A Catalogue of the Species of Anuulose Animals and 
of Eayed Ones found in Ireland, as selected from the Papers of the 
late John Templeton, Esq., of Cranmore, with Localities, Descrip- 
tions, and Illustrations. Mag. Nat. History, ix. 

18-1-4. Thompson, W. — Eeport on the Eauna of Ireland. Div. Invertebrata. 
British Association Report for 1843. 

1849. Allman, G. J.— On the Natural History, Structure, and Biological 
Status of the Fresh-water Sponges. [Summary of Lecture.] Ann. 
Eeport Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1848. 

1856. Thompson, W.— The Natural History of Ireland, vol. iv. I-ondon. 

1868. Wkight, E. p. — Notes on Irish Sponges. Part I. A List of the 
Species. Proc. Eoy. Irish Acad., x. 

1874. Belfast Naturalists' Field Club : Guide to Belfast and the Adjacent 
Counties. [Fresh-water Sponges, p. 130.] Belfast. 

1878. Guide to the County of Dublin. I'repared for the Meeting of the 
British Association. Part II. [Macalisteh, A. — Sponges, pp. 1, 2.] 

1882. Bo^VERBANK, J. S. — A Monograph of the British Spougiadae. Bay 
Soc, London, vol. iv, edited by Kev. A. M. Norman. 

1893. ScHAKFF, E. F. — Siionijilla Jiuviatilis iu the Barrow. Irish Natura- 
list, ii. 

1893. Creighton, E. H. — Spoiigilla lacustris at Ballyshannon. Irish Natura- 
list, ii. 

1895. Hanitsch, E. — American Fresh-water Sponges in Ireland. Nature, Ii, 
p. 511. 

1895. Hanitsch, R. — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland, with renuirks on 
the general distribution of the group. Irish Naturalist, iv. 

210 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

1899. ScHARFF, E. F., and Carpenter, G. H. — Some Animals from tlie 
Macgillicuddy's Reeks. Irish Naturalist, viii. 

1902, A Guide to Belfast and the Counties of Down and Antrim, prepared 
for the Meeting of the British Association by the Belfast Natura- 
lists' Field Club. [Nichols, A. E.— Sponges, pp. 2;i6-238.] Belfast. 

1905. Stephens, Jane. — Note on Irish Fresh-water Sponges. Irish Natura- 
list, xiv. 

1908. Handbook to the City of Dublin and the Surrounding District. ' Pre- 
pared for the ileetiug of the British Association. [Stephens, J. — 
Sponges, pp. 213-215.] Dublin. 

1912. Stephens, Jane.— Fresh-water Porifera of the Clare Island Survey. 
Proc. Koy. Irish Acad., .\.\.\i. Part 60. 

1914. Stephens, Jane. — [Note on Fresli-water Sponges.] Ann. Eeport and 

Proc. Belfast Naturalists' Fiekl Club, ser. ii, vol. vii. 

1915. Stephens, Jane. — [Occun-ence of Ejihydatia fluviatiliv in the River 

Lifl'cy.] Irish Naturalist, xxiv, p. 43. 
1915. Stephens, Jane. [Note <>n Fresli-water Sponges.] Ann. Eeport and 
Proc. Belfast Nat. Fielil Club, ser. ii, vol. vii. 

References in zoological literature to the occurrence of fresh-water 
sponges in Ireland are few, as can be seen from the foregoing list, and for 
the niost part brief. Apparently the earliest allusion to Irish fresh-water 
sponges was made less than one hundred years ago by John Fleming in his 
work, "The Philosophy of Zoology," published in the year 1822. In the 
course of his description of the Alcyunaria he devotes a few lines to the 
spongee, and associates them with a "tribe" of the Alcyonaria represented 
by the genera Anthelia and Cornularia among others. Tiie author says : 
" As nearly connected with this tribe in form and the condition of the coral, 
we may notice the curious natural family of Sponges, the polypi of which 
are unknown." The only genem mentioned are Spongia, Ephydatia, and 
Tethya. In a foot-note (vol. ii, p. 614) there is the following remark : " I have 
given a delineation of the Ephydalia cannlium from an Irish specimen, 
Plate V, f. 4." The figure referred to represents jmrt of a specimen of 
Spongilla Uicuslns. 

In his paper "On the Structure and Nature of SpongilUi/riabilis," published 
in 1826, Grant stated that "this animal or vegetable production is found 
spreading over rocks or other solid bodies, at the bottom of lakes, or on the 
sides of stagnant pools ... in different parts of Great Britain and Ireland." 
The sponge referred to is proljably Ephijdatifi fiuviatUis. 

Templeton's Catalogue, published in 1836, contains the following reference 

Stephens — The Frcsh-wntcr Sponges of Ireland. 21 1 

to fresh- water sponges: " S. friabilis Esper. Found very common on the 
shores of the County Moiiaghan lakes, during the summer months," and 
" S. pnkinaia, Lam., ilplii/dalin Cfnialium , ¥\eiumg. Found atlhering to the 
walls of the locks of tlie Lagan Canal." S. friabilis and S. pulvinata are usually 
assigned to Bj/hi/dalia flunatilis, while E. canalium appears to be Sponf/illa 
lacustris, and probably both these species were seen by Templeton ; but it 
is useless to intjuire too closely into the limits of the species as understood 
by the older writers, and Templeton 's specimens have apparently not been 

WiiliaTu Thompson, in a list of invertebrates found in Ireland, gives 
Sponc/illa fluviatilis as occurring in the north and west of the country. A 
few years later Allmau emphasized his belief that fresh-water sponges 
"ought to be viewed as Diatomaceoiis organisms," and that "tbe siliceous 
spicules of the Spongillae were in every respect the representatives of the 
siliceous frustules of the Diatomaceae." The following localities are given 
for SiKngilla lacustris: the Lower Lake of Killarney and some of the lakes of 
Co. Wicklow. 

Thompson, in his "Natural History of Ireland," quotes the earlier 
references to Irish fresh-water sponges, and gives some additional localities 
for Ephydatia fluviatilis. Under this species he mentions some specimens 
from a pond at Whitehouse, Co. Antrim, which seemed to be identical with 
the Ephijdatia canalium figured by Fleming. This figure, as already stated, 
is taken from a specimen of Sponyilla lacustris. 

E. P. Wright in 1868 gives additional localities for Spongilla lacustris. Of 
Ephi/datia fluviatilis he writes : — " To be found apparently in every suitable 
locality in Ireland. In Dublin very common in the canals, and of too 
frequent occurrence in the fresh-water pipes of the city." 

In the Girides to the Belfast and Dublin districts, prepared in 1874 
and 1878 respectively for the visits of the British Association, there are brief 
allusions to the fresh-water sponges. In the former, .^p/()/(?«i!m_^Hrirt<i//s is 
recorded for the Lagan Caual (where it still flourishes) ; in the Guide to the 
Dublin district it is stated tha^t Sponf/illa lacmtris and Ephydatia fluviatilis 
abound, the former in Lough Bray, the latter in the Eoyal Canal anil 
" elsewhere." It may be stated here that Hctcromcycnia liydcri Potts is 
the only species found on successive visits to both Upper and Lower Lough 
Bray in recent years. 

Several Irish localities for fresh-water sponges are given in the fourth 
volume of Bowerbank's " Monograph of British Sponges." Dr. Batlersby sent 
the author specimens from the " Lake of Killarney " and Caragh Lake. Some 
of these were named Spongilla lacustris, others Spongilla Parjitti (= Ephydatia 

212 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Miilleri). The former species was also found near Eoundstone, Co. Galway. 
A number of preparations of Dr. Battersby's specimens are to be seen in the 
Bowerbank Collection of Sponges in the British Museum. Of these tlie 
slides of Spon{)ilIa lacustris, from the " Lake of Killarney," are correctly 
named. One prepai-ation labelled SpoiigiUa Parfitti, from the same locality, 
is almost certainly Udcromcyenia Rydcri ; gcmmule spicules are absent, but 
skeleton-spicules agree exactly with those of specimens recently collected in 
the neighbourhood of Killarney. A section of a sponge from Caragh Lake, 
also labelled UponyUla I'urfitli, contiiins a number of gemmules; ihegemmule 
spicules are very irregularly shaped, but the section is apparently taken from 
a specimen of Eyhydatia Midlcri. 

In the "Irish Naturalist " for 1893 Dr. Scharf!" records the finding of a 
specimen of Kphydatw Jiuviatilis in the liiver Barrow, and Dr. Creighton the 
finding of SpoiujUla lacustris in Columbkille Lough, Co. Donegal. The latter 
epeciuiens were later on named Tubella pcnnsylvanica Potts, by Dr. Hauitsch, 
but eventually they proved to be Uctcromcycnia Ryderi I'otts. 

About this lime Ur. Schartl' collected fresli-water sponges in several parts 
of Ireland, and sent them to Dr. Hanitsch for idenliticaliou, with the result 
that the latter, after a preliminary notice in " Nature," published an 
extremely interesting paj>er in the ' Irish Naturalist " in 1895 on tlie fresh- 
water sponges of Ireland, discussing the general distribution of the group, 
and reviewing the state of knowledge of the European Sponyillidac. In this 
paper Dr. Hauitsch announced the discovery in Ireland of three species of 
frcsh-wtttur spoiigos up to that lime known only in North America. These 
were Udcroiiuyaiui liydcri rolls; Tubvlla pcnnsylvanic<i I'olts, and 
Ephydatia cralcriformis I'olts. Tiie ideutitication of the last-named was 
considered doubtful. The author also gave descriptions of three other species 
at that lime known to occur in Ireland, namely, UpmiyUii lacu-niris, Ephydatia 
fiuciaidii, and EphydiUia MuUcri, adding a description of Uponyilla frayilis, 
with the remark that the species was sure to be found some day in Ireland. 
That statement has since been justified by the discovery of the species in 
several parts of the counlr)'. With reference to Hdcromcycnva Jiyderi, 
'I'ubclla painsyUanica, and Ephydalia craUri/omiis, the first only has been 
found subsequently in Ireland. It proves to be the commonest species in the 
areas in which it occurs. The question of the other two species will be 
discussed later (p. 214). It must suthce for the present to stale that the 
supposed specimens of these species jiroved to be Hdcrmncyenia liydcri. 

It has long been known that certain plants and invertebrates are common 
lo the west of Ireland and to North America, and the allvutiou of workers at 
the problems of geographical distribution was naturally attracted by the 

Stephens — The Fresh-ivatcr Sponges of Ireland. 21'i 

discovery in Ireland of Ilctcrumci/cnia liijdcri, luid, as was supijosed at Llie 
time, of two otliev species witli a similar distribution. We find, therefore, 
dui'ing the next few years that the ciiief references to Irish fresh-water 
sponges were made in connexion with the questinii <il' their di.strihntion. 
Dr. Scharff in several of his books and papers (^35, 36, 37) and i'rofessor 
Carpenter (13) cite the distribxition of these fresh-water sponges, along with 
that of certain other invertebrates and plant.s, in su[iport of the theory of the 
existence of a former land-bridge between North America and Europe. 
Later on, when two of the three sponges were found in India, the species 
were naturally quoted as good examples of discontinuous distribution (3). 

Two or three short notices giving additional Irish localities for some of 
the species bring us up to the commencement of the Clai'e Island Survey, 
when for the first time in this country a systematic search for fresh-water 
sponges was undertaken in a definite area, namely, in western Mayo and in 
the adjacent islands off the coast. In point of view of mere number of species, 
the result of the Survey was disappointing, only Si)onfjilla fvagilis being 
added to the list, while Tiibclla peniisylccmica and Ephydatia crateriformis 
had to be deleted. The chief points brought forward in the report may be 
briefly referred to. First, that sponges were few-er in number of species, and 
grew as a rule with less luxuriance in lakes on the limestone than in the 
fresh waters of the non-calcareous areas ; and, secondly, that Hderomeyema 
Byderi was absent from the fresh waters of the limestone areas. It is 
satisfactory to state that these observations have been confirmed by work 
done subsequently in many parts of Ireland. Thirdly, it was found that 
Meteromeyenia Byderi assumes different forms in lakes and ri\ers, which 
forms are closely analogous to the varieties of the species described from 
North America. 

A few short notices giving additional localities for some of the species 
bring the list of references to Irish fresh-water sponges to a close. 

The material on which the present paper is based has been collected for 
the most part by the present writer in different parts of Ireland during the 
past ten years. Many areas have been very thoroughly searched, but several 
parts of the country have been left almost untouched owing to various 
reasons — for instance, two or three unusually wet seasons which delayed the 
work, and, during ihe last few years, the increasing difficulties of travelling 
in Ireland for the purpose of collecting natural history specimens. In 
particular, the midlands have been neglected, and further work in parts of 
the north and in the south would add to our knowledge of the distribution of 
the various species. 

21 4 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The writer \vishes to record her thanks to other workers who kindly 
helped by collecting specimens in different parts of the country, in particular 
to the following: — Messrs. D. C. Campliell, X. H. Foster, E. A. Phillips, 
R. LI. Praeger, R. Welch, and Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Stelfox. Special uieiition 
should be made of the constant help given by the late Major H. Trevelyan, 
who on his many fishing expeditions to the counties of Donegal and 
Fermanagh undertook to search for fresh-water sponges, and who became a 
most enthusiastic collector. Thanks are also due to the Fauna and Flora 
Committee of the Koyal Irish Academy for a grant which enabled the writer 
to collect in the more remote districts of south-west Cork and Kerry. 

Supposed Occurjiesce of Tkociiospoxgilla PKNXsvLVAiJiCA (Potts) anu 


In addition to the discovery of Hderomeyenia Byderi in Ireland, 
Dr. Hauibsch (20, 21 1 announced the finding of two other species new to 
this country, namely, TubeJla pcniisi/li^nua from Columbkille Lough, 
Co. Donegal, and Ephydatia cnitcri/ormis from Park Lough, Hungry Hill, 
Co. Cork, the latter species being only named provisionally. Gemmules 
were not found in any of the specimens. No further trace of sponges 
belonging to these two species, now referred to the genera Trochospongilla 
and S|)ongilla respectively (3, p. 118 and p. 83), has beeu discovered in 
Ireland; but when once systematic field work was undertaken Meter omeycnia 
Byderi was found in great abundance in difrcrent parts of the country, and 
its variabihly soon became recoguize<i. As I have stated in a previous 
|>a]>er (41), it was im|K)ssiblc not to \)e struck witli the agreement of 
Dr. Hanitsch's description of Trochospongilla pninaylvanica and SjwngUla 
cr(Ufri/ormis with fonns of Hetcromcycnia Ryderi taken in difl'ereut Irish 
localities. It was determined therefore as opportunity offered to obtain 
further material for examination from the lakes in which Dr. Hanitsch's 
specimens had been taken. 

As already described (41), visits made to Columbkille Lough by the late 
Major Trevelyan and by the present writer on several occasions during the 
summer and autumn of 1011 resulted in the finding of a sponge which grew 
there in great abundance underneath the stones along the shores of the lake. 
Its skeleton-spicules agreed exactly with Hanitsch's description of the sponge 
he had called TuMla pcnntylranica, and with a preparation of one of his 
specimens now in the British Museum. Hundreds of specimens were 
collected without finding any gemmules ; but finally a few gemmule-bearing 
spongee were taken in the month of October, and these proved that the 
sponge was HcUronuycnia Ryderi. 

Stkphions — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 21n 

Tho description of the fragmeiitB of sponge doubtfully ascribed by 
Hanitsch to E. crateriformia agreed so well with poorly developed specimens 
oi Heteromei/enia Byderi (41, \>. (i) that a visit was paid to Park T.ough in 
August, 1917, in the hope of definitely settling the question of the identily 
of the sponge from this locality. Park Lough is a very small lake, lying on 
the lower south-western slopes of Hungry Hill, at an altitude of 300 feet. 
It has boggy shores, with steep turf banks at the western end, and a few 
stones lie on the soft peaty bottom at the eastern end. The lake thus does 
not present favourable conditions for the growth of sponges ; but a thorough 
search along its shores resulted in the finding of a fair number of small 
specimens. These were growing for the most part on the under surface of 
stones that were laid loosely, one on top of the other, stretching out from the 
shore to form a sort of rough pier under the water. Three or four specimens 
were found on the stems and roots of water-plants. Similar specimens were 
found a little way down the stream, draining the lake, where a stony bottom 
afforded some suitable ground for sponges. All the specimens obtained were 
very soft in texture, yellowish iu colour, and tended to be slightly lobed ; in 
other words, externally they agreed exactly with poorly developed specimens 
of HeUromeyenia Byderi, such as one would expect in an unfavourable habitat. 
About this time a minute fragment of the original material, collected in 
Park Lough by Dr. Scharff in May, 189o, was discovered among the sponges 
preserved in the National Museum. A comparison of the spicules of this 
sponge with those of the specimens recently collected proved that they all 
agreed exactly with Hanitsch's description of his doubtful E. cratcriformis. 
Fully developed gemmules were not present, but a few scattered amphidiscs 
were discovered which proved beyond doubt that the sponge was a form of 
Heteromeyciiia Byderi with slender spicules, such as occurs where the 
conditions are not favourable to a vigorous growth. In addition to the 
developing amphidiscs figured by Hanitsch (21, fig. 5), a very few mature 
amphidiscs of both kinds were found in the fragment collected in 1893. 

Specimens of Truchospongilla pennsijlvanica and Spongilla cratenfm-mis 
from North America, identified by Potts, and a specimen of the latter 
species from India, were available for examination. In this connexion it is 
interesting to note that the two North American species which have to 
be deleted from the Irish list have, within recent years, been found iu 
India (3). 

The supposed occurrence of Trochospongilla pcnnsylvanica in Scotland may 
also, perhaps, be referred to in this place. 

Some years ago Ur. Annandale (2) collected two species of sponges in 
Loch Baa, in the Island of Mull, Scotland. One of these was a form of 

216 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academij. 

Spongilla lactistris, the other was named TiibeUa pcnnsijlvanica Potts. An 
examination of one of Dr. Annamlale's slides of the hatter sjjecies in the 
Britisli Museum showed that the sponge from whicli the preparation was 
made was undoubtedly the lake form of Hekromci/cnia Ixydcri. Unfortunately 
geinmules were not present, and I have not succeeded in procuring any 
further specimens of the sponge from Scotland. 

Habitat k^d Genekal Distkibution of 1'UEsh-watek Sponges ln 


Fresh-water sponges occur throughout Ireland in lakes, ponds, rivers, and 
streams. They also occur iu the canals, in old quany-holes, and even in 
bog-draius. They are to be found in mountain tarns and streams up to a 
height of 2,200 feet, as well as iu the largest lakes and rivers of the lowlands. 

Iu this country fresh-water sponges usually grow on and under stones, 
but they also grow on water-plants, and, in lowland rivers, they have been 
found on the submerged rooU of trees, such as the alder, and on rotting, 
submerged tree-stumps and branches. With regard to lakes,, sponges arc 
most abundant in those which have rocky or stony shores, or have at least a 
stretch of stone-strewn beach, but they also grow, though never luxuriantly, 
in lakes which are almost entirely surrounded by high banks of peat, and in 
which the water is deep-brown in colour from the peat. In these lakes on 
the bogs the sponges are occasionally found on the submerged stumps of the 
trees (for the most part Scotch Fir) that iu former times grew in abundance 
in areas now covered by bogs and lakes. Sponges have even been seen 
growing on a sod of turf lying under water in a stream. 

When the bottom consists of mud, the " chief enemy " of sponges, they 
grow raised above it on the stems of reeds or other water-plants, or on the 
stone-work and wood-work of the walls of mill-streams, canal locks, and 
other artificially constnicled waterways. 

Fresh-water spongea are occasionally found iu brackish water in difl'erent 
parts of the world. So far they have not lieen found in brackish water in 
Ireland, although search has been specially made for them. For example, 
the tidal river which drains Furnace Lough, Co. Mayo, was carefully 
examined, but without success, as well as the southern end of the lake where, 
the water is brackish. Sponges were abundant in fresh water at the 
northern end of the lake. On the other hand, a marine species of I'olyzoa 
Mcmbraniporn mcmbraiuicai,vi\\\(i\\ establishes itself readily in brackish water, 
was found all along the river, in the southern part of the lake, and even in 
fresh water at the northern end, where it grew in company with Ephydatia 

Stkphkns — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 217 

Speaking generally, as long as there is a suitable substratum on which 
sponges can establish themselves, it is but seldom that one will return 
empty-handed from a search in any lake or river. But, as is always the case 
when this group of animals is concerned, the general rule has exceptions. 

As far as my experience goes, sponges are not found in mountain streams 
in Ireland, unless there is a lake, however small, in the course of the stream. 
They do nob occur in the streams flowing into the lake, but are to be found 
in tlie out-flowing stream or streams at a point immediately below the lake. 
Even when the sponges are few in number and small in size in the lake 
itself, just below it they often spread out in masses over the under surface 
of the larger stones, and if these upper stones are removed they are to be 
seen carpeting a lower layer of stones in the bed of the stream. The species 
found in such situations are Hctcromcijenia Ri/deri and, more rarely, Spont/illa 
lacustris. If the mountain stream is small, the sponges appear to die out 
aarain further down its course, or at least they do not occur in sucli 
abundance. 1 

In lower-lying country sponges are found in the larger streams and 
rivers whose course does not pass through a lake. In this case they do not 
appear to grow very near its source. Probably it is owing to an insufficient 
food supply in a river near its source, and in a mountain stream, unless tliere 
is a lake in its course to act as a sort of reservoir, that sponges are not found 
in these situations. 

Sometimes sponges cannot be found when shore-collecting in lakes which 
appear to be eminently suited to their growth, possessing, for example, clean 
stone-strewn beaches and clear water. No reason can be assigned to account 
for their absence. But it is possible in some cases after a very dry 
summer, when the water-level is unusually low, and the sponges are killed 
along a wide strip of shore, which is thus exposed, that it may take some 
time for them to reach again, at least in their former numbers, to their usual 
level. For instance, Lougli Gill was examined for sponges in July, 1914, 
and they were found growing in abundance on the metamorpliic rocks in 
certain places, and in smaller numbers on the limestone along other parts of 
the shore (43j. Tlie water was exceptionally low that year, and dried 
sponges were seen on the stones well above the watei'-level. A visit lo 

' In this conne.'cion it is interesting to quote a statement of Dr. .■Vnnaiidale's in a 
paper (8) received after the foregoing was written, in which he discusses the occurrence 
of sponges in mountain streams in ludia. He writes: " I liave not yet found any sponge 
in a small mountain torrent such as those at Khandalla, in whicli food is probably 
deficient ; but when these streams are dammed to form ponds in which aquatic 
vegetation grows up, sponges soon make their appearance." 

218 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the same places in July, 1916, resulted in the finding of a very few small 
specimens, in the course of three days' search, on the metamorphic rocks in 
the lake, while none was seen on tlie limestone. In the tropics, where 
gemmules are produced in stich abundance at the approach of the dry season, 
a fresh growth of sponges is ensured when the water again reaches its winter 
level. With the occasional exceptions of Ejihydatia fluviatUis, and in a less 
degree Spovrplla lacus/ns, gemmules are not abundant in lake sponges in 
Ireland, so that there is not much cliance of sponges which are left higli and 
dry during an unusually rainles.s summer being reproduced in situ by their 
means. In this connexion it may be stated that, on the whole, gemmules are 
not produced in very great numbers by fresh-water sponges in Ireland, no 
doubt owing to the temperate climate. The river form of Htfrroviti/cnia 
Ryderi, and sometimes Ephijdatva flumatilis, may give rise to a certain 
abundance of gemmules, but I have seen notliing in Irish speciinens at all 
comparal)le to llie ma.sses of gemmules produced by sponges in the tropics. 
Dr. Annandale, who lias such an extensive knowledge of the tropical 
Spongillidae, comnicntfi on the scarcity of gemmules in a collection of sponges 
from France and Switzprlaml examined by him (4, p. 393). His remark 
wouM aji]>ly jiorhnps oven more forcibly to Irish specimens. Although not 
jiroducod in extraordinary number.'^, gemmides may be found apj)arenlly at 
alraast any time of the year. Again, owing to our temperate climate, there 
would appear to bo no particular need to produce them at any special season. 
They are. however, more abundant on the whole in llic late summer and 

I liave never found sponges along the shores of lakes, such as Crotty's 
Ix>ugh in the Comeragh MounUiins, or L«iugli Shimnagh in the Mourne 
MounUins, that arc used as a water-supply for neighbouring towns and 
cities. This is, perhaps, to l>e accounted for by tiie rapid and frequent 
changes in the water-level in these lakes. 

Sponges were not found in any of the lakes in the Mourne Mountains, 
although, apart from Lough Shimnagh, the lakes appeared suited to their 
growth. Sponges occur in such abundance and with such regularity in 
mounUin tarns throughout Ireland that their apparent total absence from 
the Mournes i.s noteworthy. 

The jKoition in which sponges grow with the greatest luxuriance in this 
country is in a stream or river wliich drains a lake, and at a point a greater or 
less distance Itelow the lake. This applies both to small mountain streams, 
as already described (p. 217), and to the large lowland rivers. Ffir example, 
aljout half a mile l>elow Ixuigh Allen the pebbly l>ed of the River Shannon 
waa found to b.- iitvially < irpc-U'd with growths of Sixnyjilln lacmtris. For 

Stkpiikns — Tlie Fresh-wafer Sponges of Ireland. 219 

the most part tlie sponge sent iij) hiaiielics from an encrusting base, but 
unbranched, encrusting specimens were also common. Some miles down UK- 
river the sponge grew in fairly numerous isolated patches, but in nothing 
like the abundance in which it ilourished at the first-mentioned point. The 
western shore of Lough Allen had been examined on the same and previous 
days, and proved to be almost bare of sponges, a few small specimens of 
SponrjiUa. lacustria being found in a sheltered bay at the south-western end of 
the lake. The extreme scarcity .of sponges in the lake thus contrasted 
strongly with their abundance in the river. Again, in County Sligo, the l«d 
of the Drumcliff Eiver, a hundred yards or so below Glencar Lough, was 
covered by a luxuriant growth of the same species, both branching and 
encrusting specimens again occurring. Glencar Lough itself yielded only a 
few small specimens. In non-calcareous areas Heteromeycnia Eydcri often 
grows in out-flowing streams, with stony bottoms, just below a lake both in 
the mountains and in low-lying localities. As this species grows hidden 
from the light, the uppermost layer of stones must be removed before the 
sponge can be seen practically covering the bed of the stream, as well as the 
lower surfaces of the top layer of stones. 

I have not been able to find any reference in the literature of fresh-water 
sponges which would show that a similar rule with regard to the growth of 
sponges has been observed to hold good in other countries — namely, that 
sponges occur most luxuriantly in a stream or river that drains a lake, and 
at a spot a little distant below the lake. Edward Potts (30, p. 218) noticed, 
indeed, that Sponfjilla laciistris was particularly abundant at an outlet from 
the Fairmount Keservoir, " its stems forming a complete matting over many 
yards of surface," and Dr. Annandale (6, p. 65, p. 72) remarks of a certain 
sitecies, J^iulospoiu/illa mappa Annandale, which occurs both in the Lake of 
Tiberias and in the Eiver Jordan, that the largest specimens were taken from 
the Jordan near its exit from the lake. These are isolated instances, but 
they tend to show that the rule, as one w'ould expect, probably holds good in 
other countries. 

In the course of the Glare Island Survey two dilfei'ences were noticed 
between the sponges in the lakes of the limestone area examined and those 
in the lakes lying on non-calcareous rocks (41). First, that sponges were 
less numerous, and, as a rule, of less luxuriant growth in the lakes on the 
limestone ; and, secondly, that Hetcromeijaiia Ri/deri was not found in any 
of the lakes on the limestone, but occurred in abundance in neighbouring 
lakes on non-calcareous rocks. These two points are further confirmed l)y 
the field-work since carried out in many other parts of Ireland. 

With regard to the first point, the statement that sponges grow, as a 

220 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

rule, less luxuriantly in lakes on the limestone still holds good, but it must 
be noticed that they sometimes grow in abundance on the limestone in rivers 
which drain a lake as just described. In the localities quoted, both the 
River Shannon and the Drumcliff Eiver flow over the limestone at the spots 
indicated. But it must be remembered that the Eiver Shannon at the place 
described drains Lough Allen, a large lake lying for the most part on the 
Lower Coal Measures, and that the bed of the river was largely made up of 
slaty fragments carried down from the Coal Measures. Glencar Lough, 
however, lies on the limestone. 

The stones in many limestone lakes are covered with a thick, soft, 
calcareous deposit which seems to afford an unfavourable substratum tor the 
growth of sponges, and which may be the cause of their scarcity in those lakes 
(41, p. 4). Spongilla laaistris and, more rarely, Ephydatia /luviatilis are able 
to establish themselves on such calcareous deposits, but they do not flourish 
on them. 

As regards the second point, Ileteiomei/cnia Rijdtri has not Ihhmi fnund 
growing on the limestone in any part of Irelaml. It occurs on all sorts of 
non-calcareous i-ocks — granite, sandstone, mica-schist, basalt, and felstone. 
As suggest^'d in a former pajier (41, p. 4), llie reason fur the absence of 
HeUromeyenin Ri/deri from liinestone areas may, perliaps, be a pliysieal one. 
The favourite habitat of the species, for the most part the only one in Ireland, 
is the under .surface of stones. In lakes on non-ealcareous rocks the stones 
arc clean, and lie loosely on one another, thus allordingslielter from the light 
and a free access of water to the sponge. In tlie lakes on the limestone the 
stones are often half-buried in mud, and in addition are often covered with a 
tliiek liinv iloposit. Sucli conditions would seem to be totally unfavouiable 
to the growth of llrtrnnnr.ijenin Ilydcri. On llie otlicr hand, tlic species is 
equally absent from lakes and rivcre where the limestone is cleaner, and 
affords freer under surfaces to the growtli of sponges. Heteromci/cnia 
lii/dtri has not l)een found in tlie lakes which lie partly on the lime.stwno and 
partly on non-calcareous rocks. The only CNception to this statement, up 
to the present, is the finding of two small specimens of the species in the 
extreme north-western ann of Lough Corrib, which large lake lies for 
the iniMt |>art on the limestone. But this north-western arm lies on 
non-calcai-eous rocks, and i^eceives the drainage of the surrounding 
Don -calcareous country ; it is united only by a narrow channel with tlie main 
body of the lake, so that this part of Lough Corrib is to all intents a separate 
lake. The species wa.s lookeil for in vain in the main Ixuly of the lake, which 
lies on the limesUiue. 

As a general rule, Spow/illa lacuMris and Helcroiiuijenia Uijderi grow side 

Stephens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 221 

by sido in lakes and rivovH (ni i ion -calcareous rocks. If only one species is 
present, that species is almost always Ileteromei/enia Rijderi, whicli is thus the 
most widely spread as well as the commonest sponge in tiie areas in which it 
grows. Very rarely three species are found growing together in any lake ur 
river. On only two or three occasions were the two foregoing species found 
iu company with a third, wsim&ly,^/^)^ Eiihijdatia fluviatilis. For example, 
these three species were found together in Lough Nacorra and Moher Lough, 
in County Mayo. Ejihi/datia fhmiatilis, however, varied in its appearance in 
these lakes, as it was found one year in abundance, leaving no trace of its 
presence in the following year. In limestone rivers and lakes Spongilla 
lacustris and Ejilnjdfdia fluviatilis sometimes occur together, but often only 
one or the other is present. The remaining species — Spongilla fiufjilis and 
Uphi/datia Mullcri — are too rare to admit of any general statement about 
their occurrence. The fact that rarely more than two out of the five species 
grow side by side at a given spot in Ireland is a contrast apparently to the 
mode of occurrence of fresh-water sponges in some other parts of Europe. 
For example, all five species known in France are met with at one spot in 
the Eiver Saone, close to the fresh-water station recently established in the 
Cote d'Or (Topsent). 

The same species of sponge may be found year after year in any given 
lake or river in this country. The only noticeable exception to this appears 
to be the occurrence of Ephi/datia flxtviatilis in the west of Ireland. This 
species varied in its appearance from year to year in a couple of lakes in County 
Mayo in which it had been found (41, p. 3). But it should be noted that 
Ephi/datia flicviatilis is a rare species in the west, and is evidently not well 
established there. 

To sum up the distribution of fresh-water sponges in Ireland — Spongilla 
lacustris occurs tliroughout the country in both limestone and non-limestone 
areas, both in low-lying lakes and rivers and in mountain tarns and streams. 

Hcteromeyenia Eyderi is only found in the fresh water of non- limestone 
districts, hence it occurs all round Ireland in the maritime counties which 
lie off the limestone, and is absent from the central limestone plain. It is 
commoner in mountain lakes and streams than the preceding species. 

Ephydatia fiuviatilis grows in both limestone and non-limestone areas. 
It is rare in the west, and has not yet been found in the south-west. It is 
quite common in the eastern counties from north to south. The species has 
not been taken in mountain tarns and streams. AVith the exception of 
Tjough Nacorra, in County Mayo, which lies at 589 feet, it is only kudwn 
from quite low-lying localities. 

The remaining two species are very rare. Spongilla fragilis has been 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. SXXV, SECT. B, [2 C] 

222 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

taken in five widely separated localities, lying in the extreme north and sonth 
and in the west and north-west, while liphydatia Mi/Ueri has only been found 
80 far in the Eiver Erne, at Enniskillen ; the Paver Tolka, in County Dublin; 
and in Caragli Lake, in County Keriy. 

Spongilla ( Euspone^illa) lacustris auet. (PI. XXVI, figs. 1, 2.) 

Thi.s species is l"« luid all over Ireland, both in limestone and non-limestone 
districts. It liourishes in lakes and rivers and in the canals, and is the most 
widely spread species in Ireland, but in the areas where Heteromeyenia Ryderi 
occurs it is by no means the commonest ; while in some of the eastern 
counties, in County Dublin for example, it is mucli rarer than Fphi/dntia 

Like all the fresh-water sponges in Ireland, S. lacvstns usually grows 
on stones, either on the upper surface, when it is brandling or massive, or on 
the under surface, when it forms thicker or thinner encrustations. It some- 
times grows on water-plants, and lias been found on the submerged roots of 
trees, such as the alder, growing on the banks of rivers, ami on tiie stone- 
work of canal locks. Branching specimens, which are so typical of the species, 
are of much rarer occurrence in Ireland than encrusting ones. 

As is usually the case with fresh-water sponges, S. lacKstris is bright green 
when growing exposed to the light; when sheltered from the light it is 
greyish-white or pale yellowish. In lakes witli very peaty shores it is 
sonietimoa a dull purplish-brown colour. An interesting variety of colour 
was exhibited by specimens growing in great profusion on the pebbly bed of 
the Iliver Shannon, about half a mile below Lough Allen. Some of the 
sponges were a fairly bright, though not a vivid, green, but all were tinged 
more or less with a dark grey colour. Some were of a uniform dark grey 
externally and a pale yellowish green colour internally. One large specimen 
was ash-grey in colour, with most of its branches tipped with white, which 
rendered it very conspicuous even at some little distance. Another branching 
specimen was in jvirt green, in part coloured similarly to the foregoing. These 
sponges were loaded with particles of silt brought down from the Coal 
Measures on which the gi-ealer part of Lough Allen lies. 

S. lacustris is found commonly in mountain lakes and in their out-flowing 
streams, but it is comparatively rare in the higher mountain tarns, and has 
only lieen taken at three or four localities lying at an altitude of 1,000 feet or 
over. It was found in a little tarn at 2,200 feet on Mount Brandon in the 
Dingle peninsula, and in the stream draining the lake. It was also taken 
lower down the mountain in the stream draining Lough Nalackcn (1,000 feet). 

Stkphens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 223 

in Lougli Boy, County Cork (1,800 feet), and in tluj oul-ilinving .slruam. Jn 
addition, spicules belonging to the species were found mixed with specimens 
of Ileteromeyenia h'l/dcri from Lough Eagher, County Kerry (1,550 feet). 
If. Ii//dcri, which almost invariably accompanies /S'. /«c;(.s/?'i.s in non-limestone 
districts, is much more commonly found in tliese mountain tarns ; but it is fo 
be noted that S. laciistris alone was found in the little tarn at 2,200 feet on 
Mount Brandon, which is the highest altitude at which a fresh-water sponge 
has been found in Ireland. 

In many of the low-lying lakes and rivers the growth of S. lucusiris is 
vigorous, the skeleton spicules are robust and are united into thick fibres by 
a considerable quantity of spongin, and microscleres are present in the greatest 
abundance. For example, the species was seen spreading in masses several 
square feet in extent over a large boulder in Lough Feeagli, County Mayo. 
The pebbly bed of the River Shannon below Lough Allen was literally 
carpeted with branched and unbranched specimens. An equal profusion of 
specimens was seen in similar situations, while in the tree-bordered stretches 
of some of the rivers in tlie south-eastern part of the country the species may 
be seen coating the tangled roots of alders for yards along the banks. 

The skeleton -spicules in these large specimens usually vary between 
0'2-0-3mm. in length, and have a maximum thickness of O'Ofomm., or more 
rarely 0'015 mm. The free microscleres are as a rule between 0'07-0"12 mm. 
in length, and have a maximum diameter of O'OOS mm. The gemmule-spicules 
vary between 0'05-0-13 mm, by 0-006-0-01 mm. (PI. XXVI, fig. 1). 

The gemmules themselves have no granular layer, or, if present, it is 
poorly developed. Very rarely it is well developed. 

A great contrast to this vigorous growth of S. lacustris is presented by a 
certain form of the species which is characteristic of the mountain lakes, and 
also of the low-lying western lakes of the non-limestone areas (PI. XXVI, 
iig. 2). This form occurs in small, more or less oval, patches on the under 
surface of stones. These patches are thicker towards the centre and thin out 
towards the edges. They are pale yellowish in colour, soft to tlie toucti, and 
slightly hispid owing to the ends of the spicule-fibres projecting beyond the 
dermal surface. One or more small oscula are situated towards the centre of 
the sponge. This form of >S. lacustris is easily distinguished at siglit from 
the lake form of Heteromeycnia Ryderi, witii which it is almost invariably 
associated, by its colour, its greater hispidity, and niDre particularly by its 
extreme softness. 

The main skeleton-fibres are very slender, usually between O'Olo-OlU mm. 
in diameter. These are united at fairly long interv als by transverse fibres, 
consisting of a single spicule or of a bundle of a few spicules at right angles 


224 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

to them. The spongin is very scanty, so that the entire skeleton is weak and 
is loosely held together. The whole appearance of the skeleton is thus a 
great contrast to that presented by robust fonns of the species, in which both 
main and transverse fibres may reach a diameter of 015 mm., and may 
possess a considerable quantity of spongin closely binding the spicules. 

The skeleton -spicules are long, but slender. They usually vary between 
0'22-0"33 mm. in length, and have a maximum diameter of 001 mm. In 
some cases the maximum diameter is about U 006 mm. 

The free microscleres are also slender, being about 0'002-0004 mm. in 
diameter. Usually they are few in number, but sometimes they are present 
in fair quantities. 

Gemmules are present as a rule in considerable numbers, and may appear 
as early in the year as June. They are usually without a grauular layer, or 
with this layer very feebly developed, and are of a clear pale yellow colour. 
They vary considerably in size, but do not appear, on the whole, to be smaller 
than in more typical si)ecimens. 

The gemmule-spicules seem to be absent from some specimens ; in others 
they are present in scanty numbers. They measure, as a rule, between 
0-008-0 l.S mm. by 0003-000o mm. 

In lakes in which this small form grows there may sometimes be found 
small green tinger-like specimens, perhaps only half an inch in height, on the 
sides of the stones. In one lake only, namely, in Lake Nacorra, County 
Mayo, were long branching green s{)ecimen8 found, about a foot in height. 
In these sponges the bi-anchcs were ver}" soft and slender. The spicules, too, 
were slender, quite resembling those of the small encrusting specimens 
growing under the stones. 

The small encrusting fonn of ^. lacustris is described at some length by 
Dr. Annandale (2) from specimens found by him on the under surface of 
stones in Loch Haa, in the Isle of Mull, Scotland. It is considered by him 
to be possibly a distinct local race. 

This phase of H. lacuMrU, so characteristic in its extreme form, is connected 
by every intermediate link with other specimens of S. lacuMris which grow as 
more robust encrustations on the under surface of stones in lakes and streams 
on both calcareous and non-calcareous rocks. It has been traced from the 
lakes in which it grows down the streams that drain the lakes. As is the 
case with other species, iS. /atin/nis grows most loxuriautly in these streams at 
a point a little distance below the lakes. Hence in such situations it extends 
in much larger patches on the under surface of stones ; but there is no 
appreciable difTereuce in the size or shape of the spicules, or in the relative 
abundance of the gemmule-spicules. 

Stephens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 225 

GiroJ (18) has noticed that in the mountain lakes of Auvergne tlie 
genimules borne by Spongilla lacustris are devoid of a granular layer, and 
possess sometimes a few gemraule-spicules. In the rivers the gemniule- 
spicules increase in numbers until they form a compact covering of closely 
placed spicules {S. lacustris, var. /ordcmensis, Vejd.), and all intermediary stages 
have been seen in passing from the still waters of the mountain lakes to the 
currents of the Eiver AUier and its tributaries. In Ireland the gemmules are 
witliout the granular coat, or have it very poorly developed in specimens in 
the low-l}'ing lakes and rivers, as well as in those in the mountain tarns and 
streams. In one case only, namely, in a specimen from a stream in County 
Antrim, were gemmules seen with a well-developed granular coat in which 
the spicules were more or less vertically placed, exactly as figured by Vejdovsky 
(49, PI. II, fig Ioa). These gemmules were brown in colour, owing to the 
presence of a distinct chitinous coat outside the granular layer, as described 
by the same author (49, p. 17) ; and only a few of them were present, the 
majority of the gemmules being of the usual yellow colour, and with the 
granular layer poorly developed. 


Kerey. — L. Coomasaharn, Caragh L. and Caragh E., Middle Lake and 
Meeting of the Waters, Killarney ; L. Avoonane and out-flowing stream, 
L. Cruttia (coll. E. Welch), stream from L. Nalacken (1,000 ft.) and lake at 
2,200 ft. and its outlet on Mt. Brandon; L. Doon (1,000 ft.), L. Duff and 
out-flowing sti'cam, L. Gall, L! Clogharee and out-flowing stream, Ij. Adoon, 
L. Eagher (1,550 ft.\ Cloonee Lakes and Cloonee E., L. Inchiquin and 
out-flowing stream, L. Cumraeenadillure and out-flowing stream. 

Cork. — L. Avaul Little near Glengarriff, L. Boy (1,800 ft.) and 
out-flowing stream. 

Waterford. — Ballyscanlan L., near Tramore. 

Galavay. — Near Eoundstone (12 1, and many small lakes in the neiglibour- 
hood of Craigga More ; L. Corrib, at many points along its shore ; L. Bofin 
and out-flowing stream, Arderry L., L. Shindilla, Glendalough L., Xacoo- 
garrow L. and out-flowing stream, Loughaureirin, Athry L., Derryclare L. 
and out-flowing stream, Owengowla E., Ballynahinch L. and Ballynahinch E., 
L. Maumwee, L. Eea (coll. E. A. Phillips). 

Clare. — L. Atoriek (coll. by \l. A. Phillips). 

Kilkenny.— E. Nore at Inishtioge; E. Barrow at Graiguenamanagh. 

Carlow. — E. Barrow near Tinnahinch. 

King's Co. —Near Portarlington (39). 

Kildare. — Canal between Sallins and Naas. 

226 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

WiCKLOW. — L. Dan, L. Tay, and Annamoe Eiver. 

DcBLis*. — Grand Canal, Eoyal Canal. 

EOSCOLMON. — L. Key, R. Boyle, Oakport Ia, L. Arrow. R. Shannon, 
L. Gorinty. 

Mayo. — Si-aheens L, Achill Island ; L. PoUagowly, Ij. SkaliaghadrauLan, 
L. Fee^h and out-flowing stream ; L. Beltra, Clogher L. near Westport ; 
li. Mallard, Drunnninahaha L., Dambaduff Ij. and out-flowing stream, 
Carrowbeg L. near Newport ;39) ; L. Islaudeady, Castlebar L., L. Xacorra 
and out-flowing stream ; Moher L., L. Cahasy (coll. J. X. Halbert), 
Ij. Nahaltora, Glencullin K, Doo L., Ym L., Tawnyard L, Lugaloughaun. 
For all the foregoing see (41). 

Sligo. — L. Gill (43j, Glencar L., and Druiucliff E., L. Arrow, 
L. Derryniasallagli. 

Leitkim.— Glenade L., Glencar L., II. Shannon, L. Allen (S.-W. shore), 
Belhavel L 

Cavan. — Bailey's Bridge and Baker's Bridge (coll. R. "Welch), 
Killakcen (21), Upper and Lower I. Macnean ; near Belturbet (coll. 
Miss Clifford). 

MosAGHAN. — Mill-Stream in Eossmore Castle Demesne (coll. A. W. 

Fkbmanagh. — L Erne, at many points along the N. shore, and off the 
islands in the lake, and Derinty L., Meenaghmore L., and Garvay E. (coll. 
Major Trevelyant, E Enie, Lower L. Macnean. 

DoNKCAL. — Eath L., Golagh L., L Lee, Columbkille L. (coll. Major 
Trevelyan), (Jarry L (coll. R. Welch,, L. Aluirg and outlet (colL A. W. 
Stelfox), Doon L., L. Kiltooris, Pound L, L. Fad near Narin, L. Birroge, 
L. Eoshin, E. Erne, L Unshin and out-tlowing stream, Knader L., L. Inn, 
L. Fad near Moville. 

Armagh.— Camlough E. (21). 

Down,— Canal at Hillsborough (coll. N. U. Foster and A. W. Stelfox). 

Antkim. — Lfc Neagli and stream at Wootlbuni (39), mountain lakes to the 
west of Camlough, at about 1,000 ft. (coll. Major Trevelyan). 

Dekky. — E. Bann, near Toome (coll. R. A. Phillips and A. W. Stelfox). 

Spongilla lEonapinsj fra|^ilis Leidy (PI. XXVI, tig. 3). 

This species, which has an almost world-wide distribution, is very rare in 
Ireland. Up to the present it has been found in five widely scattered 
localities in the north, west, and south of the country. 

Spongilla jrayUu wa.s first found in Ireland in the course of the Clare 
Island Survey (41 ». It was discovered in the Owengarr Eiver, which drains 

STiii'iiKNs — 'L'hc Frcsh-wiilcr Hponijcs of Ireland. 227 

Doo Lougli, Co. Mayo ; it occuired just below tlie lake in large patclies, and 
in considerable abundance, and in fact lias not since been found growing so 
luxuriantly in this country. In the following year a few small specimens 
were taken along the shores of liough Erne by the late Major Trevelyan. 
Later on the species was discovered in Lough Fad (636 feet) on Fair Head, 
where it occurred in certain numbers, although not a trace of it was found 
in the neighbouring lakes on Fair Head, Lough-na-Cranog and Doo Lough, 
in both of which Heteromeyenia Ityderi abounded (42). A second visit was 
paid to Lough Fad two years later, when Sjmnfjilla fragilia was again seen. 
A few small specimens were found in the Eiver Suir at Kilsheelan, 
Co. Tipperary ; and, finally, one small specimen and an isolated patch of 
gemmules were discovered in tlie river flowing from Derryelare Lough, 
Co. Galway. A special search for further specimens was made at the last- 
named locality, but without success. A careful look-out has indeed always 
been kept for this species, with the foregoing small results. 

Spongilld fragilis was found growing on the under surface of stones, in 
which situation it was of a pale yellowish colour. One small specimen 
growing on the side of a large stone was bright green. 

The Irish specimens call for no special remark ; they are quite typical of 
the species. The skeleton-spicules measure 0*18-0'25 mm. in length by 
0*005-0-01 mm. The gemmule-spicules vary a good deal in length from one 
specimen to another; they are usually between 0007-0'lo mm. in length 
by 0-003-0006 mm. 

TiPPERARY. — 11. Suir at Kilsheelan. 
Galway. — Owenmore R. below Derryelare L. 
Mayo.— Owengarr II. below Doo L. (41). 

Fermanagh. — L. Erne oft' Caldragh Island and Screedan Hock, coll. 
Major Trevelyan (41). 

Antrim. — L. Fad on Fair Head (42). 

Ephydatia fluviatilis (auet.) (Pi. XXVI 1). 

UpJu/datia fltivialHiti grows in the rivers, streams, and lakes of Ireland, 
both in limestone and in non-limestone districts, and is usually especially 
abundant in the canals. It is one of the rarer species in the west, and has 
not yet been taken anywhere in the south-west of the country, nor in 
Co. Donegal, although a considerable amount of collecting has been done in 
these areas. Ou the other hand, it is a connnon species in some of the 
eastern and south-eastern counties. lu Co. Dublin, for example, it is by far 

228 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the commonest species, and indeed the only one found so far in the rivers of 
that county, the Liffey, Dodder, and Tolka, with the exception of £]>hi,datia 
Mulleri, found in the last-named on one occasion ; but it has not yet been 
recorded for the neighbouring county of Wicklow. It has been found here 
and there throughout the midlands, where a more detailed search may prove 
it to be fairly common. 

Like all the fresh-water sponges in Ireland, £. fluriatilis usually grows 
on stones. It may form thick encrustations or rounded cushion-like masses 
on the upper surfaces of the stones, or thinner crusts on their lower surfaces. 
The species is found, but more rarely, on the stems and leaves of water- 
plants, on the wood-work of the locks of canals, on rotting, submerged 
branches, or on the living roots of alder trees growing on the banks of 

The sponge is dark green in colour when exposed to the light, and pale 
yellowish or greyish when growing in shaded places. In texture it varies 
considerably ; one specimen may be hard, another quite soft. In the former 
case the sponge possesses robust skeleton-spicules ; when the texture is very 
soft the spicules tend to be slender. 

With the exception of its occurrence in Lough Nacorra in Co. ilayo, 
which lies at an altitude of 589 feet, E. Jluriatilis has been found only in 
loW'lying lakes and rivers in Ireland. Unlike Spotigilla laauitris and 
HfifittineiffHiii Hydrri, it has not been found in mountain tanis nor in their 
outflowing streams. On the continent of Europe it appears also to prefer 
low-lying localities, but in Asia it has been taken at very high altitudes. In 
the Kumaon Lakes of the Western Himalayas, for example, it occurs at 
4,000-6,400 feet (9), and in Issyk-Kul I^ke in TurkesUn at 5.300 feet (55). 

As a rule, E. JluriatUis is vigorous in its growth, with well-developed 
skeleton- 6 bres and robust spicules, but in situatious where the conditions 
would appear to be unfavourable it has been found of very small size, with 
very slender spicules loosely united into poorly developed, weak fibres. In 
several lakes in the west of Ireland, where the species does not appear to be 
well established, the sponge, although growing in considerable quantities, 
possessed very slender spicules. 

Green and actively growing specimens crowded with genimules have been 
found throughout the year. Gemmules are apparently produced in far 
greater numbers in this species than in any other of the fresh-water sponges 
growing in Ireland, with the probable exception of E. JIulUii. 

The skeleton-spicules of E.fluriatUis varj' more than is perhaps generally 
rec<">u'nized, both in a single specimen and from one 8i)ecimen to another. 
When it is stated that they var)* considerably, that, for instance, spined as 

Stkphens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 229 

well as smooth spicules occur, it may usually he taken that the writer does 
not distinguish between E.fluviatilis and the closely allied species E.Mulleri. 
For example, the majority of forms described by Potts (33) under E.fluvia- 
tilis are really E. MiillcrL Waller (50), writing on the varieties of E. flutia- 
tilis, describes a series of English specimens. The first three specimens 
described, and their spicules figured, are typical E. Mulleri, with smooth 
and spined oxea and short amphidiscs. The remaining two are typical 
K. fluviatilis, with smooth oxea and longer amphidiscs. But the presence of 
minutely spined megascleres in E. fluviatilis (as distinguished from E. Mulleri) 
has been noted from time to lime by several writers, and the occurrence of 
these spicules has sometimes been considered as an important character for 
the establishment of new varieties. Vejdovsky (49) alludes to small, 
slightly spined oxea in specinaens of E. fluviatilis from Bohemia. Topsent 
(48) notes the occurrence of microspined oxea in a specimen from the liiver 
Vesle, and in the same paper quotes 'J'raxler (" Foltdani Kozlony," xxv, 
1895) as having observed similar spicules in the species. He also describes 
(48) spined oxea as being abundant in his E. fluviatilis var. syriaca, from 
the Eiver Barada, near Damascus and from Lake Huleh in Syria. Kirk- 
patrick (22) describes them in his E. fluviatilis, var. capcnsis, from South 
Africa, and Annandale (7, 9), in his E. flunatilis, sub-sp. himalaycnsis, from 
the Western Himalayas. Weltner (54) refers to the presence of microspined 
spicules in European examples of E. fluviatilis, and in specimens of the same 
species from Turkestan (55). 

With regard to the specimens of E. fluviatilis, obtained in Ireland, a careful 
examination shows that almost every spicule-preparatiou contains a few, in 
most instances very few, microspined megascleres. In some cases, generally 
when the spicules are fairly thick, the spination is very obscure, so that 
the spicules, even under a high power of the microscope, appear to be merely 
roughened. In other cases, geneially when the spicules are slender, the 
spines are well developed, and often quite numerous. Tlie thicker micro- 
spined oxea of the varieties syriaca and himalnyeiisis, just alluded to, and the 
more slender oxea, with minute, sharp spines, of the variety capcnsis are 
exactly similar to the spined oxea to be seen in various Irish specimens of 
E. fluviatilis. The slender spicules appear to have more tendency to be 
spined than the more robust ones. This is carried to an extreme, perhaps, 
for the species in interesting specimens from the pond in the Zoological 
Gardens, Dublin, in which many of the spicules, which are all rather slender, 
are thickly covered with fairly strong spines (PI. XXVII, fig. 3). This 
peculiarity was not limited to one specimen, but was seen in all the samples 
collected in two successive years. The sponge was not abundant, and was 

230 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

not of a vigorous growth. It was in the form of small, thin patches, growing 
chiefly on the under surface of stones. Numerous gemmiiles were present, 
which were furnished with slender, quite normal amphidiscs. The absence of 
bubble-cells was another character which prevented any confusion of these 
specimens with E. Mfilkri. 

In specimens of E.fluviatUis that may be regarded as typical the megas- 
cleres do not vary very much in size and shape. In such examples they are 
fairly stout, slightly curved, smooth o.xea, tapering gradually to a sharp point 
at each end. Some have a very slight swelling in the centre of the shaft, 
and a very few are microspined (1*1. XXVII, fig. 1). It may be mentioned 
that Topsent (48) lias already noted that there is often a slight swelling in the 
centre of the oxea of typical specimens found in France. In other specimens 
the oxea are similar to the foregoing, but are much more slender. 
Tiiey may be gradually pointed, as in specimens fiom Lough Beltra, 
Co. Mayo, or abruptly pointed, as in examples from Furnace Lough, in the 
same county (I'l. XXV II, (ig. 2). .Some of the oxea have a central swelling, 
and a numt>er are very minutely spiued. In specimens from the pond in the 
Zoological Gardens, Dublin, as already mentioned, the rather slender, spined 
spicules arc very numerous (PI. XXVII, fig. 3). 

Again, other specimens of H.^tlnrintiUs have typical mcgaselercs, namely, 
fairly liiick, slightly curved, gradually pointed, smooth oxea; but among 
these is a considerable admixture of straight, or nearly straight, spicules 
which are shorter and thicker, and which taper abruptly to a point at either 
end. Some of the spicules liavc a slight central swellijig, and a few are 
microspined (ri.XXVlI, lig. 6). These lead on to other specimens, in which 
the majority of the ni^asclercs are short, very thick, nearly straight or 
slightly curved spicules, which taper abruptly, or more rarely gradually, at 
either end (PI. XXVII, fig. 4). A few of these are microspined. When 
short, thick spicules, either microspined or smooth, are formed to the complete 
or almost complete exclusion of the longer, more typical oxea, a peculiar 
form of Ephydatia ftuvicUUxa results, which, for the sake of clearness, will 
be dealt with later on. 

As well as the variations just described, abnormally formed spicules may 
be present in greater or less numbers in any specimen of E. fluvialilis. For 
example, the oxea may have one end rounded off, or even knobbed, or a 
series of swellings may be present along the shaft of the spicules (usually 
in slender, poorly developed spicules, and in young spicules), or the oxea 
may be reduced to a sphere, with or without one or two spike-like projections. 
Weltner (53) gives figures of some of these abnormalities, 

Willi regard to the measurements of llie foregoing spicules, the more 

Stki'Hi;ns — The Fresh-tvater Sponges of Ireland. 231 

typical oxea measure between U'24 and 047 nun. in lengLli. They du not vary 
so much as this m a single specimen. Their most usual length is hetween 0"25 
and 0"37 mm. Their maximum diameter is usually O'Olo mm.; but it varies 
from O'OOS to 0'015 mm. in difTerent specimens. The shorter, thicker megas- 
cleres present iu many specimens are, as a rule, between 0'22-0"26 mm. in 
length, and have a maximum diameter of 0'02 mm. 

The gemmule-spicules of E. fluviatilis vary also to some extent. In tlie 
more typical specimens of the species the shaft of the amphidisc is smooth, 
or is so minutely spined that it looks merely roughened ; or it may have one 
to several long, sharp spines projecting from it. The disc is indented ; it is 
either divided into a number of fairly even, small teeth, or it is cut by 
several deeper indentations into broader sections, the outer edges of which 
are toothed. The teeth themselves may be very finely spined. In speci- 
mens which are not so robust in growth, and which possess rather slender 
megascleres, the amphidiscs are slender also, and there is more tendency for 
them to develop irregularities such as have been described and figured from 
time to time by various writers ; for example, by Wierzejski (56), which 
writer notes in passing that the skeleton-spicules are slender in the speci- 
mens examined by him possessing irregularly shaped amphidiscs. The shaft, 
for instance, may be thickly covered with long spines, and may project as a 
sharp point beyond one or both discs. The discs themselves may be variously 
developed, and may often be merely an irregular bunch of strong spines 
projecting from the thickened ends of the shaft, or they may be reduced to 
one or two strong spines projecting at various angles, so that the spicule 
assumes an irregularly star- shaped form. 

The amphidiscs are 0-025-0*027 mm. in length, and the diameter of the 
disc is 0-015-0-02 mm. 


WATteRFORD. — Bally L. to the north of Dunmore. 

TiPPERARY, — E. Suir at Kilsheelan, Anner K. 

Kilkenny. — E. Barrow at Graiguenamanagh. 

Wexford. — E. Bann near Oamolin. 

Caulow. — E. Barrow near Tinnahinch. 

Galway.— L. Corrib near Oughterard, Coole L. (coll. E, A. Phillips). 

King's Co. — Lake in Birr Castle Demesne (coll. U. A. Phillips). 

Kildaue. — E. Barrow at Mageney (34), Eye Water, at Leixlip. 

Dublin.— E. Liftey, U. Dodder, Eaheny ponds (21), stream at Edmonds- 
town, Grand Canal, Eoyal Canal, E. Tolka, pond at Crumlin, pond in 
Zoological Gardens. 

232 Proceedings of the tioyal Irish Academl/. 

Mayo. —Furnace L., L. Beltia, Knappaghmoie L., Moher Tj., L. Nacorra. 

Sligo.— L. Gill (43), L Arrow, Dargan L. (coll. A. W. Stelfox). 

Fermanagh. — L. Scolban and Garvay E. (coll. Major Trevelyan). 

Down. — Stream at Saintlield, canal at Hillsborough (coll. N. H. Foster). 

Antrim. — Lagan Canal and disused reservoir near Cave Hill (coll. W. H. 

Derrv. — Emigh L. (coll. D. C. Campbell), E. Bann between Deny and 
Antrim (coll. K. A. Phillips and A. W. Stelfox). 

Ephydatia fluviatilis (auct.) var. (PI. XXVI, figs. 4-9). 

Certain sponges have been collected in the west and south of Ireland 
which have proved ditlicult to determine, as the skeleton-.spicules vary a good 
deal in the specimens from the diHerent localities, and gemmules have not 
4>een found, although nearly all the examples were taken in the late summer. 
The sponges usually grew in great abundance at a given locality, and as 
many as one hundred specimens have been preserved from a single spot. 
The skeleton-spicules of these sponges are short, often very thick oxea, the 
majority in one specimen spined to their tips, in another smooth. Examples 
collected in two localities, namely, in the DrumelifT Kiver <lraining Glencar 
Lough, ('ounty Sligo, and in the Itiver IJoyle below Oakport Lough, County 
Koscommon, seem to offer a clue to their identity. 

The skeleton-spicules varj- in an unusual degree in the sponges from these 
two rivers, more i)articularly in thase from the Drumelin' River, some of them 
being very similar to the spicules just alluded to. Although gemmules were 
not found, yet a fair number of scattered amphidiscs are to be seen in the 
spicule preparations. These amphidi.scs qmte agree with the conesponding 
spicules of typical specimens of Ephydntia fiuviatilis. It has been concluded, 
therefore, that the foregoing sponges represent a variety or phase or race of 
E. JtuviaiUis which does not produce gemmules, or at least produces them 
with extreme rarity, and whicii possesses, to the exclusion of the more 
typical skeleton-spicules, one or other form, such as occurs a.s an occasional 
abnormality in typical specimens of £. Jluviatilis. The abnormal spicules, 
which occur only occasionally in some specimens, may occur in numbers in 
others, which undoubtedly are quite typical of that species. For convenience, 
these peculiar sponges are referred to as E. fluviatilis, var. 

The sponges, including those from the above-mentioned rivers, agree in 
external appearance. They form thin, more or less circular, patches on the 
upper and under surfaces of stones ; they are very hard to the touch, their 
surface is even, but is seen under the lens to be min\itely hispid from the 
tips of the terminal spicules of the main skeleton-fibres, which project very 

Stephens — The Fresh-Boater Sponyes of Ireland. 233 

slightly above the surface. The .specimens are of all sizes, up to about 
20 mm. in diameter. Those from the rivers tend to be rather larger, but 
this is usually the ease with sponges taken in such a habitat (see p. '11'.)). In 
this conne.\iou it may be mentioned that Dr. Aunandale (5) describes and 
figures specimens of the Himalayan race of E. flvvialilis, which were growing 
on stones in the form of fiat, circular films. A few of the Irish specimens 
tend to be thicker, and are like little rounded cushions, while a number 
of examples taken from the River Erne early in the year form small, smooth, 
rounded masses growing on water-plants, and are rather soft to the touch. 

The oscula are small, but are rendered more conspicuous by the well- 
marked, branching, sub-dermal canals which radiate from each osculuni. 

The sponges are bright green in colour when exposed to the light, and 
greyish- white when shaded from it. In the latter case they resemble to a 
remarkable degree the lake-form of lleteromeycnia Byderi, but, unlike that 
species, they flourish on the limestone. The specimens are nearly always 
densely crowded with enibrj'os. 

With regard to the structure of the skeleton, the main fibres run 
vertically upwards from the base to the upper surface of the sponge, branching 
once or twice in their course. They consist of multiserially arranged 
megascleres, bound together by a small amount of spongin. The tips of the 
terminal bundles of spicules project very slightly above the surface of the 
sponge. The main fibres are united by single spicules, or by bundles of two 
or more spicules lying at right angles to them. 

In specimens from various points along the shores of Lough Erne and of 
Lough Gill, from Lough Feeagh, County Mayo, and Lough Derg, County 
Tipperary, the megascleres are rather short, fairly thick, or sometimes very 
thick, abruptly pointed oxea, which are microspined to the very tips. A few 
among them are smooth. In some examples many of the oxea have a central 
swelling; in others only a few possess it. In the sponges from Oakport 
Lough, County Eoscommon, and Ballyscanlan Lough, Co. Waterford, for 
example, the spicules are very similar to the foregoing in shape and size, but 
are smooth. The spicules from the latter locality have often a central 
swelling of the shaft, and are particularly like those described and figured 
by Miiller (27) for a sponge which he regarded as a probable variety of 
U.Jluviatilis, and which will be referred to more fully later on. 

Gemmule-spicules have been very carefully searched for in many prepara- 
tions made from these sponges, but without success, except for one malformed 
amphidisc found in one of the Ballyscanlan Lough specimens. 

The size of the megascleres varies somewhat from one specimen to 
another; they are, on the whole, between O'lS-0'27 mm. in length. In some 

234 Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

specimens the maximum diameter is 0'015 mm., but in others it is 002 mm., 
or even as much as 0027 mm. The spicules are thus decidedly shorter and 
thicker than the typical oxea of E. fluviatilis, but more nearly resemble the 
short, thick spicules often to be found in that species. 

The specimens from the Drumclitt' Kiver and the Eiver Boyle, already 
alluded to as afTording a clue to the identity of these sponges, are exactly 
similar to them in external appearance, being hard to the touch, and growing 
in thin, more or less circular, patches. "With regard to the spicules, the 
Drumclifif River sponges possess many short, thick, abruptly pointed, smooth, 
or microspined oxea, and in addition longer, more slender, gi-adually pointed 
smooth oxea, some of which jx)ssess a central swelling. Tliese latter are like 
the oxea of typical specimens, which often, it must be remembered, also 
possess many short, thick spicules, some of them microspined. The sponges 
possess in addition a few scattered auiphidiscs, which are quite the typical 
E. fluriatUis shape. The specimens from the Eiver Boyle closely resemble 
the Drnmclifl' Eiver examples, and, like them, possess scattered amphidiscs. 
Typical specimens of E. fluviatUU wei-e absent from botli these localities, so 
that the amphidiscs must belong to the specimens in which they were found, 
and are not a chance admixture, as so often happens. 

Sponges were collecled in tlie lakes drained by these rivere, in Glencar 
Lough and in Oakport I/)ugh respectively, which possessed rather short, 
thick spicules, williout tlie longer ones found in the river specimens (compare 
the change in the mega-scleres of Ileleromcyenia liydtn under similar 
conditions), nor were any amphidiscs found even after prolonged searching. 
With regard to the presence of gemmule-spicules in lake and river sponges, 
it is interesting to quote Dr. Annandale's reference to the production or non- 
production of gemmules. He states (6, p. 74) that " evidence, moreover, is 
accumulating that the adoption of a limnic as distinct from a lluviatile mode 
of life is liable to produce degeneration of the gemmules in fresh-water 
sponges." The most notable instance so far known is Hdrromcyenia liyderi, 
which, Iwth in North America and in Ireland, produces gemmules with great 
rarity in lakes, and in great abundance in rivers. 

To return to the consideration of the megascleres of the foregoing 
sponges, if it were imagined that spicules, such as those figured on PI. XXVI, 
figs. 9, b, c, were pnxluced to the exclusion of the other typos of spicules, the 
result would be a sponge possessing spicules similar to tlKwc from Ballyscanlan 
and OakiKtrt Loughs (I'l. XXVI, figs. 5 and 7). 

A similar type of spicule to that figured on Plato XXVI, tig. 9, c, 
is also commonly found in perfectly typical specimens of E. fluviatilui, such 
as that figured un I'l. X.WII, fig 4, Again, if spicules, such as those figured 

Stkpiiuns — The Fresh-ivahr Sponges of Ireland. 235 

on n. XXVI, fig. 9, d, e, were produced to the exclusion of other types, 
the resulting sponge would possess spicules somewhat similar to those of 
the sponges from Lough Erne, Lough Derg, and Louyli Gill (I'l. XXVI, 
%s. 4, 6, and 8). With these may be compared the niicrospined spicule taken 
from a perfectly typical specimen of E. Jiiirifdilis (I'l. XXVII, fig. 5). Jt 
may be noted that these peculiar sponges have up to the present only been 
found in the west and south, where the typical E. fluviatilis appears to be 
rare. They occurred in abundance in the localities in which they were found. 
No trace of such a form was discovered in County Dublin, for example, 
where E. fluviatilis is extremely common, and where there was abundant 
opportunity for collecting at different seasons of the year. 

Reference has been made to a sponge from the Eiver Lahn, near Marburg 
described by Miiller (27) as a probable variety of E. fluviatilis. In this the 
spicules are short, thick, smooth oxea, with a central swelling ; they are very 
similar to the spicules of the sponges from Ballyscanlan Lough (PI. I, fig. 5). 
In addition, the Eiver Lahn sponge possesses a number of scattered amphidiscs 
like those of E. fluviatilis ; some of them are rather abnormal in shape, but 
similar forms are often found in quite typical examples of that species. 

Wierzejski (56), writing on the abnormalities of the spicules in the 
Spongillidae, refers to Miiller's specimen, and says that he has uo doubt but 
that it is an abnormal form of Ephydatia. He refers also to the fact that when 
abundant material of any of the European Spongillidae is examined, many 
abnormalities of the various kinds of spicules are to be seen, and sometimes 
these abnormal spicides are so predominant that one seems to see new 
varieties, or even new genera. 


Waterford. — Ballyscanlan L. near Tramore. 

TiPPERARY.— L.Derg in Barrett's Bay.dredged at 14feet(coll. E. Southern). 

EoscoMMON. — Oakport L. and E. Boyle at Cootehill. 

Galway. — L. Eea (as E. MiV.lcri, 21), and recently collected on several 
occasions in the lake by E. A. Phillips. 

Sligo. — L. Gill at Hock wood (as E. Mulleri, 43), Glencar L., and 
Drumcliff E. 

Leitrim.— L. Gill at O'Eorke's Castle (as E. Miitlcri, 43). 

Fermanagh. — L. Erne off Caklragh Island and Eagle Island (coll. JIajor 
Trevelyan), E. Erne at Enniskillen (coll. E. Welch). 

Ephydatia Miilleri Lieberkiibii. I'l. XXVIII, fig. L 
Ephydatia Miilleri is apparently the rarest of Mie fresh-water sponges 
found ill Ireland, only two uiulnnbtcd speciinciis having been collected within 

236 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Aeademi/. 

recent years. One, dredged in the River Erne at Enniskillen, is merely a 
small mass of gemmules held together by the remnants of the sponge of the 
pre\ious year's growth. The other is a very fine cushion-like specimen, about 
180 square mm. in extent, which was found growing at the base of an over- 
hanging rock in the Eiver Tolka, near Ashtown, Co. Dublin. It was pale 
yellow in colour, and the surface was slightly ridged. The whole sponge 
was crowded with gemmules, and the characteristic large vesicular cells, 
commonly called ' bubble cells," were present in great abundance. Another 
large sponge growing within three or four yards of it looked exactly like it, 
but was softer in te.xlure, and proved to be a perfectly typical Evhydatia 
Jtuviatilis. A careful search was made along the rive*-, both at the time of 
finding these sponges and in the following year, for further specimens of 
£. Miilieri, but without success. E.fluciatUis is quite common in the river. 

The spicules of both the River Erne and the River Tolka specimens of 
E. MitlUri are quite typical of the species ; in neither case could they be 
confused with the spicules of any of the specimens of E. ftKriatUi* found in 
this country, although the distinction usually made between the two species, 
namely, that one possesses only smooth, the other spined as well as smooth 
skt-' ~. can no longer be maintained. The megascleres of the 

E.J- . ..ud in the pond in the Zoolngical Gardens, Dublin, it is true, 

approach clueely to the comfspondiiig spicules of the Erne E. MitUeri, which 
are rather slender, but the spicules of the former are longer. 

The presence of i lis in E. Mtdleri at once distinguishes it from 

the closely allied E.j.- ... .->. 

Sponges found in different parts of Ireland have been attributed to 
E. Mulleri from time to time. Of Bowerbank's slides of Sponffilla Parjitti 
(= E. MiiHrri), in the P.ritish Museum, his preparation made from one of 
Dr. ISatlersby's specimens from the "Lake of Killarney " (12, p. 169, is 
without gemmtiles, but the megnscleres appear to be undoubtedly those of 
HeUromtiftnia Rtfderi, a species which is very common in the Middle Lake of 
Killarney. Another of Bowerbank's preparations, labelled *' Sponyilla Parfitti, 
Caragh Lake," is evidently Kphydatin MiilUri. It contains many gemmules 
which possess very irregularly shaped amphidiscs. 

Judging from Hanitsch's figures of the skeleton-spicules of a sponge from 
Lough Rea, Co. Galway (21, PI. 4, fig. 4 a, b), his specimens were not 
E. JIulUri, but belonged to the peculiar race or variety of £. flutuitilis, 
described on p. 232. Sponges recently collected in Lough Rea also belong to 
that race. The same remark applies to the specimens named E. Jlulieri by 
the present writer in the Report on the Sponges of the Clare Island Sarvey (41), 
and fr-ui Lmiu'ii Gill .43*. 

Stephens — The Frcsh-waler Spovges of Ireland. 237 

The Irisli material of E. Miillcri is obviously too scanty to allow of any 
study of the variations which may occur in the species. The megaseleres of 
the Eiver Erne sponge are rather slender ; they measure 0'2-0'25 mm. in 
length by OOOS-O-dl mm. ; those from the River Tolka specimen are robust, 
measuring 0'225-0-3 mm. in length by 0013-0'0l8 mm. The amphidises in 
both cases have a length of 0'01-0-013mm., with a disc 0-02 mm. in diameter. 

Kf.rky. — C'arauli L., as Spongilla Parfitti '12). 
Dublin. — E. Tolka near Ashtown. 
Fermanagh. — E. Erne at Enniskillen (coll. E. Welch). 

Heteromeyenia Ryderi, Potts. 

Ileteromeyenia piciovensis, Potts. 
Heteromeyenia Maeouni, MacKay. 
(PI. XXVIII, figs. 2-8.) 

This species was described by Edward Potts in the year 1882 from 
specimens found in a small stream flowing into the Delaware Eiver, below 
Philadelphia (29 ). Three years later it was recorded from the State of New 
Hampshire ; and at about the same time Potts described as new a sponge 
collected in several lakes in Nova Scotia (32). This sponge he named 
Heteromeyenia picfovensis. Before long, however, Potts was forced to the 
conclusion (33, p. 244) that H. pictovensls, as well as other forms he had 
collected in the meantime, had not sufficient claim to be ranked as distinct 
species. He accordingly redescribed the typical form of H. Ryderi, adding 
the following varieties : pictovciisin, Walslii, and Baleni. The species was at 
this time known in tlio strip of country along the Atlantic coast of North 
America from Nova Scotia to Florida and in the State of Iowa. Later on it 
was recorded from Indiana (23). 

In the year 1890 Dr. A. H. MacKay, the discoverer of \he pictovensisioiia 
of //. Ryderi, described a sponge from Sable Island (26). It grew in 
abundance in the only fresh-water lake on the island, which is itself merely 
a great sand-bank twenty miles long by about a mile wide, lying one hundred 
miles oft' the coast of Nova Scotia. Tiie sponge was considered to be a distinct 
species, and was named //. Macmmi. At the same time, the author noticed 
its likeness to certain forms of H. Ryderi, with slender spicules, and suggested 
that it might have to be reduced to a variety of that species. From an 
examination of some of the type material kindly given me by Dr. MacKay, 
I have come to the conclusion that the Sable Island sponge cannot be- 
separated specitically from H. Ryderi. It is, indeed, exactly similar to 

B.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. B. [2 .0] 

338 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

specimens of that species taken in a lake on Inishbofin, off the Galway coast, 
which are here grouped with the Baleni form of H. liyderi. 

Some years before the Sable Island sponge was described, the discovery 
of H. Rijderi in a lake in the west of Ireland was announced (20, 21). During 
the following ten years the species was recorded from three or four other 
localities in Ireland, and, finally, the recent field-work carried out in many 
parts of the country has proved that it is widely distributed in Ireland in 
nun-limestone areas, in which areas it is the commonest species of fresh-water 

U. Eydcri is now known to occur in Scotland, where it was recorded by 
Dr. Annandale under the name Tuhdla pcnnsylranica (see p. 215). 

Hetcromcycnia liyderi is well known to be a very variable species, autl its 
extreme forms differ veiy much from each other both in external appearance 
and texture, ami in the shape and size of the skeleton-spicules. That they 
differ so much is shown by the fact that they received names as distinct 
sjiecies : //. Ryderi Potts, H. picloveyisis Potts, H. Macouni MacKay. Potts 
soon recognized the great variability of the species in North America, and 
described liow, " in spite of an exceedingly rebellious disinclination," he was 
forced to the conclusion that the forms which had passed through bis hands 
must be regarded as belonging to one and the same species. 

When systematic collecting of fresh-water sponges was undertaken in 
Ireland, it was i-ealized before long that //. liyderi was equally variable on 
tliia side of the Atlantic; aud it is interesting to notice that tlie species 
assumes closely similar forms in both countries (41, p. 9). We have the 
typical //. Jiydcn from streams and rivers, the hard, compact form (var. 
pidmriisU) from lakes, and the slender-spiculed form (var. lialcni) from lakes 
in whirh the conditions are unfavourable to rol)ust growth of the sponge. 
Tlio form with slender branches (var. U'fUsht) lias not yet been found in 

The spicules in both American and specimens are the same, except 
that the macroscleres are slightly thicker, on the whole, in tiie former, and 
the discs of the shorter gemmulc-spiculcs are lees deeply indented. Probably 
the growth of the .sponge is more vigorous in every way in North America 
than ill Ireland. Tlie slender-spiculed fci)Ocimen.s in both countries have the 
shorter gemmule-spicules posses.«ing deejily indented discs. 

Although the forms are thus closely paralleleii in these widely separated 
countries, yet there is an interesting difference in their mode of growlli. In 
North America the various forms of tlic sfiecics grow in situations exposed 
to the light (the first-found specimens were growing on the upper surface of 
stones), and their colour is descrilied as liglit green or vivid green. In 

Stephens — The Fresh-water Sponyes of Ireland. 239 

Ireland the sponge grows in situations sheltered from the light, nearly 
always under stones. It is pale yellowish or greyish-white in colour. On 
the rare occasions on which the sponge was found in places where a certain 
amount of liglit penetrated to it, thei'e was still no trace of any green coloura- 
tion. One or two specimens indeed were taken which were dull green in 
colour, but these were penetrated in every direction by a green filamentous 

H. Rydcri is only found in Ireland on non-calcareous rocks. The North 
American localities for the species are not given in sufficient detail to enable 
one to decide if it always avoids limestone areas in that continent. 
Dr. MacKay, the discoverer of the pictovensis form of the species, writing 
from Nova Scotia, informs me that so far this form appears to be found in 
non-calcareous regions in that province. Potts states that the species has 
been taken chiefly in the States, along the Atlantic coast. The eastern 
maritime States of North America are for the most part free from limestone, 
so that it is possible tliat the species avoids calcareous rocks in North 
America as it does in Ireland. 

As H. Rydcri avoids the limestone, its distribution in Ireland is very 
striking. It is absent from the whole centre of the country which consti- 
tutes the Great Limestone Plain of Ireland, and it is confined to those parts 
of the maritime counties which are formed of non-calcareous rocks. It is 
not confined to the west, as was thought on its first discovery in Ireland, but 
occurs in the north and south, as well as in the east. It grows in low-lying 
lakes and rivers, as well as in mountain tarns and streams. It is usually 
the only species found in the higher mountain lakes. The highest altitude 
at which the species has been taken is 1,868 feet. 

As already stated, the various forms assumed by H. Hi/dcri in Ireland 
approximate closely to three varieties of the species described by Potts from 
North American specimens. These varieties are united by specimens 
showing every possible gradation between them, yet the great majority of 
the specimens obtained may be assigned to one or other of the three main 
types. The arrangement proposed in the report on the fresh-water sponges 
of the Clare Island Survey is therefore adhered to here for convenience of 
description and of reference. Tlie three main types under which the 
specimens are grouped are as follows : — 

Group I. — Hdcromeyenia Ihjdcri I'otts. Typical or Piiver Form. 
Group II. — Hcteromcycnia Myderi Potts, toxin pidavensis, Voiis or Lake 

Group III. — Heteromcyenia Rydcri Potts, form Baleni, Potts. 

[2 Z)2] 

240 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

• Gkoup I. 
Heteromei/enia Ryderi Potte. T3pical or Eivei Form. 

This foiTU occurs in rivers and streams, and corresponds to the f,}pica 
Hderomcyaiia Bydcri, described from specimens taken in " shallow, flowing 
water " in North America. 

In this country the sponge grows nearly always under the shelter oC 
stones, but sometimes spreads from them to envelop the stems of water- 
plants. Occasionally it is found on dead, submerged branches. The smaller 
specimens are more or less circular in outline; they are thickest in the 
middle, and thin out towards the edges, so that the upper surface is some- 
what dome-shaped. The larger specimens spread out into lobed, encrusting 
masses of irregular shape, but sometimes of considerable size. The sponge is 
pale yellowish in colour, veiy soft to the touch, and very fragile. The 
surface is even ; but under the lens the dermis is seen to be raised up on the 
tips of the main skeleton-fibres into very minute points. In preserved 
specimens, at least, the main fibres sometimes pierce the dermis and project 
very slightly. The oscula are small and inconspicuous, being about 1-2 mm. 
in diameter. 

The skeleton is made up of main fibres, usually about 002-003 mm. in 
thickness, which run upwards through the sponge and occasionally Inauch. 
They consist of spicules in usually three to four rows. Wlien the spicules 
are more slender, a greater numlicr of them lie side by side. These main 
lihres are the length of one spicule ajwirt, and are united by spicules at right 
an^'les to them, which usually lie singly, but sometimes are in bundles of two 
or three. These transverse fibres do not fonn continuous fibres. In places 
the skeleti'U is confu.seil, but usually becomes more regular towards the 
surface of the sponge. 

Spongin is very scanty in quantity. 

The skeleton-spicules are slightly curved, occasionally straight oxea ; 
tliey taper evenly to Iwth ends, which are pointed. The shaft is thickly 
covereil with rather s^niall spines, except at the extreme tips, which are 
smooth. Unlike the skeleton-spicules of the lake form of the species, these 
oxea are very constant in shape, and vary only in length and thickness from 
one specimen to another, lliey measure usually from 2-0'33 mm. in length, 
with a maximum diameter of OOl mm., or even 0013mm. 

The longer gemniule-spicules have a straight shaft, usually rather thickly 
set with strong spines, which are straight or curved. At either end of the 
spicule are four to six terminal, strongly cur\'ed spines. These spicules 
ni«'a.siin^ OOi-OOfio mm. in length. 

Stephens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 241 

The shorter lieniimilc-spicules have a straight shaft set with usually one 
to several strong, straight spines. Sometimes the shaft projects for a short 
distance above the disc. The terminal discs are toothed, the indentations 
being deeper than in the corresponding American fonn. The length of these 
amphidiscs is 0'03-00o5 mm. ; the diameter of the disc is 0-02 mm. 

Gemrnules occur in great numbers in the typical form of H. liydcri; and 
they have been found inatuve as early in the year as June. When mature 
they are a bright yellow colour. Their diameter varies from 05 mm. to 
0-7 mm. 

■ ■ Group II. 

Hetcromcijcnia Ri/deri Potts, foim pictovcnsis Potts, or Lalce Form. 

This form grows in lakes, and is very compact and hard to the touch. Jt 
corresponds to the form, at first named H. pictoreiisis, which was discovered 
in lakes in Nova Scotia. 

The sponge is pale yellowish or greyish-white in colour. It is circular 
in outline, and is usually not more than 20 or 30 mm. in diameter, but 
sometimes reaches a diameter of 50 or 60 mm. The surface is even, but 
under the lens is seen to be raised up into minute points by the tips of the 
main skeleton-fibres, which penetrate the dermis, and project very slightly. 
The sponge is thickest in the middle, and especially in the larger specimens 
is sometimes raised up into knob-like elevations. The oscula are about 
1 mm. in diameter, but are rendered more conspicuous by the fact 
that immediately below the dermis numerous fiuTows radiate from them 
in all directions. In the autumn the sponge begins to die away at the 
centre, so that many specimens are found in the form of a fiat ring, the 
centre of the sponge having completely decayed away. 

The skeleton is arranged in the same way as in the typical form. The 
main fibres, which are about 0'025-0'05 mm. in thickness, are a spicule- 
length apart, and are therefore more closely placed than in the typical form, 
as the spicules in the lake form are shorter. In the interior of the sponge 
the skeleton is very confused, but becomes more regular towards the surface. 

The skeleton-spicules show great variation. The shaft is straight or 
slightly curved, and terminates at each end in a longer or shorter point, or 
one or both ends may be rounded off. It is densely covered with. 
shai'p spines throughout its entire length. Sometimes the spines are 
scattered more sparsely along the middle of the shaft, and are crowded 
towards the ends. The smaller the spines the more thickly are they placed. 
Some spicules are set with comparatively few very strong spines. Some 
specimens possess fairly uniform spicules, others very varying ones, but 

242 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

usnally one or other type of spicule predominates in a specimen, and all the 
specimens from a given lake have the same tj-pes of spicules.^ The spicules 
also vary very much in both length and thickness. They usually measure 
from 0"12-0"25 mm. in lenj^th. The variation is not so great in a single 
sponge; and in many the maximum length is 0"2mm. The maxinnim thick- 
ness is connuonly 0'015 mm., but may be as much as 00- mm. In specimens 
with very robust spicules there often occur very short thick spicules, 
measuring about 0'05-0-08 mm. by 0'02 mm., or even 0-025 mm. 

The gemmule-spicules are the same as in tlie typical form, but are some- 
times more robust. The gemmules are very scarce, and very many specimens 
may be collected from neighbouring lakes in the autumn without finding a 
single gemmule. When present, the mature gemmules are bright yellow, 
and are tlie same size as those of tlie typical form. 

Embryos are often present in the lake form in great numbere. 

Gitour III. 
Hfleromeijenia Ryderi Potts, form Balcni Potts. 

Tliis form usually occurs in small, lobed masses on water-plants. It is 
very soft to the touch, and of a jwlc yellowish colour. More rarely it grows 
in small, soft, more or less cii-cular, whitish-grey dims on the under-surface 
of stones. In the former state it resembles the typical H. Mydcri; in the 
latter, it approaches the pidovfiisis form in external appearance. ' 

The skeleton is arranged on the same plan as in the preceding forms ; 
but, owing to the extreme sienderncss of the skeleton-spicules, at first sight 
it appears to differ considerably. The main fibres, which are about 002- 
0*03 nun. in thickness, run upwards in an irregular manner through the 
sponge, dividing occasionally. They consist of multiserially arranged spicules, 
and are united by single spicules, or by bundles of spicules, which do not 
form continuous fibre-s. Other oxea lie scattered irregularly through the 
sponge. The whole arrangement of the skeleton is often rather confused. 

The skeleton-spicules are straight or slightly curved oxea, which taper 
evenly to sharp points. The shaft, except at the ends, is thickly covered 
with very fine spines. The spiuation cannot be made out on the thinnest 
spicules. The oxea are about 0'16-0"26 mm. in length. The maximum 
diameter is about 0005 mm. ; but most of the spicules are much finer. 

Both kinds of gemmule-spicules are exceedingly slender. The terminal, 
recurved spines of the longer are usually straighter than in the typical 
form, and the discs of the shorter ones are deeply indented. Thus the 
difference between the two kinds of amphidi.scs is less marked than in the 

Si'EPMKNS — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 243 

more lobiiaL ronus ol' the species. In specimens wiLli very slender spicules 
the shafts of the amphidiscs are smootli. The sliafts of tliicker amphidiscs 
are I'urnislied with dhc or mure spines. 

Gemmules are usually i'airly numerous. They measure about 0"5-0'7 mm. 
in diameter, and thus are as large as those in the stronger forms of tlic 
species. It may be noted that gemmules are scarcest in the most robust 
form {2nctovensis, Potts). 

If. Ityderi, form Baleni, is merely a starved form of the species. It 
occurs iu very small quantities in the lakes and streams in wliich it is 

The spicules of the specimens found in Church Lough, Inishbofiii, agree 
in every particular with those of the sponge from Sable Island, which was 
named II. Macouni MacKay (26). The measurements of the spicules froDi 
these widely separated islands are of interest. In the Sable Island sponge 
the oxea are 0-I5-0-26mm. long, with a maximum diametei' of O'OOomm. 
The longer amphidiscs are 0-035-0'05 mm. long ; the shorter, O-Ol 8-0026 mm. 
long. In the Inishbofin sponge the oxea are 0'16-0"24 mm. long, with a 
maximum diameter of 0-005 mm. The longer amphidiscs are 0-035-0-04 mm. 
long; the shorter, 0-025-0'03 mm. long. 

These extreme forms are not sharply divided from the form referred to 
on page 244, which occurs fairly abundantly in certain lakes. Specimens 
have been collected which show every link between the two. 

Although the lake and river forms differ so much from one another, all 
the intermediate links between them can be obtained by collecting the 
sponge in a lake where it grows abundantly, and then tracing it down the 
course of the stream which drains the lake. This has already been described 
in the case of a lake, Lugaloughauu, in Co. Mayo (41). Since that aeeouni 
was written many other localities have been searched, always with similar 
results, namely, that at a varying distance below a lake, usually just below 
it, the hard lake form of H. Rydcri dies out and the soft, lobed, river form 
takes its place. In several instances specimens of H. Rydcri, apparently like 
the lake form, were found at some little distance down the river. Hard, 
compact specimens were taken several hundred yards down a rapid stream, 
flowing from Lough Unshin iu Co. Donegal (41, p. 14); but they dift'ered 
from the lake specimens in being much larger, and in possessing matiirfe 
gemmules. Their spicules also had begun to change. In the lake the 
skeleton-spicules were straight, and their ends were usually rounded oil'. 
They measured 125-0-175 mm. by O'Ola mm. In the specimens from the 
stream all the spicules had pointed ends, and many of them were slightly 
curved. They were longer and more slender, measuring 01o;")-0-25 nun. by 

244 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

001 mm. Similar hard specimens were taken in the Caragh River, about 
half a mile below Cai-agh Lake, Co. Kerry; but here again the spicules had 
changed sliglitly, beiu;^ longer, more slender, and possessing longer points 
than those of the lake specimens. In Connemaia, where llie lakes are often 
united by channels, sometimes only a few yards in length, really typical 
specimens of //. Kyderi were not found. In these short, though sometimes 
rapid, streams, H. Eydcri was hard ; but, as in the foregoing cases, the spicules 
had begun to change in shape. 

Dr. Annandale (3, p. 40 and ]>. I'lii) notes a similar change in the 
external appearance of an 1 ndiau f ivsii-water sponge, CmTo^ongillu lapidosa, 
according as it occurs in still or running water. In the former the sponge 
grows on the under surface of stones, in small crusts, whicli liave a flat 
surface, except where the oscola are raised on conical eminences. In running 
water the sponge grows in broad sheets, which have a corrugated 
surface. This resembles the chan;j;e in appcanmce of II. lii/dcri. On the 
other hand, the Indian sponge is harder in tt-.xtuie in running water than it 
is in the lake, the opposite being the case with H. liydcri. Apparently the 
spicules do not differ in the lake and liver fonns. 

A form of II. liydcri intermediate l>etween the iiard lake form and the 
typical river form is found in Irish lakes, where the conditions are apparently 
unfavourable to robust growth, but yet where the sponge grows fairly abun- 
dantly. Such lakes are Lough Ouler and Upper an<l Lower Lougli Lray, 
io Co. Wicklow ; the C'oumgorra l^kes, Co. Waterford ; Lough E:.iglier, 
Co. Kerrj- ; and I>ough Cunnel, Co. Mayo. These lakes, it may lie noted, 
lie mostly at high altitudes for tliis country. With the exception of Lough 
Cunnel, which is at 690 feel, they lie between 1,22-"* and 1,896 feet. 

E.xternally the 8ix>nge taken in the foregoing localities and in other 
similar situations resembles the lake form, except lliat it spreiids over a 
greater area, and its outline is not so circular. It is soft to the touch, but is 
not so lobed as is the river form. Un the other hand, its spicules are similar 
to those of the river form, from which they cannot be distinguislied 
(I'l. XX VI 1 1, tig. 8). In some cases thei-e is, perliaps, a larger proportion 
of straight spicules tiian in river specimens. Gemmules are, as a rule, 
present in fair numbers, another j>oint of difference from tlie usual lake form. 
In the report on the fresh-water sjwuges of the Clare Island Survey, the 
Lough Cunnel sponge is referred to (,41 p. 14) as being of the typical form 
oi U. Ryd/Tx. With material from otiier localities available for examination, 
I do not now consider this sponge, and others similar to it, to be altogether 
typical, and l>elieve that, strictly si>eaking, the typical H. /lyferi occurs solely 
in runniug water, in streams and rivers. 

Sih.iMiKN.s — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ire.laml. 245 

'I'lic I'oregoing siuni-tyiiical U\\\\\ Iciulw on lo tlicj Bakni riniu, wiLli very 
sleiulor spicules, wliicli grows in lakes, wlieie llic coniliLions are still more 
unfavourable to robust grovvtli, and wlii^rc tbe sponge only exists in small 
numbers, as already described. 

//. Byderi occurs in tlie semi-typical form jusL referred U) in most of the 
mountain tarns l}ing at or above tlie 1,000 feet contour, and it lias also been 
taken in one or two lakes at a rather less altitude. The maximum size of 
the skeleton-spicules is 0'27 mm. in length by 0-OOS mm., or, in a few speci- 
mens, O'o mm. by O'Ol mm. In three or four lakes, at or about the 1,000 feet 
contour, specimens of H. Byderi occur which belong to the jjidovcMsis group. 
But in all these specimens the spicules are more slender than in those 
specimens found at lower levels, their maximum thickness being O'Ol mm. 

Thus the spicules in specimens in lakes lying at higher levels apparently 
do .not reach as great a thickness as tliey do in low-lying lakes. The spicules 
of specimens in mountain streams are, as a rule, also slender. On the other 
hand, all the specimens belonging to Group HI have been found at low 
levels. Potts (31) stated that "the spicules of all species [i.e. of fresh-water 
sponges] increase regularly in size and solidarity as we descend from high 
altitudes towards the sea-level, where is found the extreme of the series." 
The author also stated that he had traced the working of this rule more 
particularly in several variable species, among them H. Byderi. Three 
years later he again referred to this rule (33, p. 240, foot-note), but in rather 
less dogmatic language, citing as well some exceptions to it. Hard' and fast 
rules cannot be laid down where fresh-water sponges are concerned, yet, on 
the wliole, it appears to be true that specimens of H. Bi/dcri occurring in 
lakes in Ireland at higlier altitudes do not possess spicules of the maximum 
thickness for the species. At the same time, it must be remembered that 
specimens with very slender spicules are often found in low-lying lakes. 


Kekky. — L. Cooniasaharn, L. L'ununernaniuek and ouL-llowing stream, 
Caragh L. and Caragh K., L. Yganavaun (coll. Hon. M. Spring liico and 
Miss L. Stephens), Middle L. and Meeting of the Waters, Killarney ; 
L. Avoonane and out-ilowing stream, L. Doon (21) and out-llowing stream, 
L. Duff and out-llowhig stream, L. Gall, stream from L. Nalackeu (1,000 ft.), 
L. Cruttia (coll. R. Welch), L. Camclaun and out-llowing stream, Coumanare 
Lakes (1,250 ft.) and out-flowing streams, L. Adoon, Cloonee Loughs and 
Cloonee R., L. Inchiipiin and out-ilowing stream, L. Cummeenadillurc and 
out-flowing stream, L. Eagher, 1,550 ft. (38;. 

246 Proceedings of the Roi/at h-ish Academy. 

Cork. — L. Avaul, Park Ij. and out-flowing stream, L. Coomarkane 
(1,100 ft.) and out-flowing stream, L. Coomadavallig (1,100 ft.) and out- 
flowing stream, L. Boy (1,800 ft ) and out-flowing stream. 

Watekfokd.— Out-flowing stream from L. Coumshingaun (1,262 ft.'*, 
Counigorra I .. ( 1 ,700 ft.) and out-flowing stream. 

Galway. — li. Nahillion (coll. G. 1'. Farran), L. Fee and L. Ballynakill 
(39), L. Tiofin and out-flowing stream, Ardderry L., stream from Seecon L., 
Glendalnugli L, Nacoogarrow L. and out-flowing stream, L. Inagh and out- 
flowing stream, Kylemore L., Owengowla E., Derryclare L. and out-flowing 
stream, Ballynahineh L. and liallynahinch E., L: Sliindilla, L. Maumwee, 
L. Corrili (X.-W. arm), L. Shecdagh, L. Skaiinive and numerous small lakes 
in the neigliboiirlioud of IJoundstone. 

WiCKlxJW. — L. Dan and Avonmore R., L. Tay and Annamoe E., below 
the lake; L. Ouler (1,868 ft.), Upper L. Bray (1,463 ft); Lower L. B<ay 
(l,2l'.T ft.) and outlet. 

Mayo. — Creggan L, Clare Island ; L. Nanuicka and L. Coolaknick, 
Inishtiirk (coll. K. M. Praeger and A. W. Stelfox) ; Church L., L. Gowlana- 
gower and Loiighnagrooanii, Inishbofin (toll. A. W. Stelfox) ; Sraheens L., 
Achill Island; L. Cullylea (coll. A. W. Stelfox) ; L. Feeagh and out-flowing 
streams, stream from L. Navroony, Moher L. and out-flowing stream, 
Owenwee K., L. Nacorra, L Gall, Bellakip R., Buuowen R., L. Nahaltora, 
L. Gunnel, GlencuUin L, Doe L, Tawnyard L., Fin L., Lugaloughhauu and 
out-llowing stream, Lugacolliwee L. For all the foregoing see (41). 

Fehmanagii.— Stream from Tullyvogy L, Tullynalaub L., Tullylough- 
inore L, L. an Laban, 1,000 ft. (all collected by Major Trevelyan). 

Donegal. — L Namramurrive, L. Meenasheagh, L. Aehvog, L. Eusheen 
and L Awaddy (coll. Major Trevelyn), Columbkille L. and out-flowing 
stream, Doon L ami out-flowing stream, Pound L., Cam L., L. Unsliin and 
out-flowing stream, Knadcr L, L Inn, L. Aluirg and outlet (coll. A. W. 

Dows. — Altnailua L. 

Antuim. — Doo L. and out-flowing stream and L. na Crannog on Fair 
Head (43); lakes on Carnlongh Mountains (coll. Major Trevelyan), L. 
Vicanor, Garron Head (coll. Mre. Stelfox). 

Gbograpiiical Distkibutios of Hbtekomeyenia Eyukki Potts, and the 
MBANs of Dispersal of the Si-eciks Dlscussed. 

Hftcromtyenia Rtjderi is now known to occur in North America, along the 
eastern portion of the continent, from Florida toNovaScotia, andin lowaand 
Indiaua. It also occurs in Newfoundland and ou Sable Island. In Europe 

Stkpmens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 247 

it is widely ilisLiihuliMl in the nnii-liiiicsLiiiie districts of Llie iiiiiritinie 
CdUiilii's 111' Ireland, and it eceiirs in Scdlland. 

Dr. Hanitsch, wiio believetl that at least three species with a simihir 
distribution to the foregoing occurred in Jreland, suggested (21) that three 
agents might have served to carry geniinules of fresh-water sponges from 
North America across the Atlantic to the west of Ireland — namely, winds, 
ocean currents, and birds. At one time it was supposed that strong winds 
could carry the seeds of plants long distances, but many botanists are now 
agreed that this means of dispersal has been greatly over-rated, and 
experiments prove that even seeds provided with special aerostatic apparatus 
are not carried to great distances (see E. LI. Praeger, Clare Island Survey, 
Part 10, Phanerogamia and Pterophyta, Proc. lioyal Irish Academy, xxxi, 
1911). There would be less chance of gemmules being conveyed in this way, 
as not only are they not provided with wing-like expansions or other 
structures to enable them to be easily wind-borne, but are, on the contrary, 
weighted with their armour of siliceous spicules. 

As to ocean currents, it has been suggested that the Gulf Stream might 
have carried gemmules or entire sponges containing gemmules to this country. 
It is quite impossible to think that a sponge, such as H. Ryderi, could stand 
a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, even if attached to Heating timber, 
especially when it is remembered that the only forms of this species in which 
gemmules are abundant are extremely soft and fragile. Nor does it seem 
probable that separate gemmules should be so conveyed, and this quite 
apart from the question as to whether they could germinate after prolonged 
immersion in sea-water. 

With regard to the third agent mentioned by Dr. Hanitsch, it is suggested 
that birds might convey the gemmules, presumably in mud dried on their 
feet or feathers, as seeds of plants are known to be sometimes carried. In 
this connexion I would refer to a paper by Dr. Schartf (37), in which he 
brings forward evidence from the distribution of various plants and 
invertebrates (among the latter fresh- water sponges) to support the theory 
of the pi-esence of a former land-bridge between North America and Europe. 
Referring to Dr. Hanitsch's statement as to the three possible agents for the 
dispersal of fresh-water sponges, Dr. Scharff says that he considers the only 
occasional means of transmission to be thought of seriously is that by birds ; 
and even in this case he cites evidence to show that birds probably never tiy 
directly across the Atlantic, nor is there reason to believe that they first set 
foot on the west coast of Ireland on reaching Europe. 

In addition to the points brought forward by Dr. Scharff, I would suggest 
the following arguments against the transport of gemmules of 11. Rydit-i liy 

248 ProcectUngs of the Roi/al Irish Acndemij. 

birds, fioin a consideration of tlie liabitat and mode of growth of that 
species : — 

(1) //. /i//<7(/v" does not grow where i,here is mud, but in clear water on 
tlie stony beaches of lakes, or on the siouy beds of rivers, so that there would 
be little or no material to cement the gemmules to the feet or feathers of 

(2) Gemmules are extremely scarce in the lake form of II. Iti/deri in 
North America (Potts and MacKay). In Ireland they are so scarce that 
inuuheds of specimens may be collected even late in the year without finding 
a single one. 

(3) Gemmules ai-e numerous in the river form of U. Ityderi in North 
America (I'ott«). In Ireland (and ? in North America) they are most 
abundant in specimens in rapidly flowing clear rivers and streams, with 
boulder-strewn beds, at a short ilisUmcc below a lake (see p. 219). The 
possibility of gemmules becoming attacheil to birds under these conditions 
would seem to be slight. 

The chances of a .successful introduction of the species into Ireland by 
means of bird.s would bo lessened by the fact that JI. Jiijdcri does not grow 
in this country in lakes or rivere ou the limestone, so that a bird carrying 
gemmules would have to deposit them, if they were to geiniinate success- 
fully, in fresh water in a non-limestone district; and as the sponge grows 
with difliculty in lakes with boggy shores, they would have to be deposited 
in clear wattT on a stony bottom. Tiierefoie 1 would consider that the 
distribution of II. llijdcri, aa at present known, cannot be explained by any 
of these occasional means of disiiereal ; but that it may be cited among the 
evidences of a former land connexion between North America and Europe. 

Dr. Annandale (3, p. 11) refere to this (juestion of the dispersal of fresh- 
water sponges. In discussing the relationships of the fresh-water sponges 
and polyzoa of the Malabar Zone of India with those of Africa and of tlie 
countries east of India, he mentions aerial currents (in this case the monsoon) 
and njarinc ourrenU as possible agents in the dispcreal of these animals. 
ISut he dismisses both in a few words, as the resting reproductive bodies of 
t,he genem in the area.s under consideration are either fixed to some 
solid "support, or are without a special apparatus to render them light. 
Ur. Anuandale states that the most satisfactory explanation as yet put 
forward to account for the relationships of these or other groups of animals 
is that of a former land connexion between the countries involved, that is to 
say, lietwcen Africa and the Malaysia through Malabar, in, pcrhai»s, late 
Cretaceous times. 

Si'EPHiiNS — The Fresh-wiiler Sponges of Ireland. 249 

List of Eefekknces., G. J. : 

1. On the Natural History, Structure, and Biological Status of the 

Fresh-water Sponges [summary of lecture]. Ann. Ifpt. D\iblin 
Nat. History Soc. for 1848. 
Annandale, N. : 

2. Notes on some Fresh-water Sponges collected in Scotland. Journ. 

Linn. Soc. (Zoology), xxx, 1908. 

3. The Fauna of I'.ritish India. Fresh-water Sponges, Hydioids, and 

Polyzoa. London, 1911. 

4. The Fresh-water Sponges of the Malabar Zone. Eec. Indian Mus., 

vii, 1912. 

5. Some Recent Advances in our Knowledge of the Fresh-water Fauna 

- of India. Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc, Bengal (N.S.), viii, 

6. An Account of the Sponges of the Lake of Tiberias, with Observa- 

tions on Certain Genera of Spongillidae. Journ. and Proc. 
Asiatic Soc, Bengal (N.S.), ix, 1913. 

7. Eeport on the Biology of the Lake of Tiberias. Fifth Series. The 

Distribution and Origin of the Fauna of the Jordan Eiver- 
System, with special reference to that of the Lake of Tiberias. 
Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc, Bengal (N.S.), xi, 1915. 

8. The Fauna of certain small streams in the Bombay Presidency. 

llec Indian Mus., xvi. 1919. 
Annandale, N., and S. Kemp. : 

9. Observations on the Invertebrate Fauna of the Ivuuiaon Lakes, 

witli special reference to tlie Sponges and Pulyzna. lice Inilian 
Mus., vii, 1912. 
Belfast Natukalists' Field Club: 

10. Guide to Belfast and the adjacent Counties [Fresh-water Sponges, 

p. 130]. Belfast, 1874. 


11. A Monograph of the Spongillidae. Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1863. 

12. A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. Ray Soc, London, iv, 

Carpentek, G. H. : 

13. The Animals of Ireland. Iv Ireland Agricultural and Industrial. 

DubHn, 1902. 

250 Proceedings of the Royal Irinh Academy. 

Cabtkb, J. H. : 

14. History aud Classification of the known Species of Spongilla. Ann. 

Mag. Xat. History (5), \-ii, ISSl. 

Creightox, E. H.: 

15. Spongilla laeustris at Ballyshannon. Irish Xaturalist, ii, 1893. 

FUKiirSG, J. : 

16. The Philosophy of Zoolog}-. Edinburgh, 1822. 

GiROD, P.: 

17. Les Eponges des Eaux deuces d'Europe. Le Micrographe pre- 

parateur, vii, 1899. 

18. Considerations sur la distribution geograpliique des Spongilles 

d'Europe. Bull. Soc 2^1., France, xxiv, 1899. 

Grant, R E. : 

19. On the Structure and Nature of the SpongilUi friabilis. Edinbui-gh 

Phil. Journ., xiv, 1826. 

HANrrscH, K. : 

20. American Fresh-water Sponges in Ireland. Nature, li, 1895. 

21. The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. With i-eniarks on tlie general 

distribution of the group. Irish Naturalist, iv, 1895. 

22. Notes on Two Sjx<:ies of African Fresh-water Sponges. Ann. Mag. 

Nat. History (7). xx. 1907. 

KiKscH, A. M. : 

2.*?. Fre?h-water Sponges, .and j.articularly those of tlie United States. 
Midland Naturalist, None I*anie, Indiana, i, 1909. 
Lnc-Kwoon, S. : 

24. Hftfrvmtymia llydrri (a Fresh-wal«r Sponge). Journ. New York 

Microscopical Soc., i, 1885. 

Macauster, a. : 

25. Sponges. In Guide to the County of Dublin. Prei>ared for the 

Meeting of the British Association. Dublin, 1878. 
Mackat, A. M. : 

26. A Fresh-water Sponge from Sable Island. Trans. Nova Scotian 

Institute Sci., x, 1900. 

MuLLKR, K. : 

27. Uber eine vermutliche Varietiit von Ephmlatia fluvialilis. Zool. 

Anzeiger, xxxviii, 1911. 

Stkphkns — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 251 

Nichols, A. It. : 

28. Porifera. In A Guido to Belfast and the Counties of Down and 

Antrim. Prepared for the Meeting of the P>ritisli Association, 
Belfast, 1902. 
Potts, E. : 

29. Three more Fresh-water Sponges. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 

for 1882. 
.>0. On the Minute Fauna of Fairninunt lieservoir. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Philadelphia, for 1884. 

31. On the Wide Distribution of some American Sponges. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, for 1884. 

32. A New Fresh-water Sponge from Nova Scotia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

Philadelphia, for 1885. 

33. Contributions towards a Synopsis of the American forms of Fresh- 

water Sponges, with descriptions of those named by other authors 
and from all parts of the world. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 
for 1887. 

34. Note on Spongilla fluviatiU-i in the Barrow. Irish Naturalist, ii, 


35. The History of the European Fauna. Loudon, 1899. 

36. European Animals : tlieir Geological History and their Geographical 

Distribution. London, 1907. 

37. On the Evidence of a former Land-biidge between Northern Europe 

and North America. Proc. Eoy. Irish Acad., Sect, b, xxviii, 1909. 
ScHAitFF, 11. F., and G. H. Cakpenteii : 

38. Some Animals from tlio Macgillicuddy'.s Peeks. Irish Naturalist, 

viii, 1899. 
Stephens, Jank: 

39. [Note on] Irish Fresh-water Sponges. Irisli Naturalist, xiv, 1905. 

40. Porifera. In Handbook to the City of Dublin and the Surrounding 

District. Piepared for the Meetii'ig of tiie British Association, 
Dublin, 1908. 

41. Fresh-water Porifera of the Clare Island Sur\ey. Proc. Eoy. Irish 

Acad., xxxi, Part 60, 191'2. 

42. [Note on Fresh-water Sponges.] Ann. ItepL. and I'loc. Belfast 

Naturalists' Field Club (2), vii. Part I, 1914. 

43. [Note on Fresh-water Sponges.] Ann. Kept, and Proc Belfast 

Naturalists' Field Club (2), vii, Part II, 1915. 

44. [Occurrence of Kyhydatia fluviatilis in the Eiver Lilley.] Irish 

Naturalist, xxiv, p. 43, 1915. 

252 Proceedings of the lioi/al Irish Academy. 

Templeton, E. : 

■45. A Catalogue of the Species of Annulose Animals and of Eayed Ones 
found in Ireland, as selected from the Papers of the late John 
Teniplelon, Esc^., of Cranmore, with I.,ocalities, Descriptions, and 
Illustrations. Mag. Nat. History, ix, 1836. 

Thompson, W. : 

40. Keport on the Fauna of Ireland. Div. Invertebrata. Report of the 
British Association for 1S43. 

47. Tlie Natural History of Ireland, iv, London, 1856. 


48. Description d'une variety d'Eponge d'eau douce (Ephydalia /luviati/is, 

auct. var. si/riata, Tops.), recolt^e par M. Henri Gadeau de 
Kerville dans la region de Damas (Syrie). Bull. Soc. des Amis 
des Sciences natui-elles de Rouen, 1909. 


40. Die Siisswassei'schwaninie Bohniens. Abh. Kon. Bohm. Cles. Wiss. 
(math.-natur. Classe), xii, 1883. 

Wallku, J. G. : 

50. On Variation in S/H»ipil/ii /luviatiJis. Journ. (v>ueckett Micr. Club, v, 


Wei.tnkr, "NV. : 

51. Spongillidenstudien, i. Arch. Naturg., Berlin, !)5, 1893. 

52. Siwngillidenstudifn, iii. Aich. Nalurg., Berlin, 01, 1S95. 

53. Sij.s^-iwa.'viorspiiiigifM vnn Celebes. Ardi. Naturg. (Beiheft), 

Berlin, 1901. 

54. Spongillidae. In Die Siis.s\vas-serfauiia Deutschlaiids, herausgegebeu 

von A. Brau.T. Ilift 10. 1909. 

55. Bcitragc zur Keniitnissder Fauna TnrkesLans.viii. Spongillidae des 

Issyk-Kul-Sees und des Baches bei Dschety-Ogus. Trav. Soc. 
Inipcr. Xaturalistca de St. P^lei-sbourg. xlii, 1911. 


50. ij ber Abnonnitaten bei Spongilli'lcn. Ziml. .An/fitrfv xxxix, 1911'. 

Wright, E. P.: 

67. Notes on Sponges, Part I : A List of the Species. Proc. Roy. 
Irish Acml. x, 1868. 

Stephens — Tin; F)r>ili-tv(tter Sponges of Ireland. 253 



Megaseleres x o30 ; fitn', iniciDscleics iiiid geiiiiiiule-spicules x GOO. 

1. Siioii;ji//i( /acudriti -Mict. «, megaseleres ; i, f, gomnuile-spicules ; d, I'lec 

niiciosclere. Stream at Woodburii, Co. Antrim. 

2. Spongilla lacivstris aucfc. a, megaseleres ; h, gemmule-spiciile ; c, free 

mieroscleres. Derryelare Lough, Co. Galway. 

3. Spomjilla fnujiUs Leidy. a, gemmule-spieules; h, megaseleres. Lough 

Fad, F'air Head, Co. Antrim, 
■i. E[iliijdatia flavuitUis auet. var. Megaseleres. Lough Erne, ofV Eagle 

5. E^ihydalia JlnviulUib auet. var. Megaseleres. Ballyseanlan Lmigli, 

Co. Wateii'ord. 

6. Ephtjdatia fluviutilis axmi. var. Megaselere. Lough Derg, Co. Tipperary. 

7. E2}hydati(( Jluvi((tilis auet. var. Megaseleres. Oakport Lough, 

Co. Itoscommon. 

8. E])hydatia Jiuviatdis auet. var. Megaseleres. Lough Gill, Co. Sligo. 

9. Ejjhi/datiajiaviidilis auet. var. a~c, megaseleres ; /, amphidisc. Drumclitf 

Kiver, Co. Sligo. 

Plate XXVIL 
Megaseleres x 3.S0 ; gemmule-spicules x 600. 

1. Ephydatia fluviatilis auet. a, megaseleres; b, c, side and end views of 

amphidiscs Eiver Barrow, at Mageney, Co. Kildai'e. 

2. Ephydatia fluviatilis auet. «, megaseleres ; h, c. d, side and end views of 

amphidiscs. F'urnaee Lough, ("o Mayo 

3. Ephydatia flmiatilis auet. a, megaseleres ; b, c, side and end views of 

amphidiscs. Pond in Zoological Gardens, Dublin. 

4. Ephydatia fluviatilis anct. «, megaseleres ; b, c, side and end views of 

amphidiscs. Lagan Canal, Co. Antrim. 

5. Ephydatia fluviatilis auet. Mierospined megaselere. Lough Corrib, 

near Oughtcrard. 

6. Ephijd'itur fiaviatdis auet. «, megaseleres; h, c, .side and end views of 

amphidiscs. Mill-stream from Kiver Dodder, Dutilin. 

K.l.A. PROC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. I!. [2 E\ 

254 I'roceedings of the Royal Irish Acadetnij. 


Mogascleres x o30; geiinimle-sijieiiles x GOO. 

1. Eiihjidtitia Mulhri \A{i\)Q\-k\s\\n. a, inegascleres ; ft, c, side and end views 

of aniijliidiscs. Kiver Tolka, Co. Dulilin. 

2. Hdcromcijcniu liijdcri I'otts. Typical I'unii. «, inegascleres ; h, c, side 

and end view of shorter anipliidiscs ; tl, longer anipliidisc. Stream 
fiiMii C'liiinianare I.,;ikeK, Co. Kei ry. 
.). lliti ivmci/cniii liinhri I'otts. <t, uicgasclores ; h, c, shorter ami Imiger 
ani)ihidiscs. I'ark lA)iigli, Hungry Hill, Co. Cork. 

4. Ill tiiomfi/enut liijdcti I'ott.s, form L'alcni I'otts. a, niegascleres ; 

b, c, shorter and longer ainphidiscs. Longji Yganavaun, Co. Kerry. 

5. IletcromeycHM liydcri l'ott«, form jnctui-cnsU I'otts. n, niegMscleres ; 

h,c, shoi'ter ; and </, longer am]>hidisc8. Lmigh Coolanick, Inislilurk, 

Co. Mayo, 
(i. Uctciome.yrnin Uydcri \'o\jls, ioxwx piclorensis Voii^. Megascleres. Lough 

Altnadun, Co. Down. 
7. Jldcrointyrniii Itydni I'otts, form pidornisis I'otts. Megascleres. Lake 

on Carnlough Mountains, Co. Antrim. 
S. Ilderomeyenia liydcri I'otts. Semi-typical form, n, megascleres ; 

h, r, .shorter and longer amphidiscs. Lower Lough Bray, 

Co. Wicklow. 


Maps showing the distribution of the fresh-water sponges in Ireland as 
at present known — fig. 1, Spongilla lacuslria ; fig. 2, SpomjUla fragilis ; fig. 3, 
Epki/daliti fluriatilis ; fig. 4, Ephydalui fluciatilis, var. ; fig. 5, EpJn/datia 
MiilUri; tig. 6. Ildinimi-iirnin Iti/dcri. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate XXVI, 

c yd-i^e 

Eileen £ Barnes, del. 

Stephens— The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate XXVII. 

Eilaen £". Barnes, del. 

Stephens — The Fresh-water Spo.vges of Ireland. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXXV, Sect. B. 

Plate XXVIII, 

Eileen E. Barnes, del. 

Stephens — The Fkksh-water Sponges ok Irel.-\nd. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol, XXXV, Sect. B. 

Platk XXIX. 


Stephens — The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 









The Academy desires it to be -understood that they are not 
ansicerabie for any opinion, rejn-esentation of facts, or train of 
reasoning that may appear in any of the followiiig Papers. The 
AtUhors of the several Essays are alone responsible for their 

Dvulik : Pmixtkii at t«« Uwitxhmtt Pkrub bt I'ojiiiosbt ajip Oihi*. 



Beknaed (J. H.), D.D., D.C.L. :— page 

Richard Talbot, Archbishop and Chancellor (1118-1449), . . 218 

Beenabd (J. H.), D.D., D.C.L., and Ladx Mary Constance Butler: — 

The Charters of the Cistercian Abbey of Duiske in the County of 

Kilkenny. (Plates I-V), 1 

Butler, Lady Mary Constance : — 

See under Bernard (J. H.) and Lady Mary C. Butler. 

EsPosiTo, Mario : — 

On the Pseudo-Augustinian Treatise, " De Mirabilibus Sanctae 

Scripturae," . . . 189 

The " Secrets of Salerno " : an Ancient French Manuscript, . . 208 

Kerry, The Earl of, D.S.O. : — 

The Lansdowne Maps of the Down Survey, ..... 385 

Lawlor (H. C.) : — 

Some Investigations on the Souterrain. (Plate VI.), . . . 214 

Lawlor (H. J.), D.D., LiTT.D. :— 

Notes on St. Bernard's Life of St. Malachy, and his two Sermons on 

the Passing of St. Malachy 230 

Lawlor (H. J.), D.D., LiTT.D., and R. I. Best, Litt.D. : — 

The Ancient List of the Coarbs of Patrick, 316 

Twiss (H. F.), I.S.O., LiTT.D. :— 

Some Ancient Deeds of the Parishes of St. Catherine and St. James, 

Dublin, 266 

Some Ancient Deeds of the Parish of St. Werburgh, Dublin, . . 282 

Westropp(T. J.), M.A.:— 

The Assembly-place of 6enach Cairbre and Sfd Asail at Monastera- 

nenagh, County Limerick, ....... 863 

Dun Crot and " The Harps of Cliu," on the Galtees, County 

Limerick. (Plate VII), 878 



p. 49,1.11, . . For Clare reitii Vvmhroke. 

p. 61, 1. 23, . . . For contemplatione read contemplationi. 

p. 127, 1. 24, . For iuBticiriii read iugticario. 

p. 216, 1. 29, For cave read rath. 

p. 235, Oeneal'igicol Tabic. FUonacan ira> son of Mael Isa, not of Domnall. The statement that 

the ancestor* of Amhalgiid are unknown b incorrect. Sen below, 
p. 342. 

p. 236, 1. 8, . Thu ia corrected below, p. 343. 

p. 239, I. 5 from end, . The Qiabum which St. Malachj visited was not the place of that name 

near Bibchester, but another Gisbum (now Guisboroiigh), near 
the mouth of the Tees. Hence the argument of this paragraph is 
fallacious, and the itinerary of the thirl journey from Low Borrow 
Bridge onwards (p. 241) is incorrect. See SeoUith Mi4toru-al 
SeTitv, xriii, 81. 

p. 241 Omi/ Longtowo. St. Malachy probably went from Annan to Carlisle 

by the Solway sands (li. p 80). The distance is somewhat less 
by this route, but the rate of progress would be slower. 

p. 242, U. 13-16, It should have been stateii that these statements arc based on a kind 

and valuable communication of Dr. R. I<. Poole. 











Ai'chbishop of Dublin. 

[Read Novembeii 12, 1917. rublisbed July 26, 1918.] 






VI. The Dissolution of the Abbey, 



Abbreviated Titles used in 



Appendix A. The Conventual 






The Charters of Killenny, 


Appendix B. The Abbots of Duiske, 
Index of Personal Names, 
Index of Place Names, . 




The Charters of Duiske, 


Description of Plates, 


The Charters which are printed for the first time in this volume are preserved 
among the muniments of the Marquess of Ormonde in the Evidence Eoom of 
Kilkenny Castle. They were selected from that great collection of mediaeval 
documents, and transcribed by Lady Constance Butler in the years 1913 and 
1914. The task of transcription presented serious ditticulties, as many of 
the deeds are faded and woin ; and great patience, as well as keen eyesight, 
was needed. I was able to render some assistance, and Dr. H. F. Berry, i.s.o.. 
kindly read through a first draft of the transcript; but the credit of the work 
is due to Lady Constance Butler. 

These Charters constitute a very full record of the growth of the great 
Cistercian Abbey of Duiske, or Graigueuamanagh, in the county of Kilkenny, 
during the first hundred years of its existence ; and they also provide some 


2 Froceedinga of the Royal Irish Academy. 

information as to its fortunes during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
I have endeavoured to place the documents in chronological order ; but as in 
many eases the date has to be deduced from the names of the witnesses, it is 
not always possible to be precise. It has seemed worth while to add some 
notes as to the Anglo-Norman barons and their retainers who appear in the 
Charters, as many of their descendants are still to be found in the South of 
Ireland. Not much is known about the monastery of Duiske, except what 
these Charters reveal ; but I have supplied in my commentary any details 
that can be learnt from Clyn's Annals, or (for the later period) from the State 
Papers. It is the hope of Lady Constance Butler and myself that the 
material here collected may be serviceable to students of Irish history. 

We desire to thauk Mr. Goddard Orpen for some valuable notes, and Mr. 
Manning Robertson, A.R.I. B. A., for the map which he kindly drew for the pur- 
poses of this memoir. Dr. Carrigan has been good enougli to annotate the 
Terrier of the lands of Tulachany (no. 107) ; and Mr. E. C. K. Armstrong has 
given ki))d help in connexion with the seals attached to the Charters. We are 
also under obligation to the President and Council of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland for permission to reprint tlie plan of the abbey ruins, 
and the careful nolo upon them, published in their Journal by the late 
Dr. Robert Cochrane. 

C. D. I. . 

C. M. A. . 

Carrigan. . 


1). X. r.. . 
E. . . . 

F. . . . 

L. . . . 

R. S. A. I. . 
R. T. A. . 

II.— Abbrevuteu Titles used in the Notks. 

Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (5 vols.), edited by 

Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin (2 vols.), ed. J. T. 

Gilbert (1884). 
Hi.story and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory (4 vols.), by 

W. Carrigan, d.d. (1905). 
Chartae, Privilegia et Immunitates, &c., printed by the Irish 

Record Commission (1889). 
I )iclionary of National Biography. 
E.xtracts from tiie Registers of Duiske Abbey, contained in the 

MS. E. 3. 10 (578), Trinity College, Dublin. 
Extracts from the same Registers, contained in the MS. F. 4. 23 

(654), Trinity College, Dublin. 
Extracts from the same Registers, contained in the MS. Lans- 

downe 418, British Museum. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Register of St. Thomas' Abbey, Dublin, ed. J. T. Gilbert 


Bi'UtNAKD — The Charters of the Abhei/ of t)uiskc. 3 

III. — Introduction. 

The Cistercian modification of the Benedictine Rule is due to an English- 
man, St. Stephen Harding, the parent house of Citeaux or Cistercium, near 
Dijon in Burgundy, having been established for Benedictines in 1096 by St; 
Eobert of Molesme. The Cistercian Rule took shape in 1107; and, like that 
of the Cluniacs, although in different fashion, it was a departure from the 
Rule of St. Benedict, in so far as it aimed at the close organization of the 
communities which adopted it. A main feature of the unreformed Benedictine 
system was the independence of each monastic house ; but the Cistercians 
became an Order in the strict sense, under the pre-eminence of the abbot and 
convent of Citeaux, and claiming exemption from the authority of the local 
bishops. All Cistercian houses were administered in the same manner, and 
the superiors were under obligation to attend yearly chapters, each convent 
being moreover subject to visitations at the pleasure of the Abbot of Citeaux. 
The four abbeys of La Ferte,' Pontignj-,- Clairvaux,' and Morimond were 
accorded a position of special dignity, and were regarded as peculiarly the 
" daughters of Citeaux." They were, in fact, the oldest of its daughter-houses. 

The Cistercian Rule was one of great austerity. The members of the order 
wore neither linen nor furs, and from their dress of undyed wool were often 
called the " White Monks." They lived on a vegetable diet, animal food being 
forbidden in their establishments. As with the Benedictines, it was enjoined 
by the Rule that the abbeys should be so located as to contain within their 
precincts water-courses, mills, and gardens, so that they were independent of 
supplies from without. It was often remarked in later times that the habit 
of the Cistercians was to build their houses in valleys, as the Benedictines did 
on hill-tops.* 

The system spread rapidly, the first English house being established in 
1129 at Waverley in Surrey. The formal introduction of the order into 
Ireland is due to St. Malachy of Armagh, who was the intimate friend of St. 
Bernard, the famous abbot of Clairvaux (d. 1153). St. Malachy had noticed 
with admiration the methods of the Cistercians at Clairvaux, and he sent 
some Irish monks there to study its peculiarities and advantages. The lettei-s 

' In the diocese of Chalons in Burgundy. 

- About 12 miles from Autun, in the diocese of Auxerre. It was here that Thomas 
Becket found asj'luni. 

^ This abbey, and that of Morimond, were in the diocese of Langres, and were founded 
in the same year, 1115. St. Bernard was the first abbot of Clairvaux. 

* Cf. the old verse : 

Bernardus valles, colles Benedictus amabat, 
Oppida Franciscus, magnas Ignatius urbes. 

4 Proceedings oj the Royal Irish Academy. 

from St. Bernard to St. Malachy on the subject are numbered 315, 316, 317 
in the Ujjistolae of the former.' As a consequence of this movement, the 
Abbey of Mellifont, near Drogheda, was founded about the year 1142. 
Mellifont had many " daughters," among them Bective in Meath, and Baltin- 
• glass in co. "Wicklow, which in its turn was the "mother" of Jerpoint in eo. 
Kilkenny ; and the Cistercian houses grew and multiplied in Ireland during 
the latter half of the twelfth century, some twenty-live convents of the order 
being in existence by the year 1200. St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, had been 
affiliated to the Cistercian house of Savigny in Normandy as far back as 1139, 
a date prior to the foundation of Mellifont. Most of the Irish Cistercian 
houses, however, were founded by the Anglo-Norman adventurers wlio came 
over to Ireland in the train of Strongbow and his successors after 1 ] 72 ; the 
lavisli grants of lands made to them by their founders being acts of piety or 
of reparation, after tlie manner of the age. Thus Duiibrody' in co. Wexford 
was founded from T.uildwas in Sliropshire by Ilervey de Montmorency; nnd 
Tinteru founded by William Earl Marshal in the same county derived its 
name from tlie more famous Tint«rn in Monmouthshire. We are here con- 
cerned more particularly witli the Abbey of Duiske, now Graigucnamanagh, 
in CO. Kilkenny, whicli wa.s founded from the Abbey of Stanley in Wilushire 
by William Earl Marshal about 1204. 

IV. — The Chahtkks op Killenny. 

To exhibit the histoiy of Duiske Abbey, we must begin with some 
documents which concern Jerpoint and Killenny, two Cistercian houses in 
CO. Kilkenny, whose relations with Duiske form the subject of many subse- 
quent chartei-8. 

The abbey of Jerpoint, whose splendid ruins testify to its former greatness, 
was founded from the abbey of Mellifont in the latter half of the twelfth 
century. The date of its foundation, as we shall see, must have been some 
years prior to 1165, although it haa been put as late as 1180.' It was a 
flourishing convent, and Dermot O'Kyan, Chief of Idrone, granted to it 
certain lands for the purpose of establishing and endowing a daughter house 
at Killenny, which was in his territory. His Charter is not extant, although 
we have presen-ed a pidcis of an Inspeximus and Confii-mation of it by one of 

' They are reprinted in Ussher's "Sylloge " (IVorks iv. 535 ff.). 

2 Dunbrody was subaequently affiliated to St. Marj-'s, Dublin, and the Charters of both 
houses have been published in Sir J. T. Gilbert's ChartuUiriea uf Si. Mary's Abbey (1884) 

' By Sir Jamea Ware in hts Caetiobia CUUtcensia Uibtrnica (cf. CMA ii, 217, 218). 
The date of its foundation is discussed by Carrigan, iv, 281 ff. 

Bkijnaud — The Charters of the Abbey of Duiske. 5 

his descendants, two and a half centuries later.' But we have a Confirmation 
of it granted by Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster, whose liegeman 
O'Kyau was, and with this we begin: — 

Confirmation by Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster, of a grant 
of lands made by his liegeman Dermot O'Eyan to the convent of 
Jerpoint, for the purpose of establishing a daughter house of the 
Cistercian Order at Killenny. 

Dated at Gowran. 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris Eeclesie filiis arehiepiscopis episcopis abbatibus 
presbiteris regibus ducibus comitibus et omnibus tarn laicis quam clericis in 
Christo fidelibus Diarmetius nutu dei rex Lagnensium salutem et pacis 

Notum facimus presentibus et posteris quod nos terram quam Diarmait 
Uarrian dux Uanronai per nostiam liceutiam in remissionem peccatorum 
suorum Felici abbati de Ossarge et omiii eiusdem loci conuentui ad monas- 
terium in honore beatissime Dei genetricis semperque uirginis Marie sanetique 
Benedicti abbatis tradidit construendum, confirmamus raanutenemus et nostri 
sigilli confirmatione muuimus. 

Hec igitur est terra nionachis iure perpetuo tradita, Duninni, Ceall 
Mochonioc, Muleann Morain, Ardsemdilli, Bale O'Chianugain, Eath 
Inphoboil, Breslaeh, Ceall Nisi, Bale meic Marcaig, Druim ro, Bale meic 
Laurada, Bale Ogaillin, Baile Omaille, Leis Meic Mellelua, cum omnibus suis 
pertinensiisf in aquis in pascuis in siluis. 

Nam Ceall Lainne, cum omnibus adhuc suis pertinentiis, scilicet Eaith 
Membram et Ardpetraim, tam in fluminibus quam in pratis et nemoribus, 
Donatus, uenerabilis Lethglennensis episcopus, ad grangiam faciendam, sieut 
melius de nobis habuit perpetualiter, cum nostra licentia, prefatis monachis 
quibus de sua parrochia in sui presentia, predicta terra, scilicet Dunnini 
etcetera, fuit data, tradidit. 

Interdicimus ergo ne aliquis hominum de prefatis terris ausu temerario 
ab eisdem monachis et eorum in perpetuum successoribus nee passum pedum 
auferre, nee uiolentiam nionasterio, si ibi fuit, uel eius grangiis, si habuit, 
inferre, aut ignem apponere, sine aliquid ab eis furtim abstrahere prosumat ; 
sed omnia in pace eeclesie integre et illibata dimittere. 

Quia siquis contra nos in dei ecclesiam mauum forefaciendo audacter 
porrexerit, res suas si habuerit, uitam si non, irreuocabiliter perdet. 

Datum apud Belachgaurain. 

Teste, Laurentio Dubliniensi archiepiscopo ; Donato Lethglennensi 
episcopo ; Felice abbate de Ossarge ; Murchad filio Murchada ; Murchenlach 

' Seep. 139. 

6 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

filio eius; Domnallo Caimanach: Diarmait Uarrian; Padin Uaheda; Murchad 
Uabrain ; Dalbach eiusdem filio ; efc Uonncuan Ua Diarmada ; et Araleib 
Mac Cotaltain. 

From this instrument (of which there are two summaries iu the Extracts from 
the Duiske Registers which we call E) the seal has disappeared.' Its date can be 
fixed with some precision, as we know something of nearly all the persons 
mentioned, and we shall find that it must be placed between 1162 and 1165. 

Dermot MacMnrroiigh, King of Leinster, died in 1171. 

Dermot O'Ryan (Diarmait L'arrian), Chief of Idrone (Uanronai), a liegeman of 
King Dermot, was slain in 1171.' Idrone is now a barony in co. Carlow, but at 
this time included that part of the dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin which is to 
the west of the river Barrow. Killenny (Ceall Lainne) was in the O'Ryan country, 
in the townland of Old Abbey, now Barrowmount, in the civil parish of Grange 
Silvoe^ and the diocese of Leighlin. No remains of the abbey buildings can now 
be traced, but they were probably of no great magnitude or consequence at any 

Only a few of the lands granted by Dermot O'Ryan for the purpose of the new 
monastery can be identified. Dun inni is Doninga, a townland in the parish of 
Grange Silvae ; Druim ro is now Mount Loftus in the parish of Powerstown. 

The first witness to the Charter, Laurence, archbishop of Dublin, was the 
famous St. Laurence O'Toole (1162-llHO). He was King Dermot's biother-in- 
law, which accounts for his presence. 

Donat, bishop of Leighlin, the date of whose accession is uncertain, but 
probably prior to 1152, died in 1181. Inasmucii as KilLnny was situated in the 
diocese of Leighlin, the attestation of the bishop of that diocese was specially 

Felix, abbot of Ossory, is Felix O'DulIany, who was the first abbot of Jerpoint, 
before he became bishop of Ossory in 1178. He died in 1202, and was buried at 
Jerpoint Abbey, where his altar-tomb, with his effigy in relief, is still to be seen. 

Murchad filius Murchada, i.e. Murrougli mac Murrough, was King Dermot's 
brother; his son Muirclierlach died in 1193. 

Domnall Caemanach, i.e. Donnell Kavanagh, was King Dermot's illegitimate 
son. He was brought up at Kilcavan, near Gorey iCill-Cdenihaini, and hence was 
surnamed Caemhan-ach or Kavanagh. He is the eponymous ancestor of the Clan 
Kavanagh. He was killed, according to the Annals of Ulster, in 1175. 

Paidin Uaheda, or O'Hea, who is described in the AnnaU of Ulster as " the 
candle of all O'Kinselagh," is said by the same authority to have been killed in 

' Tliis charter been rejirodiiccd in Gilbert's FarmnUtt of Natunuil Mtinuacripts of 
Irdand {Pi. II, plate Ixiii), but the editor, by the unfortunate insertion in his printed 
text of the name DuUke after ' monasterio,' in 1. 24," instead of the wordB 'si ibi fuit,' 
was lead to misinterpret it as the Foundation Charter of Duiske Abbey. This is a 
mistake which has been reproduced in many Itooks. As we shall see, the abbey of 
Duiske was nut founded for nearly forty years after the date of this charter, in which 
the name ' Duiske ' or ' Graigue na managh ' does not occur. 

' Orpen, Irelatid utider the Kormans, i, 231. 

' The exact position of KUIenny wa.s first determined by Carrigan (iv, 279). 

Bkknard — Tlie Charters of the Abbey nf Duiske. 7 

Murcdad Uabrain, or Murrough O'Breen, Gbief of llic^ Duffry (a district 
between Euiiiscorthy and the Blackstairs mountain), and his son Dalbach, were 
beheaded by Strongbow in 1171.' 

It is thus plain that the Charter must have been executed between 1102, the 
year of Archbishop Laurence's consecration, and 1165, the year of Paidin O'lloa's 

We have in the Extracts from tlie Duiske Eegisters (E) a precis of this 
instrument, in which the names of some additional witnesses are given. To be 
precise, we find in (E), first, a lyrSck, headed " Cbarta de Kyllyny," with the 
witnesses as set out in the original deed, which is printed above. This is followed 
by a Confirmation of it executed in the year 1424 (see p. 139, below) ; and then 
comes a second pricis, headed " Confirmatio regis Lagenie de Bentraye," with an 
ill-spelt list of witnesses as follows : — 

" Laurentio archiepiscopo Dublin. ; Donato Lechglen. episc. ; Felice abbate de 
Ossarge ; Murchad filio Murchada, regis Dermitii germano ; Murchertach filio 
eius ; Doualdo Caemanach ; Padyn Huaeda ; Murchad Huabroyn ; Dalbach 
eiusdem filio ; Dullayng Huanualla ; Diarmayd Huarya ; Ainlayb mac Collatain ; 
Kekach Huacoscrayg ; Kerill mac Gillananac ; Domnall Euad ; Gillapadrayg 
Huainacada ; Donchad Huainedayg ; Diarmaid Huafiachaiu ; Dullayng mac 
Legussa ; Florentio regis notario." 

Eleven of these names are given in the Charter which has been printed above, 
but there can be little doubt that the additional persons named in this precis were 
also present, and that two copies (both original) of this important Instrument 
were preserved among the archives of Duiske. The last-named witness, 
" Florence, the King's notary," is, no doubt, the same scribe as the Florence who 
attested King Dermot mac Murrough's foundation Charter of the Augustinian 
Abbey of Ferns about 1158.- 

The spelling of the Irish names is so corrupt in this pricis that they are hard 
to identify. I am indebted to Mr. Goddard Orpen for the acute and learned 
suggestions as to the identity of these chieftains, which are here offered. 

Dullayng Hua Nualld was probably Dunlang O'Nolan (Ua Nuallain). The 
O'Nolans were chiefs of the territory known as Fotharta Fea, now the barony of 
Forth, CO. Carlow; and two men called Dunlang appear at this period in the 
pedigree of these chiefs in the Book of Leinster.^ 

Ainlayb mac Collatain may be a corrupt form of Amlaf mac Uallacain, a name 
which has been anglicized ' Coolahan.' 

Kekach Huacoscrayg is too corrupt to emend. But O'Coscraigh was a chief in 
CO. Wicklow.* 

Ecj-ill mac Gillananac may be for ' Cerball mac Gillanameach,' i.e. Carroll son 
of Gilla-na-n-each, or Servant of the Horses. 

Domnall Buad and Gillapatraic are given in a pedigree headed ' Hua 
Murchada ' in the Book of Leiuster' as the two sons of Donnchad. Thus we 

■ Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, i. 237. " Seo Horo's Ferns, p. 181. 

2 Facsimile, p. 337. ■* Topixjraphical Poems, pp. 75-89. * Facsimile, p. 337, col. ii. 

8 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

must suppose Huamacada in the pricis to be a corruption of Hua murcliada, or 

Donchad Huainedayg perhaps represents Donchad Hua-Cinnedigli or 

Diarmaid Hiiafiacham was probably Diarmaid Hua Kiachain (O'Kegan). 
Maurice Regan was the name of King Dermot's secretary. 

DuUayng mac Legussa may stand for ' Dunlang mac Laigsigh.' The ' Laigsi ' 
were the men of Leis, and ' mac Laigsigh ' is probably a mere patronymic. 

Our next reference to the Abbey of Killenny is found in an entry in the 
Extracts from the Register of Duiske (E) : 

" Bulla confirniat terram et priuilegium mouasterii Sanctae Mariae Vallis 
Dei instituti Cisterc: per Luciuni I'apani. Dat. Yeletri per manum Alberti 
Presb. Cardinalis et Caucellarii 15 Kal. Mart. Indict. 1, Incarnationis 
Domiuice an. 1182, Pontificatus Lucii P. iii an. 2." 

This Charter granted by Pope Lucius III to the monastery of Killenny 
or " Vallis Dei " is not now extant, but reference is made to it in no. ii. 

In tiie same Extracts from tiie Kegister of Duiske (E, F, L) mention is 
made of a Charter given about the year 1200 by Miles fitz Bishop to the 
abbot' of Killenny, granting him the town of Techomichan. This Miles or 
Milo was the son of David Fitz Gerald, bishop of St. David's (who was the 
son of Gerald Fitz Walter, ConsUible of Pembroke, by Nesta, daughter of 
Rhys ap Tewdur, Prince of South Wales). Milo fitz Bishop or fitz David 
came to Ireland with tlie first band of Anglo-Normans in 1169, and Earl 
Richard de Clare (Strongbow) made him a grant of Overk in Ossory.' He 
appears as a witness to the Charter granted to the city of Kilkenny' by 
William Marshal the Elder (Earl Richard's son-in-law), and also to the 
Chartei-s nos. 3, 4, below. 

His Charter to the abbot of Killenny, no longer extant, was witnessed by 
Felix, bishop of Ossory (1178-1202); Albin, bishop of Ferns (1186-1223); 
John, bishop of Leighlin (1198-1201), and Geoffrey, seneschal of Leinster. 

' The precis in F has ' X"« Ab. de Valle Dei,' which has been read ' to the tetith abbot 
of do Valle Dei.' But it is unusual in grants to specify the place in the succession list of 
an abbot or prior, and it is probable that a proj»er name, such as ChrUtinm, is concealed 
behind the contraction. There could hardly have been ten abbots before J201. 

2 See Burtchaell, The Geraldinet of Co. Kilkenny, Journal R.S.A.I., 1893, p. 179, and 
CM. A. ii, 406. 

^ Chartae, PriviUgia, <fcc., p. 33. 

BioiiNAKU — The Charters of the Ahbey of Duiske. 

Protection granted by John of Salernum, Cardinal priest of St. Stephen 
in the Caelian Mountain, and Papal legate, to Thomas abbot of 
Killenny and his convent, confirming the monks in possession of 
their lands, and giving them freedom from tithes, the right of 
electing their abbot, and other privileges. 
Dated at Dublin. 

Johannes dei gratia titnli Sancti Stephani in Celio Monte, presbyter 
eardiualis, apostolice sedis legatus, dilectis filiis Thomaf abbati monasterii 
Sancte Marie de Valle Dei eiusqne fratribus tarn presentibus quam futuris 
regularem uitam professis in perpetunm. 

Quos sanctitas religionis et humilitas atque incessabilis deuotio satis in 
conspectu Dei et hominum gratiosos et commendabiles facit existere, eos 
imraerito sacrosancta Ptomana ecclesia specialiter diligit et intime caritatis 
brachiis feruenter amplectitur, et ab omnium uexationibus et iniuriis obnixe 
unit et mandat esse defensas. 

Hinc est quod dilecti in domino filii, uestris iustis desideriis et dignis 
postulationibus libenter asseusum prebemus, et iuxta domini pape Lucii . . . 
statutum, quod diligenter inspeximus, et plurimum commendauimus, prefatura 
monasterium beate dei genetricis semperque uirginis Marie in (^uo diuinis 
estis officiis mancipati sub beati Petri apostoli et nostra protectione de 
potestate legationis qua in Hibernia partibus fungimnr suscepimus et pre- 
sentif scripti priuilegio communimus. 

Inprimis siquidem statuentes ut ordo monasticus, qui secundum deum et 
beati Benedicti regulam et institutionem Cistereiensium fratrum in eodeni loco 
institutus esse dinoscitur,perpetuis ibidem temporibus inuiolabiliterobseruetur: 
Preterea quascunque possessiones quecunque idem monasterium in presen- 
tiarum iuste et canonice possidet, aut in futurum concessione pont[if]icum, 
largitione regum uel principum, oblatione fidelium sen quibuslibet aliis iustis 
niodis prestante domino poterit adipisci, firma nobis uestriscjue successoribus 
et illibata permaueant. 

In quibus hec propriis duximus exprimenda uocabulis : scilicet, locum 
ipsum, in quo memoratum monasterium Vallis Dei sitnni est, Cellonaseaik 
cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, Gra[n]gia Cellainni cum suis pertinentiis, 
Grangia Mulendinum Morain cum suis appenditiis, Grangia Dunnini cum 
suis appenditiis, Grangia Loch Ubrinn cum suis appcndiliis, Ihangia Cech 
Meccuain cum suis appenditiis, Grangia Cellachadcona cum suis appenditiis. 

Sane laborum uestrorum qnas propriis manibus aut sumptibus colitis sine 
de nutrimentis uestrorum animalium nullus oninino a nobis decimas presumat 

Liceat quoque uobis clericos vel laicos e seculo fugientes libcros et abso- 

R.I.A. PBGC., VOL. XXXV, SEOT. C. [2] 

10 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

lutos ad conuersionem recipere et in uestro monasterio absque contradictione 
aliqua letinere. 

Prohibemus insuper ut nuUi fratrum uestrorum post factam iu loco uestro 
professionem fas sit de eodem loco absque licentia magistii sui discedere, 
discedentem uero absque communium litterarum uestratum cautione uullus 
audeat retinere. 

Paci quoque et tranquillitati uestre paterna sollicitudine prouidere uolentes, 
auctoritate legationis qua fungimur prohibemus ut infra clausuras locorum 
sen grangiarum uestrarum nuUus uioleutiam uel rapinam sine furtum com- 
mittere aut iguem apponere seu hominem capere uel interficere audeat. 

Obeunte uero te nunc eiusdem loci abbate uel tuorum quolibet successorum 
nullus ibi qualibet subreptionis astutia seu uiolenlia preponatur, nisi quern 
fratres communi consensu uel fratrum pars consilii sanioris secundum deum 
et beati Benedicli regulam ct institutionem Cisterciensis ordinis prouiderit 

Ex apostolica ergo et legationis auctoritate qua fungimur per presentia 
scripta decreuimus, ut nulli liceat omnino liominum prefatum monasterium 
tenieie iKjrturbare aut eius jwssessiones auferre uel ablatas retinere minuere 
aut quibuslibet inolestationibus fatigare sed omnia integra et illibata seruentur 
coruni pro (|U(irum gubernatione ac sustentatione concessa sunt usibus (uiiui- 
modis profnlura, salua iiiniirum apostolice sedis auctoritate. 

Si qua igitur ccclesiasticA secularisue persona in futurum banc nostre 
constitutionis paginam sciens contra earn t<?mere uenire temptauerit secundo 
tertioue coininonita, nisi rcalum suuindignasatisfactionecorrexerit, potestatis 
honorisue sui dignitate carcat, reamque sc diuino iudicio existere de perpe- 
trata inii|uitatc cognoscat, ct a sacratissimo corpure ac sanguine doi et domini 
rcdemploris no.stri Jesu Cliristi aliena fiat, aUjue in extremo examine districte 
ultioni subiacwit. Cunctis autem cidem loco sua iura seruantibus sit pax 
douiini nostri Jesu Christi quatinus et hie fructum bone actionis percipiant 
et apud di.strictuni iudiccm preniia ot^rne pacis inueniant. Amen. 

Datum Dublin : 

John of Salernum (Giovanni di Salerno) was papal legate in Ireland, and held 
a Synod at Dublin in the year 1202,' which may therefore be taken as the date of 
this instrument. His seal is still attached (see Plate II). The legend is much 
injured, but seems to have been as follows : — 

s' ras d' sai.'s(o) SCI stkp(ha.m) i cel' mote pbbi (cabd') 

Of the granges or farms specified, we have already had in no. i, Cellainni 
(Killenny), Mnlendinum Morain, and Dunnini. 

The abbot was Thomas ; as we learn from Charter 6, the abbot's name in 1204 
was Iman. 

' Annals Loch CV : cf. C.D.I, i, 168 ; C.M.A. i, 11.} ; and R.T.A. 223. 

Bernard — The Charters of the Abbey of Duislce. 1 1 


Grant, by Alan Beg, for the good of his soul, to the abbey of Killenny, of 
an acre of land with the houses which the monks have possessed for a 
long time, and a fishpond whicli lie gives to the infirmary of the 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Alanus Beg dedi et coneessi et hac 
mea preseuti carta confirmaui pro salute anime mee et autecessorum meorum 
Deo, et beate Marie et Abbati de Valle Dei, et monachis ibidem deo seruien- 
tibus, unam ncram terre cum domibias quas multo tempore possiderunt, cum 
una piscaria quam dedi infirmitorio predictorum monachorum tenendumf et 
habendmnt de me et heredibus meis tibi et successoribas suis in puram et 
perpetuam elemosinam [libere] et quiete integre et pleuarie honorifice et 
pacifice et absque omui 3ecula[ri ejxactione. 

Et ut hec donatio mea rata et inconcussa permaneat illam sigilli mei 
munimine corroboraui. 

Hiis lestibus, Eanulfo rectore ecclesie de Baligauran, Thoma Buluin, 
Symone capellano, Thoma cisore de Balligauran, Willelmo capellano, qui 
banc cartam scripsit, et multis aliis. 

This Charter is undated, but it was probably executed about the year 1220. 
Alan Beg's seal is still attached (see Plate II). 

The name Beg (or Beck) is the Irish equivalent of Parvus or le Petit, and one 
WilHam le Petit is said to have been Chief Governor of Ireland in the last decade 
of the twelfth century. Alan Beg, who appears here and in Charters 13, 14, was 
perhaps of the same family.' His wife's name was Nesta.= He held lands in the 
baronies of Idrone and of Forth, co. Carlow ; and he was a witness to various 
charters by which churches in the diocese of Leighlin were appropriated to 
St. Thomas' Abbey, Dublin, between the years 1200 and 1205.^ He also 
witnessed a Charter of St. Mary's Abbey about 1202.' 

The three Charters of Alan Beg printed in this collection (nos. iii. 13, 14) are 
all witnessed by Fialph the rector of Gotvran ; and the Charter now before us is 
also witnessed by Thomas Cisor, or Thomas the Tailor, of the same place. Alan's 
property was in that neighbourhood.* 

Ealph, the rector or parson of Goicran, appears again in that position in 1227 
and 1228.'^ He was a witness to Charters of St. Thomas' Abbey before the year 

' The family of le Petit had close associations with Meath. Ralph le Petit was arch- 
deacon of that diocese for nearly forty years, aud became bishop iu 1227. He may be 
the ' Banulfus ' who is mentioned along with ' A. Beg ' (possibly the Alan of this 
Charter, but more probably the Adam Beg who witnessed charters printed in R.T.A. 
21, 22), as interested in property in INIeath, in a charter of St. Mary's Abbey (i, 158) 
granted before 1194 and confirmed in 12(Jl. But he is not to be identitied with Ralph, 
the rector of Gowran. 

- Charter 13. ^ See R.T.A. 105, 107, 113. * CM. A. i. 113. 

' See no. 14, below, for his laud at Ullard. " See Charters 13, 23, 28, below. 


12 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

1228.' His tombstone, a huge slab with the recumbent effigy of an ecclesiastic 
in vestments, is still to be seen in Gowran Church, with the curious inscription in 
hexameters : 

" Dum uixit sanus, Badoulfus erat Julianus 

Dum uisit sospes, Kuptis fuerat pius hospes, 

anno domini Mccun xim Kal. April." 

This inscription gives the date of bis death, 1253, and the appointment of bis 
successor is dealt with in a Koyal letter of 11 Feb., 1253-4. 

These are all the records that remain of the earlier days of tlie liiilc 
abbey of Killenny, which was an Irish house founded by an Irish chieftain. 
Wc have now to trace the history of the more important abbey of Duiske or 
Graiguenamanagh, founded by an Englishman for English monks, which was 
soon to absorb tlie smaller and poorer monastery, established forty years 
before the richer house. 

V. — The Cuarteks of Duiske. 

Bichard Fitz Gilbert, earl of Clare, lx;tter known as 'Strongbow,' was the 
Hret of the great Anglo-Norman adventurere in Ireland. He arrived in the 
country in 11 70, at the invitation of Dermot Mac Murrougli, King of J^einster, 
who was at the time hard Itcset by his rivals ; and he married Dermol's only 
daughter Eva, thus becoming, at Dermot's death, the overlord of the Irish 
Kingdom of Ix'inster. When he died in 1176, he left no son ; and his only 
daughter, Isabella, married in 1189 William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, who 
thus l)ecame nia.stcr of a splendid inheritance. William Mar.shal was a truly 
great man, who knew how Uj rule ; and his companions an<l helpers in the 
difhcult task of reducing Leinster were, many of them, capable and vigorous 
in their administration of the lands which tliey held iis his feudatories. 

It wa-s through these feudatories that William Maishal governed his fief 
for a good many years, and his only prolonged resilience in Ireland was from 
1207 It" 12l;3.' His policy was always directed towards the establishment of 
English law and custom, both in civil and ecclesiastical affairs; and to this 
end he gave charters after the Anglo-Norman fashion to the pnncipal towns 
in his territory. He brought monks from England to the Cistercian houses 
which he endowed. One of those was Tintern Minor in co. Wexford, founded 
from the greater Tintem in Monmouthshire , and the other was the abbey of 
Duiske in co. Kilkenny, which he filled with monks from the abbey of Stanley 
in Wiltshiie. 

' R.T A. 132, 133, 134. 

' See Urpen, IreUitid under the Normam, ii, 2U7. 

Bkknaiji) — The Charters of the Abbeij of Duiske. 13 

In the Chronicles of the abbey of Stanley, there is an entry which tells of 
the beginning of the abbey of Duiske : 

"A.n. nicciiij. Uoc eodem anno elcctus est conucntus nonus in Stanlcye 
in "Wiltesira cum abbatc proprio, scilicet uenerabili uiro, IJadulfo, x Kalendas 
Augusti, et in llyberniani missus in provinciam Ostricensem' ad locum qui 
uocatur Sancti Saluatoris, quem dcdit eis bonae memoriae uir "Willelmus 
^rarescallus comes de Penbruc, cuni aliis terris plurimis. 

Eodem anno depositus est dominus N[icholaus] abbas Stauleya; a capilulo 
Cistercii, eo quod duxit conuentnm in llyberniani absque lieentia capituli."- 

We must put beside this entry (made originally by a Cistercian monk of 
Stanley) another from the Extracts from the Duiske Register (F) : 

" 1204. Conuentus de Stanleya uenit in Hiberniara, qui primo habitauit 
apud Lochmeran iuxta Kilkenniam, deinde apud Athnamolt, postea apud 
Castrum, ultimo in loco ulii nunc sunt, dicto Duisque alias Sancti Saluatoris." 

These notices seem to indicate that there were two migrations of monks 
from Stanley to the county of Kilkenny. The first of these was attended by 
some irregularity and did not receive the sanction of the Cistercian chapter ; 
but the second was fully authorized and led to the establishment of a daughter 
house at Duiske, on ground given by William Marshal. In any case, monks 
from Stanley first settled in Loughmeran, a townland about two miles north 
of the city of Kilkenny, which formed part of Earl Marshal's castle farm. 
Thence they moved to Athermolt or Annamult, as it is now called, which is 
situated about six miles south of Kilkenny, to the west of the river Nore. 
Dr. Carrigan^ thinks that traces of its occupation by the monks may still be 
seen at Annamult, in the ruined building locally called the ' Eriars' Barn.' 
As we shall see (p. 17), Annamult afterwards became annexed to the abbey 
of Duiske as a grange or farm ; so that it is not surprising that the memory 
of the monks should have lingered there, but that they should be confused in 
local tradition with the friars or mendicant orders is curious. 

The next halting-place, mentioned in the Duiske Eegisters above quoted 
as ' Castri,' was Grange Castri near Tulachany, now in the parish of Grange, 
adjoining Castleinch, a little to the north-west of Annamult. All these 
places were in William Marshal's territory, and were subsequently granted 
by him to Duiske Abbey. Probably the Cistercians from Stanley occupied 
them only for a short period, wliile the abbey buildings were being erected 
in the east of eo. Kilkenny. 

' I.e. Ossoriensem ; see p. 25, infra. 

- Chronicles of the reign of Stephen, Henry II, &c., ed. K. Hewlett (Rolls Series), 
vol. ii, p. 508 ; tho quotation is taken from MS. Bodl. Digby 11. 
^ Carrigan, iii, 373. 

14 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Bun Duiske (which is the Irish for ' the Mouth of the Black Water ') is 
beautifully situated on the western bank of the river Barrow, which divides 
the county of Kilkenny from that of Carlow. It is now called Graiguena- 
managh, or ' the Grange of the Monks.'' We learn from Charter Xo. 6 that 
a cemetery was consecrated here for the monks on 6 June, 1204, so that the 
land must have been granted to the new convent by William Marshal before 
that dat«, or (at any rate) a promise must have been made by him upon 
which the monks felt they could rely with confidence. 

The earliest extant charter embodies a quittance of claim upon land at 
Duiske, which was essential as a pieliminary to its transfer to the convent. 

Quit claim by GeodVoy Fil/.Eobort in respect of the lands of Duiske and 
Anuamult to William Mar.shal, carl of I'embroke, and his Cistercian 
monks from Stanley, for the abbey to be founded in honour of the 

Galfridus tilius KolKJrli omnibus amicis et hominibus suis ad quos presens 
scriptum pcruencrit sahitcm. 

Sciatis ijuod ego rclaxaui la cnuolani claniaui unmein demandam cum 
omni iurc clr Ciilumpnia totA quam liabiii in terra de Duwisky, et in terra 
similiter de Alhermolt, domino mco Guillclino Marescallo Comiti Pembroc et 
monachis suis Cisterciensis ordinis do Stanleg, de me et heredibus meis sine 
omni reclauialione in porpetuum, ad abbatiam suam fundandam in houore 
Sancti Saluatoris. 

Et ut hoc ratum permaneat et stabile in pcrpctuum in testimonium 
predict*! relaxalionis sigillum meum presenti scripto apposni. 

Hiis t«stiliu8 llugone episcopo Ossoriensi, Johanne Marescallo, lladulfo 
Bloet, Johanne Luix), Nicholao Aucnol, Thoma de Kocheford, Willelmo de 
Boseuille, Eustacio capellano, Thoma filio Anlonii, Bicardo l'an(nin), Odone 
Archidiacono, Herberto et Michaelc, clericis comitis, et aliis. 

William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, did not take up bis fief in Ireland until 
early in 1207,' but this instrument was probably executed before his arrival, and 
may be dated in the year 1204. The grantor, Geoffrey Fiiz Iloberl, was one of 
William Marshal's knights and at one time his seneschal. Later, he attested the 
Earl's charters to Kilkenny' and to Dunbrody Abbey,* and he died about 1211.' 
He was Baron of Kells and the founder of Kells Priory for Austin canons, whom 
be imported from Bodmin in Cornwall. One of these was Hugh Hiiftis, or le Rous, 

' Hogan'fi Onomasticon gives a different derivation, viz., that Graiguenamanagh 
= Graig-na-l>reathnach , 'the Grange of the Britons,' i.e. the Welsh colonists who 
settled there. 

- Orpen, Irelnud under the Normans, ii, 209. 

' Chartae, p. 34. • CM. A. ii. 160. ^ Orpen, I.e., ii, 26fl. 

Bernard — The Charters of the Abhei/ of Duiske. 15 

who was the second Prior and became bishop of Ossory in 1202, being the first 
Anglo-Norman prelate who governed that see. He was in England in June, 1204 
(see Charter G), and apparently did not return nnlil 1207,' so that this instrument, 
which was evidently executed in Ireland, is perhaps prior to the former date. He 
died in 1218, and was buried at Kells. 

John Marslial, the second witness, was William Marshal's nephew, and had 
licence to go to Ireland about April, 1204, and to remain tiiere on the earl's service.^ 
He witnessed charters granted by William Marshal to St. Thomas' Abbey, Dublin,' 
to Tintern Abbey, ^ and to the city of Kilkenny,' as well as the charter given to 
Carlow by William Marshal the second.'"' He died in 1235.' 

Fuili^h Bluet was a witness to a charter of Eiobard Fitz Gilbert (Strongbow) 
before 1176,* and also to some grants made by William Marshal." 

John L/upus, or Wolf, or de Low, may have been a Idnsman of an ecclesiastic 
of the same name who was Dean of Ossory at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, and who appears in Charter 94. Cf. p. 42. 

Nicholas A vend may perhaps be the man of that name who held land at 
Kilferagh, co. Kilkenny, of Kichard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, one of the heirs 
of the Marshal family, in 1247.'" 

Thomas de Eorhfort held lands by similar tenure at the same date, in Laver- 
tach, CO. Kilkenny." He was a fellow witness with Kalph Bluet to two charters 
mentioned already.'- It is possible that he is to be identified with Thomas de 
Rochfort, Constable of Bristol, who appears in 1204.'-' 

Eustace, chaplain, witnessed William Marshal's Protection to Dunbrody 
Abbey," and is perhaps the same man as Eustace de Bartolomoute who appears in 
Charters 3 and 4. 

Thomas Fitz Anthony was one of William Marshal's principal tenants, and 
became his seneschal, probably succeeding Geoffrey Fitz Eobert in that office in 
1211. He had the manor of Grenan, which was on that account called Thomas- 
town in later times. He was a witness to several charters of William Marshal the 
elder and William Marshal the younger." He died in 1229. 

Richard Fannin witnessed William Marshal the elder's charter to Kilkenny 
between 1207 and 1211 ;'" he was dead in 1234." Thomas Fannin his sou held 
Marshal lands in 1247 in Glothementhan (Clomantagh), co. Kilkenny.'" 

' Odone Archidiacono ' does not represent the name of an ecclesiastic. Odo 
I'Ercedekne was one of the Anglo-Norman adventurers, whose son. Sir Stephen 
I'Ercedekne, married one of the daughters of Thomas Fitz Anthony, and held 
property in Ballyragget, co. Kilkenny. The family were proud of their descent, 
and in later times changed their name to ' Mac Odo,' in honour of their founder. 
This has been corrupted into ' Cody,' now a common surname in the south of 

' In April, 1207, we have a record of " letters of simple protection for Hugh bisho]) 
of Ossory " (C.D.I, i, a2G). - Orpen, I.e., ii, 207 ; C.D.I, i, 210. = U.T.A. 119. 

■• Qiartae, &c., p. 80. ^ Ghartae, &c., p. 34. " Chartae, &c., p. 38. 

' See D.N.B. s.v. ' Marshal, John.' « C.M.A. i, 258. 

» R.T.A. 137, 357 ; cf. C.D.I, i, 387. 1123, 1226, 1318. '" C.M.A. ii, 405. 

" Ibid. '■; R.T.A. 137, 356. " C.D.I, i, 208. 

11 C.M.A. ii, 160. I'' Cf. Cliartae, &c., pp. 34, 38. "'■ Chartae, &c., p. 34. 

1- C.D.I, i, 2212. 18 C.M.A. ii, 404. 

16 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

L-eland. Odo I'Ercedekne seems to have died about 1217.' He also witnessed 
William Marshal's Charter to Kilkenny. 

Herbert, one of William Marshal's clerks, appears as such iu his Protection to 
Dunbrody Abbey.' 


Quit claim by Adam Fitz Sinnott in respect of liis land at Annamult to 
his lord, William ilarshal, and to the monks of Stanley, for the abbey 
to be founded in honour of the Saviour, it being provided that he and 
his heirs may for ever appoint a monk to the said abbey, who can 
speak the English tongue. 

Omnibus ad quos presens scriptum perueuerit Adam filius Sinath 

Sciatis fjuod ego rclaxaui et ijuietam clamaui omnem demandani cum 
onini iure et calumpniu tota ijuam habui in terra de Athermolt, domino meo 
AVillehno Maiescallo Comiti Pembroke, et monachis suis Cisterciensis ordinis 
de Stanleghe, de me et hercdibus meis sine omni rcclamatione in perpetuum 
in auxilium abbatie sue fundande in honorem Sancti Saluatoris. 

Et ut lioc ratum i^eruaneat et stabile in testimonium predicte relaxationis 
sigillum mcum presenti script" apjiosui. Hanc autem relaxationem et quietam 
clamationem feci in Coniitatu Wcscfordie. 

Predicti uero monachi concesseruut michi, recepturos se monachum unuin 
ad prcsentationem mcam et heredum meorum succe-ssiuc in perpetuum, qui 
tamen de lingua Anglica sit, et iduneus ad scruitium Dei in codeni monasterio 
faciendum ; et iude michi cartam suam fecerunt. 

Hiis testibus Tlmnui filio Antonii, Domino Johanne abbate de Voto, 
Willclmo CJras,so, tJuidone de Cultura, Roberto Mansello, Nicliolao de 
Inteberga, Rogero filio Euerardi, Eustachio de Bertolomonte, Willelmo de 
Cromhale, Philippe clerico, Waltero clerico, et multis aliis. 

This instrument, like the la.<)t, is prior to the foundation of tlie abbey of Duiske, 
and is about the .same date, viz., 1204. 

Adam Fitz Sinnott was probably of Flemish descent. His son, David, was 
crranted lands in Shclmnlicr East, co. Wexford, about the year 1215 by Gerald 
Roche.' In after times Sinnott was a well-known Wexford name. 

For Thomas Fitz Anthony see p. 16. 

John Terrell was the first abbot of Tintem, which was founded by William 
Marshal, about the year 1200.' 

William Crassus or Ic Gras was a member of a considerable family at 
Sodbury in Gloucestershire, who were kinsmen of the Marshals. There were four 
brothers, one of whom was bishop of St. Davids from 1230 to 1247. The other 

' R.T.A. 1.^3. » C.M.A. ii, 160. ' See Anwmry (1868-9), R.S.A.I., p. 62 n. 

* See C.M.A. ii, 3<)7. Mr. Orpen points out that William Marshal's charter to 
Tintern is probribly later {I.e. ii, 207). 

Bernard — The Charters of the Alley of Duisl-e. 17 

three — William senior, William junior, and Ilamo— apparently came to Ireland 
in William Marslial's train, and their names often appear as witnesses to the 
Marshal charters.' One of the family held Marshal lands at Ofl'erlanc, Queen's 
Co., in 1247;'' and they settled finally at Tullaroan, co. Kilkenny. They were the 
ancestors of the Graces of Courtstown, a well-known Kilkenny family.^ William 
le Gras senior, who appears here, became seneschal of Leinster (see Charters VA, 
14), and lived at any rate up to 1235.^ 

&U1J de CuUura appears again in no. 9. Cultura may be the Latinised form 
of Couture, in the diocese of Mans, where there was a Benedictine monastery. 

Nicholas de Hinteberg. The family of Hinteberg or Henneberry, as it came to 
be called, were settled at the beginning of the fourteenth century in the parish of 
Owning, in the barony of Overk, eo. Kilkenny ; and the townland of Ballyhenne- 
berry preserves their name to this day. Nicholas appears again as a witness to 
Charter 16. 

Boger Fitz Everard witnessed a charter of William Marshal the elder, being a 
release to Hugh bishop of Ossory, another witness being Thomas Fitz Anthony. ' 

Eustace de Bartolomonte, who appears again in Charters 3 and 4, witnessed 
also a grant by Thomas Fitz Anthony to Dunbrody Abbey." See p. 15, above. 

Philip the clerk, who appears again in Charters 9, 18, 14, was a witness to 
William Marshal the elder's Charters to Dunbrody' and Tintern.* 

This deed is mentioned in the extracts from the Duiske registers (E), where it 
is described as " Relaxatio Adami filii Sinath in comitatu Wesefordiae." It had 
one seal, which has disappeared. 



Charter of Foundation, by William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, of the 
monastery of St. Saviour, in honour of God and of tlie B.V.M., for 
Cistercian monks at Duiske ; 

Granting them, for the good of his soul and that of his wife 
Isabella, &c., the land of Duiske, eleven carueates at Annamnlt, ten 
carucates held by Stephen de Valle near Kilkenny, a burgage in 
Kilkenny, one in Wexford, and one in the Island ; and confirnnng to 
the abbey all that it may hereafter acquire by donation or purchase ; 

All the foregoing to be held with churches and chapels and all 
liberties and free customs, soch, sach, tlioll, theam and iufaugenetheof, 
with freedom in land and water ; 

Tlie monks to be exempt, themselves, their men and servants, from 
geld, denegeld, fines, payment of cows for heads of outlaws, and \-arious 
specified exactions, aids and contributions ; 

1 See Chartae, &c., pp. 34, 38, 85. ^ Q.M. A. ii, 405. ^ gee Can-igan, iii, 498 ff. 
■' Gormanston Reg., fol. 208. For other references to Wilhiim Cnissu.s senior, :iiul 
Hamo Crassus, see BQijal Letters llinry III, vol. i, pp. 2'Jl, -120, 441, 501, 525. 

'^ See Inq. P.M. 54 Henry TIT, no. 04. " CM. A. ii, 1!)3. " CM. A. ii, 158. 

8 Chartae, &c., p. 80. 

R.l.A. PROC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. C, [8] 

18 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The abbey and its tenants not to be subject to forest regulations, 
and the monks to have all forfeitures of their own men, jurisdiction of 
life and limb to be retained by the Founder and his heirs, through all 
whose forests they are to have free pasture for their hogs, and materials 
for building and firing ; 

Those who molest or aggrieve the monks to incur a fine of 10 marks, 
and the malediction of God and the Founder. 

Willelmus Marescallus Comes de Pembroc nninersis hominibus suis 
Francis et Anglis Walensibus et Hybernieusibus et omnibus araicis et 
fidelibus suis saluteni. 

Sciatis me pro amore dei et pro salute anime mee, et pro salute Isabelle 
uxoris mee ac liberorum nostrorum, et pro animabus omnium antecessoruni 
et successorum nostrorum, fi\ndasse in honorem del et beate Marie uirginis 
et matris domini ablmLiam Sancti Salualoris de online monachoium Cistcr- 
ciensium in terra Dowisky, et eidera abbatie cum assensu et uoluntate prono- 
minalo T. uxoris nice.dcilisse pL concessiso et in puram et perpetuam elemosinani 
carta mea prosenti confinnasso, lotani ilhini terram Dowisky cum perlinoniiis 
suis, et Ilathohnolt pro undccim carrucatis terre, et tei'ram quam Stephanus 
do Vullo tonuit iuxta Kylkcnni pro dccem carrucatis terre, unrnn i|iin(|iio 
burgiigiuni in Kylkenni ct aliud in Wescford et tertiuni in Insula. eidem abbatie et carta mea preseiiti confirmaui quicquid ei 
potuerit in futuro pia donatione sou uenditione fidelium, saluo seniilio moo et 
horeduni mci>rum, jieruenire. 

Vole igitur ct flrmilcr st^ituo ut abbatia preuominata, et abbfis et monachi 
ipsius loci, haboanl ct loncant omnos ]»redict^i8 terras ct tenemcnta ]>rfMK)mi- 
nala, cum ecelesiis el capellis et omniliu.s lil)erLatibu8 et liberis consuetuiUnibus 
suis, et cum socha et socha et toll, et theam et infangenetheof, bene et in 
pace, liberc ct quietc, plenarie et intogre ct honorifice ; in bosco et in piano, 
in pratis et jiasturis, in aquis et molendinis, in stagnis et uiuariis, in mariseis 
et piscariis et gliseriis, in grangiis et uirgultis in uiis et semitis, infra burgum 
et extra ct in omnibus aliis locis et rebus. 

El sinl quieli, ipsi el homines et seruientes sui, et res et possessiones eorum, 
de geld et deugeld, et ramdro et latrocinio, et de peeunia que ad murdrum 
pertinet, nel ad lalrociniiim, et de uaccarum solutionc quam dari solebant pro 
capitibus ullagoruni, ct de scuagio et hidagio et carruagio et cornagio, et 
summagio et huliban, et scyria et hundredis, et de sectis scyrarum et hundre- 
dorum, et de exercilibus et aasisis, et summonitionibus, et de tesauro ducendo, 
et de auxiliis lucecomitum ct omnium seruientium suorum, et omnibus aliis 
auxiliis, et de operationibus caslellorum et pontium, et parcorum, et murorum 
et uiuariorum, et de misericordia comitatu.s, et de telonio, et pontagio et 
passagio et lestagio et sUUagio et tallagio, et de clausuris, et de werdpeni, 
et hauerpeni, et thethingpeni, et blodwite et fichtwite et hengwite et 

Bkrnard — The Charters of the Abbey of Duiske. 19 

Et sit ipsa abbatia cum omnibus tenementis suis extra forestam et omnino 
sine regardo forestarie. Et liceat eisdem monachis de boscho et in omni bosco 
suo, de aquis et in a(|uis suis quicquid uoluerint faccrc. Et sint liberi ab 
omni uexatione et penitus extra dangeriuni foiestavioium et omnium aliorum 
seruientuni terre, de pastu, uidelicet, et omnibus aliis exactionibus quas 
forestaiii et alii seruientes lene solent exigere, et de omnibus querelis et 
placitis et occasiouibus et consuetudinibus, et de omni seruili opeie et seculari 

Et habeant sibi omuimodani forisfacturam propriovum hominum suorum, 
sola iusticia uite et membrorum mihi et heredibus meis letenta. 

Et per omnes forestas meas pasturam habeant porcorum suorum quietam 
a pannagio, et quicquid ad ardendum et ad edificandum babueriut neces- 

Si quis uero uel in presenti uel in futuio quiequam de his que predicte 
abbatie concessi calumpniatus fuerit, non tenebuntur inde monachi respondere, 
sed ad me pertinebitetad heredes meos calumpuiatoribus eorum uelescambio 
uel alio rationabili modo satisfacere, monachisque quicquid eis donaui guaran- 
tizare et integrum eonseruare. 

Districte ergo prohibeo super forisfacturam meam, uidelicet decern mar- 
carum, ne quis eos uel homines suos aut seruientes suos aut res aut posses- 
siones eorum maliciose uexet aut grauet uel in aliqua re disturbet. Quod si 
quis facere presumpserit dei maledictionem et meam similiter et forisfacturam 
premonstratam se nouerit incidisse. 

Quicunque uero locum ipsum et elemosinam meam eidem assiguatam pro- 
mouerint sine manu tenueriut, cum dei benedictione et mea remuneratiouem 
eternam inueniant. 

Testibus Domino Albino episcopo Fernensi et Hugone Oxeriensi, Johanne 
ilariscallo, Johanne de Erleg, "Willelmo de Lundon, Eadulpho de Bendeuill, 
Mylone filio episcopi, Philippe Prendelgast, Thoma filio Autonii, Waltero 
Porcell, Willelmo de Sancto Leodegario, Thoma de Dumnier, Mauritio de 
Lundon, Andrea Auenel, Willelmo de Cantinton, Johanne de Penriz, Eustachio 
de Bertrimmunt, Terrico de Niuer', Thoma Piussel et multis aliis. 

This charter was executed in Ireland, as the names of the witnesses indicate, 
and it may be dated shortly after William Marshal's arrival to take up his fief in 
1207. Its terms were closely followed by Walter Marshal, the founder's son, in 
his charter to Dunbrody Abbey' about 12-11. 

The Saxon legal terms employed arc common in deeds of this nature. ' Socha' 
is from the Saxon • soch,' which means ' liberty,' sc. to minister justice. ' Sacha ' 
is from ' sac,' a ' cause,' and denotes the privilege which the lord of a manor had 
of holding pleas in causes of debate among his vassals. ' Toll ' implies liberty to 
take ' custom ' and to be exempt therefrom. ' Theam ' is from ' tymau,' to bring 
forth, and has to do with the powers of the lord of the manor over his vassals and 
their children. ' Infangenetheof ' denotes the liberty to try a thief for offences 
committed within the estate. 

' C.M.A. ii, 162. 


20 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

All the early douations of land to the convent were, like this the first, given 
' pro salute animae ' of the donor and his relatives. They were made ' in puram 
et perpetuam elemosynam,' and there was no question of any return by way of 
rent or the like, for the first half century of the life of the abbey. Thereafter 
leases begin to appear among the abbey muniments, no. 61 being the first granted 
by an individual of which we have a record. 

William Marshal's seal is still attached to the charter, which is mentioned (as 
is natural) in the Extracts from the Duiske registers (E, F, L|. 

Cistercian abbeys were always dedicated to God and the Blessed Virgin Mary ; 
and they were generally given some special title in addiliou. Thus Baltinglass was 
' de Valle Salutis,' Killenny was 'de Valle Dei,' and Duiske, with which we are 
particularly concerned, was ' de Valle sancti Saluatoris.' 

It has been already explained (p. 12) that it was through his wife Isabella, 
Strongbow's daughter, that William Marshal obtained his vast possessions. 

A carucate contained about 120 Irish acres ; and of the eleven carucates granted 
lit Annavudt, charters 1 and 2 have told of quit claims by former tenants. 

The land held by Stephen de Valle was at Tulachany (see further, p. 21), or 
Grange, in the barony of Shillelogher, co. Kilkenny, a district already mentioned 
(p. 18) as one of the temporary resting-places of the monks from Stanley, before 
the abbey of Duiske was built. In 12-17 we find John de Valle holding Marshal 
lands at Tulachany,' and the family — variously known as do Valle, Wale, Wall, 
Veal, or Calf — remained there for centuries. Stephen de Valle appears elsewhere 
as a witness, along with Alan Beg, to a Charter of William do Burg, who died in 

The district known as the Islaitd was part of the parish of Kihuokca in the 
barony of bhelburne, co. Wexford ; it is no longer separated from the mainland, as 
the channel has long since been filled up. 

Most of the witnesses to this important charter were considerable people : 

Albin WMolloy, bishop of Ferns, was the lost Celtic bishop of that see. He had 
been formerly abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Baltinglass, and had in 1204 
(see Charier 6) already consecrated a cemetery for his brother Cistercians at Duiske. 
He ruled the see of Ferns from llHG to 1223. 

For Uutjh Ic Koits, bishop of Ossory, and John Marshal, see p. 15, above. 

Johji d'Erlie, so called from Early in Berkshire, was one of William Marshal's 
most trusted followers. He came to Ireland with his lord in February, 1207, and 
was entrusted with the cu.stody of southirn Leinster when the earl was summoned 
back to England by King .John. Ho witnessed the Charters granted to Kilkenny, 
and to Dunbrody and Tintern abbeys. He obtained the estate, now known as 
Earlston, in the barony of Shillelogher, co. Kilkenny, from an earlier Anglo- 
Norman grantee. He was probably alive in 1228 (see Charter 25). 

Williajn de Ixmdon was possibly a kinsman of Henry de Londres, who was 
archbishop of Dublin from 1218 to 1228; he appears as a witness to a charter 
granted by that prelate.' He also witnessed King .John's charter to Dublin in 
1200,' and William Marshal's charter to Tintern,' as well as two deeds preser\'ed 
in the archives of Christ Church, Dublin.' 

' C.M.A. ii. 405. 2 R.T.A. 105. ' R.T.A. 280 ; cf. 57. (i8. 

* Churtat, &<:., p. 12. ■' Ibid., p. 80. « Kos. 28, 29. 

BuKNAKD — The Charters of the Abbeij of Duiskc. 21 

llalph dc Ucndavillc appears as Archdeacon of Lcighlin in 1210, but lie had not 
reached that dignity when ho witnessed this instrument (cf. Charter 7). He 
appears earlier as witnessing a charter granted by Strongbow (before 1176).' 

For Milo Fits Bishop see p. 8, and for Thomas Fitz Anthony p. 15. 

Philip de Prendcrgast was son of Maurice de Prendergasi;, from the Flemish 
colony in Pembrokeshire, who had been granted land near Wexford by Strongbow. 
Philip, who was one of William Marshal's men (although not uniformly loyal to his 
lord), married Matilda de Queney (see Charter 18) in 1108, and thus became lord 
of the manor of Enniscorthy. He appears frequently as a witness to charters of 
this period.- He died in 1229. 

Walter Parcell was another of William Marshal's men. He held land adjoining 
that of the St. Legers in co. Kilkenny,^ and was the founder of a well-known 
Kilkenny family. He appears as seneschal of Leinster in 1219,* and as witness to 
many charters varying in date from 1200^ to 1202. 

William dc St. Lcger was granted the parish of Tullaghanbrogue, co. Kilkenny, 
at the invasion ; and the family kept the property until the Cromwellian confisca- 
tions, when it was given to the Cuffes. Geoffrey St. Leger, bishop of Ossory from 
1260 to 1287, was presumably of the same stock. William was a benefactor to St. 
Thomas' Abbey, ° and either he or his sou (who had the same name) made a grant to 
the convent of Duiske (see Charter 48). 

Thomas de Dimmer may have been of the kin of Philip Dumer, who held 
Marshal lands at Dysert, co. Kilkenny, in 1247." 

Maurice dc London witnessed King John's Charter to Dublin in 1200,* and 
William Marshal the elder's charters to Tintern" and to Duubrody,'" about 1208 ; 
as well as Walter Marshal's charter to the latter abbey in 1244." In Eichard 
Marshal's deforestation charter of 1233 he is named as holding land in the vicinity 
of Boss.'- He appears again (if this be the same man) in Charter 59. 

William dc Caunteton. The Cauntetons (or Condons, as they have been called 
in later times) acquired the lordship of Glasscarrig, near Gorey, co. Wexford, 
towards the end of the twelfth century. This William de Caunteton may be 
identified with the man of that name who witnessed grants to St. Thomas' Abbey 
before 1189," and about 1200." He is mentioned in Charter 14 as the husband of 
Cecilia, the daughter of Alan Beg (see p. 11, and further, p. 85). 

John de Pcnriz appears in the year 1205," as receiving a writ of Mort 
d' Ancestor against Theobald Walter, touching land in Arklow. 

For Eustace de Bartolomontc see p. 17. 


Amending Grant by William Marshal to the abbey of Duiske of land at 
Tulachany with Cluudaf, Kilmcggcth, and Liscrithan. 

This charter is identical with no. 8, except that the words in no. 8 " terram 

• CM. A. i, 258. - R.T.A. 155, 157, 214, 221, 226, 338 ; C.M.A. i, 30, 107, 109. 

3 R.T.A. 137, 35U. ' C.D.I, i, 873. ■ Chartat, p, 12. ° R.T.A. 48, 137. 

7 C.M.A. ii, 4U5. ^ Chartae, y. \2. ■' tVidWue, p. 80. •<> C.M.A. ii, 159. 

" C.M.A, ii, 164. '- C.M.A. ii, 157. " R.T.A. 205. 

» R.T.A. 112 ; cf. also 88. '" C.D.I, i, 280. 

22 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

quam Stepbanus de Valle tenuit," are replaced by the more specific description 
" et Tullachani cum pertiueutiis suis, scilicet Clundaf et Kilmeggeth et Liscrithan." 
The seal is intact, as in no. 3, and the witnesses are the same. The charter was 
apparently re-written to obviate any future dispute as to the extent of the lands 
granted at Tidachanij, which with its appurtenances constitutes the modern parish 
of Grange, co. Kilkenny. Kibneggeth is now called Kilmogg, or the Eace Course. 
See no. 107 for a complete description of the lands comprised in the Grange of 

A facsimile of this charter will be found in Gilbert's NatioJial Manuscripts of 
Ireland, pt. II, no. Ixix. 

Confirmation by Hu{ih le Rous, feishop of Ossory,'of William Marshal's 
grants of land to tlio abbey of Duiske, with the tithes of the chapels 
of Duiske an^il Anuaniult. 

H. dei gratia Ossoriensis cpiscopus omnibus Cluisti (idelibus ad fiuos 
presens carta peruenorit salutem et benedictioneni. 

Licet omnibus quibus deus preesse nos uoluit teneamur prodesse, maxime 
tauien illud nos coiiuenit paterne dilcctionis curam sollicitius impendere quos 
prcpollere nouimus artioris vite et religionis decore. Indo est quod dilectos 
filios nostros abbatcni et nionachos Sancti Salvatoris de Dowisky cum suis 
omnibus fratribus famulis bonis et beneficiis sub dei et nostra protectione 
suscepimus ; ot terras eoruia et omnia teuenientu tarn laicaquaniccclesiastica 
tarn mobilia (juam immobilia pie illuc a viro venerabili Willelmo MarcscuUo 
comite de I'embroc iam coiicessa vel in posterum concedenda, et nominatim 
capellos de Dowisky et de Atermolt, cum decimis, et aliis pertinentiis ad 
easdem capcllas spectantibiis, divine karitatis intuitu fratribus eisdem 
concessunus, et in perpctuum auctoritate pontiticali confirmauimus. 

Testibus capitulo de IStnnlcg, undo eos comes prenominatus ad fundamluin 
sibi cenobium in Hybeniiam accereuit, IJoberto de Kocre, Odone Arcliidiacoiio, 
Ricardo Fauiu, Reginaldo canonico de Bomine, Felice clerico, Radulpho 
Russei, Odone lilio Bencdicti, et Adam, seruientibus nostris, et multis aliis. 

Of this charter, portions of the seal remain. It is probably not much later 
than nos. 3 and i, and seems to have been executed in Ireland, whither the chapter 
of Stanley (or some of its members) had been brought by the earl for the founding 
of tlie monastery. The names of Odo I'Ercedekne and Richard Fannin, who 
witnessed William Marshal's charter lo Kilkenny about the same time, and also 
our Charter no. 1 (see p. 11), confirm this view of the place where the charier was 

licginald, cation of Bodmin, who also appears, was lieginald dc Aclond, one of 
four Austin canons whom Geoffrey Fitz Robert (see p. 14) brought over from 
Bodmin in Cornwall, for the priory which he founded at Kells. Reginald was the 
first prior, being succeeded by Hugh le Rous ; but when the latter was made Bishop 
of Ossory, be again became prior (see no. 9), and appears as late as 1229 in that 

Bkrnard — The Chnrlers of the Alley of Duiske. 23 


Letters testimonial of IIiig]i lo Eons, bishop of Ossory, to the abbot of 
CiLeaux and the general chapter of the Cistercians ; setting forth ihat 
during liis absence in England and by his permission, Albin, bishop 
of Ferns, on 6 June, 1204, had dedicated a cemetery at Duiske on the 
land wliieh William Marslial had given for a monastery to monks 
from Stanley; and incorporating the Bishop of Ferns' certificate of 
the dedication, 'as well as the formal agreement of Gi'egory, abbot of 
Jerpoint, and Iman, abbot of Killenny, thereto. 

Viro nenerabili et uirtutum merifcis insigni domino abbati Cistercieusi 
sancteque congregationi capituli eiusdem generalis, H. diuine done gratie 
Ossoriensis episcopus cursu securitatis branium consequi felicitatis eterne. 

Cum in perhibeudo ueritati testimonio omni humane creature simus 
debitores in eorum negociis promouendis, adhuc promptiores teuemur inuenire, 
quorum fundatio patrie ad securitatem, quorum sustentatio tarn diuitibus 
quam pauperibus ad solamen, quorum prorsus conuersatio dei creuit ad 
gloriam et honorem. 

Hinc est quod petentibus in nobis dilectis filiis nostris sacri ordinis uestri 
uiris religiosis, abbate scilicet et conuentu de Valle Sancti Saluatoris, sancte 
congregationi capituli uestri generalis duximus testificandum quod cum uir 
illustris W. Marescallus Comes Pembroke nionasterium fuudasset memora- 
tum in Valle que nunc dicitur Sancti Saluatoris, et ex re quidemf nomen 
accepit cum prius esset locus horroris et uaste solitudinis, spelunca latronum 
et cubile sanguinis insidiantium, pro negociis nostris in Anglia constituti, 
archidiacono et officialibus nostris litteris pateutibus dedinius in mandatis 
ut si fratres monasterii predict! ante reditum nostrum in Hyberniam in 
fundationis sue loco cimiterium sibi desiderarent dedicari per uenerabilem 
fratrem nostrum Fernensem episcopuni, uel alium quemlibet antistitem 
transitum per uos facientem, hoc benigno auctoritate nostra permitterent 

Fratribus igitur memoratis hoc petentibus cum cimiterio ipsorum dedi- 
cando dominus Ferueusis meuioratus accessisset efc inter eiusdem loci 
monachos ex parte una et de Joriponte ac de Valle Dei abbates tunc ibidem 
presentes ex parte altera, de uicinitate loci questio oiiretur, tandem idem 
abbates sicut patuit ex post facto in consensum transeuntes, eidem dedicatioui 
faciende ipsi episcopo sine contradictione astiteruut et cooperati sunt, prout 
idem episcopus litteris suis patentibus protestatur, quas et oculis uidimus 
et manibus nostris contrectauimus sub tenore ac forma quam presenti pagine 
oensuimus inferendam : 

" Domino Cisterciensi et omnibus reuerendis patribus qui omni recursu 
temporis ad Cisterciensium couueuiunt capitulum, Albinus Dei gratia Fernensis 
de ordine Cisterciensi creatus episcopus, ad suani liliorumque salutem recta 
discernere in eo qui saluat rectos corde : 

24 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Xouerit uniuersitatis uestre prouidentia quod anno ab Ineamatione 
domini nn. tui Idus Junii in Osseria, ex permissione et auctoritate 
doniini Hugonis Ossoriensis episcopi, qui tunc temporis causa existente in 
Angliam transfretauerat, iuxta ripam fluminis Baiwo, eircumfluente populo, 
et assistentibus nobis et cooperantibus uenerabilibus fiatribus nostris 
Gregorio et Yman Sancte Marie de Jeriponte et Yalle Dei abbatibus, dedi- 
cationem eimiterii sollempniter celebrauimus in terra, uidelieet cui nomen 
est Adlatharan, et fuit quondam Bren Odowiskir, quani niniirum Willelmus 
Marescallus Comes de Pembrok ordini Cisterciensi ad construendam abba- 
tiain donauit Anglicis et Sancte Marie monachis de Stanleia in opus illud 
euocatis. Quamobrem eorum qui ibidem Deo seruituri sunt pei-petue paci et 
tranquillitati prospicientes, in omnes tquecumque t«nementa et alia bona ad 
suam et hospitum sustentationem et fundatione suo donata, sine que deinceps 
pia fidelium donalione consequi poterunt, diripiendo uel minuendo in eos 
malignari presumpsemnt anathematis sententiam protulinius ; omnes auteni 
qui sedula protectione q\iasc«imque eorum possessiones defensare el ut 
ijenigna etiam hirgifate augere uohierint Dei onmijxitcntis IjcnoJietioni 

Hec igitur in nostra ita soliicitudiiic coleliraKjrf i>eraeta declarauilo postcris 
scripto mandauimus, et sigillo nostro muniuimus, quatinus boni predictos Dei 

seruos et eorum successores propter mei-cedem diligere et benefieiis 

ad antur, et mali timore pene ab odio eorum et omni giauamine 

conpescanlur, littoras etiam abbalis de Jorijionte super uicinitaii^ concessas 
patentes qui abbatie de Valle Dei pat«r abbas est, in hec uerba uiderunt oculi 
nostri et manus nosti-e tractaueruiit : 

" Domino abbati tolique capitulo Cistercii frater G. dictus abbas de 
Joriponte totusque eiusdem loci conuentus salutem et deuotam obedientiam. 

Xoueritis nos : 'lis de Sancto Saluatore ut in terra 

Ua Duuiskir suam c i, am et grangias ad libitum suum con- 

stituant. Et ut omnia disceptandi occasio de uicinitate tollatur eandem 
con .- 'is carte geiierali capitulo 

dir ^ : -. Hanc tameu damus eis 

licentiam salua ordinis reuerentia. Qnoniam igitur abbatia pretaxata r^u- 

lari* ' ' • • J sanctitati uestre 

ceil- ,, , - lus gralie uestre commendata 

permaneat et ipsius promotioni efficiamini proniores, quod uironim inibi Deo 
ser- 'it opinio eo suauius noscitur redolere. 

Va'i'. _-r in Christo." 

A small piece of the seal of Bishop Hugh le Rous is still attached to this 
document, which presents several features of interest. 

Its tenor shows, in the first place, that the new abbey of Dniske was counted as 
being situate in the diocese of Oaory. Now the parish of Graiguenamanagh has 
always been regarded, since the beginning of the fourteenth century at any rate,' 

' It is not included in the Taxations of parishes in Oasory in 13U6 and 1318, which are 
given in the Red Book of Otaoty. Se« Charter 28, infra. 

liKRNAKD — 7%^ Charters of the Ahben of Diiiske. 25 

as belonging to the diocese of Leighlin. But throughout its history, the abbey of 

Duisko, as distinct from the parish which grew up around it, was counted as in 
Ossory diocese. This appears explicitly in the year 1245 ;' in 1254 ;'- in 130G, when 
the abbey is described in Charter 97 as of the diocese of Ossory, and when (as also 
in 1318) it was taxed with that diocese f in 13G2,' 1440,' 1460," 1475,' andl490,« 
tlie abbey being indicated in each of these years as " Ossoriensis diocesis." So it 
is described also in 1513, in the title of the Extracts from the Register which we 
call E.' Indeed as early as 1228, the Bishop of Leighlin formally renounced'" all 
claims against the abbey of Duiske, arising out of its absorption of Killenny, which 
was in his diocese. It was probably on account of the difficulties arising from the 
circumstance that the abbey and the parish of Graigue were not in the same diocese, 
that an instrument of date 1401 setting forth the boundaries of Leighlin was entered 
in the Duiske Registers." 

The description of the site of Duiske Abbey as " a place of horror and of a vast 
solitude, a cave of robbers, and the lair of those who lie in wait for blood" reads 
strangely to those who know it now as a beautiful and smiling valley. But it has 
always to be remembered, to the credit of the monks, here and elsewhere, that they 
did a great work in reclaiming and cultivating wild tracts of country. Many of the 
grants of land set out in subsequent charters were grants of bare moor and bog 
and mountain ; it was by the labours of the community at Duiske that they became 

The opening words of the certificate of Albin, bishop of Ferns, '= allude to the 
rule requiring all Cistercian abbots to attend annual chapters at Citeaux. This was 
modified for the Irish houses, the presence of three only of the Irish abbots being 
required, and the abbot of Mellifout being made responsible for their compliance 
with the regulation. '^ 

That it was necessary to obtain the consent of the neighbouring abbeys of 
Jerpoiut and Killenny, before a new establishment could be set up, was natural ; 
and the disputes between Duiske and these convents which continued for centuries 
show how far from a mere formality this consent was. There was really not room 
for three Cistercian houses in the same county, and this became plain very soon. 

The language of the consent by the abbots of Jerpoint and Killenny shows that 
in 1204 the abbey of Duislce had not yet been built. " Ut in terra Ua Duuiskir 
suam construant abbatiam " were the terms of their concession to their new 
neighbours and rivals." 

The date of Bishop Hugh's Letters Testimonial cannot be determined with 
precision, but it was probably later than that of William Marshal's Foundation 
Charter, which we ascribed, tentatively, to 1207. 

' Charter 53. - See p. Sfi. 3 gee p. 131. < Charter 99. 

'■• Charter 101. " Charter 103. ' Charter 104. -^ Charter 105. 

" See p. 154. '" Charter 28. 

" It is almost illegible, but its tenor is unmistakable. It i.s found both in E and in F. 
'- See p. 23. '" Staiuta Ord. Cisl. 1105, no. .56 (Martene, Tliesaurns iv, 12Sli)- 

" The local tradition is tliat the masons wont to Graiguenamanagh, as soon as thoy had 
completed the building at Jerpoint Abbey (Carrigan, iv, 294). 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. C. [4] 

36 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


Grant, with the consent of Hugli, bishop of Ossoiy, by R. de Beudeville, 
archdeacon of Leighlin, of the tithes of Annamult to the convent of 
Dniske, for a rent of one silver mark anmially. 

Hec est conuentio facta et determinata consilio et assensu H. Ossiriensii 
episcopi inter abbatem et monachos Cisterciensis ordinis de domo Sancte 
Sahiatoris quaiu dominus AV. MarescaUus fundauit in Osseria et E. de 
Beudeuille Leglinensem arcliidiaconum super deciniis de Adinolt: Scilicet 
quod dicti raouachi tenebunt et libere et quiete possidebunt dictas decimas 
reddendo inde annuatini dicto R. archidiacono unani niarcani ar^^enti ad 
festiini Sancti Micliaelis uel infra qiiindecini dies. 

Et ut hec conuentio rata et in posteruin inconciissa permaneat predicti 
monachi parti ciro^niphi, quani predietus R. hahet, sigilluin abbatis sni 
apposuerunt, ot nienioratus 11. parti qiiaui monachi habeiit sigilliini sinini 
apposuit, et sigillum domini H. Ossoriensis episcojii cum sigillo abbatis de 
Stanleclie utrique parti uppoui fecerunt. 

The three seals attached to this instrument have disappeared. 

For lialph dc Bcndcvillv, archdeacon of Leighlin, see p. 21. It is not apparent 
why he should have had any claim on the tithes of Annamult, which is in the 
middle of the diocese of Ossory. The grant was probably made about 12C!). 


Grant by Odo, dean of Kilkenny and his chapter, at the presentation of 
Hugh, bishop of Ossory, to the convent of Duiske, of the viil of 
Tikerlevan, with the cliurch, &c., for an annual rent to St. (Janice's 
Calhe<liiil of twenty shillings, to be paid half-yearly on St.Canice's Day 
(October 11) and Holy Cross Day (May 3). 

Omnibus Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum peruonerit 
O. Decanus de Kilkeiiiii et ejusdem loci capituhim eternani in domino 
salutem. Sciatis nos etconfirinasse ad prcsenlationem vcneiabihs 
patris nostri domini Hugonis Ossoriensi Episcopi deo et ecclesie Sancte 
Marie de Abbatia Sancti Saluatoris et dilectis in Ghristo fratribus ibidem deo 
seruientibus totam uillam de Staclimakerlewan cum ecclesia illius uille et 
cum omnibus ad cam pertinentibus, liabendam et tenendam in perpetuum 
integre plenarie et honorifice cum natiuis et omnibus libertatibus ; reddendo 
inde annuatim matrici ecclesie Ossoriensi uiginti solidos ad duos terminos pro 
omni seruicio et exactione uidelicet ad festuiu Sancti Kannici decem solidos 
et ad inuentionem Sancte Crucis decem. 

Nos autem remisimus et quietum clamauimus predictis fratribus clameum, 
quod habuimus adversus ipsos de terra in uilla de Tulahiiani. 

Bernard— 77;e Clutrlera oj I he Abbeij of Duiske. 27 

Et ut liec nostre confirniationis pagiiia iu postennn illibata pcrmaneat. 
earn presentis scripti testimonio et sipfilli nostri appositione corroborauimus. 

Eliis testibus Domino H. Loblioliiiensi episcopo, Willelmo Mavescallo 
coraite Pembrok, 0. Decauo do Kilkeuui, Gr. archuliacouo Ossorionsi, 0. Priore 
Sancti Johannis de Kilkeiini, Roberto de Baligauoran et Normanno, capellanis, 
Magistro Edmiindo, Eicai'do de Poiite clerico, Tlioina cleiico, et multis aliis. 

Ti-kerlcvan, or Stackmakerlevan,' is near Coppenagli in tho parisli of 
Graiguenamanagh. This presentation is confirmed in later charters (nos. 23, 
26, and U). 

As Hugh le Bous, bishop of Ossory (see p. 15), died in 1218, this instrument 
(of which tlie seal has disappeared) must have been executed before that year, but 
we can determine the date more exactly. 

The earliest deans and archdeacons of Ossory are not accurately given in 
Cotton's Fasti, but the additional information now provided in the published 
Register of St. Thomas' Abbey enables us to get a little nearer to the facts, 
although precise dates cannot be fixed. Confusion has been caused- by forgetful- 
ness of the circumstance that ArchicUacomcs often stands for the family name 
VErcedekne (see p. 15, above), and is not always the title of an ecclesiastic. 
Putting together the charters at pp. 135, 310, 814 of the Register of St. Thomas' 
Abbey, we reach the result that Odo or Hugh became Dean about 1216, and 
was succeeded by William in 1228. Of the Archdeacons, we have Reginald in 
1205 and 1215, succeeded in the latter year by Gilbert, to whom followed Odo 
about 1223, and Almaric (see no. 31) in 1228. 

Hence Odo, dean of Kilkenny,^ gives us 1216 as the earliest date for this 

H., bishop of LeighUn, the first witness, was Herlewin de Marisco, a Cistercian 
monk, who died in 1217, and was buried in Dunbrody Abbey.* This fixes the 
charter to the years 1216-1217. 

William Marshal, earl of Pembroke (see p. 12), died in 1219. His residence 
from 1213 was mainly in England, but this deed must have been witnessed during 
a brief visit to his lands in Ireland.* See the next charter (9). 

Osbcrt, the prior of St. John's, Kilkenny, a house of Austin Canons, founded by 
William Marshal senior, appears at various dates between 1202 and 1227." 

Robert of Gowran appears several times as attesting charters of St. Thomas' 
Abbey.' He is described variously as ' clericus ' and as ' officialis Ossorie.' 

Of the remaining witnesses, we know nothing. Richard de Pontc was probably 
' Richard of Ross,' Ross being often called Ros-ponte at this period. 

' The pfeli.x ta, ti, is often corrupted into sta, sti in the eastern counties of Ireland : 
e.g. Stillorgan = Tigh-Lorcain. 

2 See, e.g., Gilbert's note in R.T.A., 135. 

^ This is the older and more correct title. But for centuries tho Dean of tho Cathedral 
Church of St. Canice's has been called the " Doau of Ossory." 

■> C.M.A. ii, 280. '■ See Orpeu, ii, 218. 

■5 See Charters 9, 10, 13, U, 23, 2-1, and R.T.A. 132, 303, 322, 323. 

7 R.T.A. 132, 133, 136, 233, 313, and C.D.I, i, 1870 (under the year 1231). 

28 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadeim/. 

Convention made between Odo, dean of Kilkenny, with his Chapter and 
S. the abbot and convent of Duiske. The dean to hold the church of 
Tuldchany with lo acres of laud in that vill with tithes of the crops 
of the monks, and one acre of meadow for the tithes, greater and lesser, 
of the hay of their farmere : at the dean's death, the said church and 
all tithes to revert to the convent. For this, the monks are to pay to 
St. Caiiice's one mark of silver annually, for all customs and exactions 
which belong to the Bishop of Ossory and his officials, saving the 
synodical dnes. 

llec e^t conuenlio facta inter Odonem decanum et capituluui de Kilkenni 
ex parte una et S.abbatemct conventum de Sancto Saluatore ex parte altera, 
in presentia doniiui U. Ossoriensis episcopi et illustris viri W. Marescalli 
Comilis Pembrok ; quod uidelicet predictus 0. decanus teuebit ecclesiam de 
Tolachhaui et possidebit quod uixerit cum quindecim acris teice in eadem 
uilla ei assignatis, et decimis de frugibus monachorum in ipsa uilla 
piouenienlibus.ot una acra prati pro decimis feui, decimis quoque tarn nuiioribus 
quam minoribus iirmariorum et hominum suorum in eadem uilla manentium. 

TosUjuam vero prefatus O. decanus in fata decesserit, abbas monasterii 
memorali et conueiitus possidebuul ecclesiam memuratam de Tolachhaui jure 
perpetuo et habebunt iu usus proprios cum decimis et obueutiouibus uniuersis 
ad earn iJertiucntibus; reddendo iude aunuatim ecclesie calhedrali de 
Kilkeuui unam maicam ai-gcnti ad duns terminos ad festum scilicet Inucu- 
tionis Sanctc Crucis dimidiam marcam, et ad festum Sancti Kennicii 
dimidiam, pro omni < iine et exactione que uel ad episcopum 

Ussorieusem uel ad ejus ^ iKirtineat. saluis tainen sinodalibus. 

Ul igitur hec conueutio inuiolabiliter in perpetuum perseueret tam 
cpiscopusO- - iiuam capilnhim et abbas memoralus atque conuentus 

sigilla siw I ; uognipho in robur et munimen appenderunt. 

lliis tcstibus, Domino 11. (Jssoriensi episcopo, Domino W. Marescallo 
Comite Pembrok, T _ ' prion? de Kenlei>, Osberto priore de Sancto 
Johanne, lloJjerto ^auran, Mcliolao capellano Comitis, Waltero 

capellano Coniitisse, Willelmo Crasso, Odoue Archidiacono, Walter© Purcel, 
Guidone de Cultura, Thoma de Druhelle, Philippe clerico, 'I'boma clerico, et 
multis aliis. 

The fragments of two seals still adhere to this charter, which must be about 
the same date as no. 8, viz. 1216. It was granted in the presence of Hugh le Rous, 
bishop of Ossory (p. 15), and of William Marshal the elder (p. J2} ; and most of 
the witnesses have come before us in earlier charters. Thus Osbert, prior of 6t. 
John's and Bobert o/ Gowran have appeared in no. 8 ; lidjinald, prior of Kells, in 
no. 6 (p. 22) ; Williarrt Crassm in no. 2 (p. 16) ; Odo Archdckyne in no. 1 (p. 14) ; 
WalUr Purcdl in no. 3 (p. 21) ; Gmj de Cultura and I'hilip the clerk m no. 2 
(p. 17). 

Bernaki) — The Charters of the Ahbci/ oj Didslcc. 29 

Thomas da Druhellc signed the Kilkenny charter of William Marshal the elder 
between 1207 and 12.11 ;' and charters of his, concerning lands at Hacketstown, 
CO. Carlow, are in the Register of St. Thomas' Abbey ;• ho attested other deeds in 
the same register at various dates between the years 1202 and 1218.' For another 
member of the de Druhelle family see Charier 11. 


Confirmation by Hugh, bishop of Ossory, of the grant of the chuvcii of 
Tulachany, &c., sot out in Charter no. 9. 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quospresens scriptum peruenerit 
H dei gratia Ossoriensis ecclesie minister eternam in domino salutem. 

Ad uuiuersitatis uestre uolumus noticiam perueuire nos ox cons . . . . ct 
consensu capituli nostri concessisse et present! carta confirmasse abbati et 
monachis de Sancto Saluatore ecclesiam de 'J'olachhany cum decimis et 
obuentionibus uniuersis ad earn pertinentibus habendum post oliitum Odonis 
decani de Kilkenni in usus proprios et possidendura in perpetuum libere et 
quiete ; reddendo inde annuatim ecclesie cathedrali de Kilkenni post decessum 
predict! 0. decani uuam marcam argenti ad duos terminos scilicet ad festuni 
Inueutionis Sancte Crucis dimidiam marcam et ad festum Saucti Kennieii 
dimidiam pro omni cousuetudine et exactiono que uel ad episcopuni Ossori- 
eusem- uel ad ejus officiales pertineat, saluis tanien siuodalibus. 

Predictus vero 0. decanus teneljit et possidebit ecclesiam de Tolochhany 
menioratam quoad uixerit cum ([uindecim acris terre in eadcni uilla ei assig- 
natis, et decimis de frugibus monachorum in ipsa uilla prouenientibus, et una 
acra prati pro decimis feni, decimis (|uoque tarn maioribus quam minoriljus 
firmariorura et hominum suorum in eadem uilla mauentium. 

Ut igitur hec concessio vestra et confirmatio inuiolabiliter in perpetuum 
perseueret earn script! presentis attestatione et sigilli nostri appositione 
duximus roborandam. 

Hiis testibus, Domino W. Marescallo comite Pembrok, Ileginaldo priore 
de Kenlis, Osberto priore de Sancto Johanna, Eoberto de Baligauran, Nichola 
capellano comitis, Waltero capellano comitisse, Willelmo Crasso, Odone 
Archidiacono, Waltero I'urcel, Guidone de Cultura, Thouux de Druhelle, 
Philippo clerico, Thoma clerico, et multis aliis. 

This deed is witnessed by the same persons as no. 9, and it was probably 
executed on the same day and at the same place. There is a memorandum of it 
in P. 

» Chartae, &c., p. 34. = R.T.A. 128, 312. ^ r.t.A. 125, 126, 135, 310, 355. 

30 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


Grant, for the good of his soul, &c., by Richard of Flanders, free of all 
payment and service, of two acres in Tulaehauy, adjoining the abbey 
lands, and bounded on the west by the land of William de Valle. 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos preseus seriptum peruenerit 
Eicardus Flandrensis eternam in domino salutem. 

Noueritis me ad lionorem Dei et Beate Marie et omnium sanctorum pro 
salute anime mee et uxoris mee et libororiun mooruni ct successorum moorum 
dedisse et hac presenti carta mea conlirmasse abbatie de Valle Sancti Salua- 
toris in puram et perpetuam elemosinam duas acras terre que iacent in angulo 
quodam iuxLa terrani dicte abbatie in Tulaghkeniiy, ot uou sunt iliuisc per 
aliquid fiissatum ab ilia terra ; habent quoque a parte sui occidentali torram 
Willelmi dc Valle. 

Volo igitur ut predicta abbatia habeat et teneat in perpetuum predictas 
duas acras liberas ot quietas ab onini seruicio et exactione seculari que uel ad 
nie uel ad heredes meos possit portincre. Et ego et heredcs niei warantiza- 
bimus predictas iluas acras abltatio prefale contra onincs homines ct contra 
onines fcminas. 

Ut igittir hue iirm <iijiiaiiij cl elomnsiua iirma ct sLabili.s perpctuo 
perseueret presenti scripttj sigilluin incum apposui. 

Hiis teslibus, Henrico, capellaiio do Karleski, Iteginaldo capcUano de 
Kiltrani, lladulpho capellano de N'^illa, Oiliberto de Valle, Willelnio de 
Druholle, 'riioma persona dc Kalian, Wiilclmo Maillanlo, ct multis aliis. 

Hoc autem in fine nosse uos uolo quod predicte due acre sunt dc meo 
libcro couquesto. 

The seal of lUchard of Flanders is gone. His grant is confirmed in Charter 
no. Id about 1225, whore also we meet his son Matthew. .Tohn of Flanders, 
•' miles," i.e. Knight, witnessed .John Fitz Geoflfrey's charter to Kells, which must 
be dated after 1234, as it seems to have been executed after William Fitz Geoflfrey's 
death in that year.' 

William dc Valle and Gilbert de Valk were members of the family who held 
Marshal lands at Tulachany (see p. 20, above). Both names appear in one of the 
Christ Church deeds at Dublin (no. 2.5) about the year 1218, and the same persons 
are probably indicated here. Gilbert de Valle was a brother of Stephen de Valle, and 
apparently a nephew of the .Man de Valle with whom we have met in Charter 3. 
They were contemporaries of Alan Beg.' 

Of Henry, llie cliaplain of Cahirlcskc, we know nothing. Cahirleske is near 
Ballaghtobin, south of Kells in co. Kilkenny. 

Reginald, chaplain of Kiltrani, may be the same person as " Reginald the 
chaplain " who witnessed .John Fitz Geoflfrey's charter to Kells after 1234. Kiltrani 

' The Charter is printed (and wrongly dated, .as Mr. Orpcn has pointed out) in 
Chnriae. Sic. p. 1". ^ .See above, p. 11, and R.T.A. 107. 

Bkknakd^J'/'^ Charters of Uie Ahheij of Duiske. 31 

is the name given in the Ked Book of Ossory to tlie parish of Burnchurch, not far 
from Kells, co. Kilkenny. 

Eandolpli, chaplain of Villa, is unknown. Perhaps Villa may stand for tlie vill 
of Kells. 

The remaining three witnesses are often associated. In 1215 William Fitz 
Geoffrey gave a charter to Kells,' which was witnessed by William Maillard (who 
■was William Marshal senior's standard-bearer, and was given lands at Mallards- 
town, between Callan and Kells) and by Tliomas the ixirson of Callan. 

About 1220 William de Druhelle senior granted some tithes of .Jenkinstown^ to 
St. John's, Kilkenny, among the witnesses being William de Druhelle junior and 
Tliomas the parson of Callan. In 1223 William Marshal junior gave a charter to 
St. John's, Kilkenny,' which was witnessed by Williain Maillard and ]l'iUiam de 
DrulieUe. In 1227 William de Druhelle, knight, and Tliomas rector of Callan 
appear together again (no. 23, below). And we find Tliomas rector of Callan^ in 
deeds dated about 1232 (nos. 43, 44). 

Putting together these data, we may fix the date of the instrument before us as 
about 1221. The William de Druhelle indicated was seemingly the younger of the 
two persons of that name. 

The note at the end of the charter, from which it appears that the lands granted 
are free of all service, having been gained ' by free conquest,' is interesting. 

Mention must here be made of a charter not now extant, of which a precis 
is given in the extracts from the Duiske Registers (E) as follows : 

" Carta Willelmi Marescalii comitis Pemb : Teste domino Th. pincerna 
Hiberniae, Mauricio iilio Ger., AVillelmo Crasso primoque tunc seues- 
callo Lagenie." 

The persons here named can be readily identified from the date of the 
last mentioned, William Crassus or le Gras, whom we have met with before 
(p. 16). He was seneschal of Leinster after the year 1219, the year when 
William Marshal the elder (p. 12) died. 

This William Marshal had five sons, all of whom died childless, and his 
great Irish possessions were, in consequence, divided among his five daughters 
about the year 12-46. It will be convenient to note here the main points of 
the pedigree, for future reference : 

William Marshal the elder (d. 1219) and his wife Isabella de Glare 
(d. 1220) had issue : 

1. William Marshal tlie younr/er (d. 1231), who married Eleanor, sister of 
Henry III. 

' Cliartae, &c., p. 10. - Carrigan, iii, 249. 

■^ Dugdale, vi, 1143 ; see Orpen, I.e. ii, 229. 

^ He appears also in deeds of the .same period quoted in Butler, Reyistrum prioratiis 
omnium simctoruvi juxta Dublin, pp. 10, 23. 

32 Proceedings of the Rojjal Irish Academy. 

2. Eichard Marshal (d. 1234). 

3. Gilbert Marshal (d. 1241). 

4. Walter Mai-shal (d. 1245). 
o. Anselm Marshal (d. 124.5). 

6. ^Matilda Marshal (d. 1248), who married Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk 
(d. 1225), and subsequently William de Warrene, earl of Warrenne and Surrey. 
Her portion of the Leinster lands included the Baronies of Forth. St. MuUins, 
and the Island in the counties of Carlow and We.xford. She had four sons — 
Eoger Bigod. earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England (d. 1270); and Hugh 
(d. 1264), whose son Eoger Bigod the second succeeded to the earldom and 
died in 1306 ; Ealph Bigo<l : and John Warrenne. 

7. Isabella Marshal, who married Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester. 
Her estates were in co. Kilkenny, ami subsequently came to James, 3rd Earl 
of Ormonde, in 1391. 

S. Sibilla Mai^hal, wlm married William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby. Her 
jjortion was mainly in co. Kildare. 

9. Eva Marshal, who married William, son of Eeginald de Bmose. The 
territory of Leix was assigned to her. 

10. Joanna Marshal, who marrietl Warin de Mount Chesney. Her portion 
wa-s chielly in co. Wexford. 

The grantor of the charter here under consideration was William Marslial 
the youni/er, who died in 1231, and its date was probably about 1220. 

We next come to Theol>ald Walter. There were four of that name. The 
first Theobald Walter (son of Hervey Walter and brother of Hubert Walter, 
archbishop of Canterbury) came to Ireland in the train of Henry II. He 
was rewanled for his services with large estates and was created hereditary 
Chief Butler (pinr^nui) of Ireland — an office which still gives its name to the 
great house of Ormonde. This firat Theolxild Waller dietl in 1206, and left 
by his second wife Matilda de Vavasour, 

1. TheobnM WalUr ffu aeeond (b. 1200, d. 1230). 
He also left, by a former wife, 

2. Beatrice Walter, wh'« married — fimt, Thomas de Hereford ; seeoruJly, 
Hugh Purcell (see p. 86). 

3. Matilda Walter, who mame«i Gerald de Prendergast. 

It wa^ Thn-bnl'l W'lU'r th' «-rond who was witness to the charter before 
us. He left a son, Theobald Walter the thiid (d. (1248), who in his turn had 
issue Theobald Walter the fourth (d. 1285 

The other witness was Maurice FUz Gerald, second Baron Offaly, who died 
in 1257. 

Bkknakd — The Charters of the Abbey of Duhke. 33 


Confirmation, for the good of his soul and the souls of his parents, by 
William Marshal the younger, earl of Pembroke, to the convent of 
Duiske, of the lands of Duiske, Annamult, Tulachany, Clundaf, 
Kilmeggeth, Liscrithan, with burgages in Kilkenny, Wexford, and 
the Island, granted by his father. 

Willelmus Mai-escallus Comes Pembrokie uniuersis liominibus suis, Francis, 
efc Anglis, Waleusibus, et Hyberniensibus, et omnibus amicis et fidelibus suis 

Sciatis nos pro aniore Dei et pro salute aiiime nostre et pro salute 
animarum patris nostri W. Marescalli Comitis Pembrokie, et matris 
nostre Comitisse Ysabel, atque omnium predecessorum ac suecessoruni 
nostrorum, eoncessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse abbatie 
Sancti Saluatoris de ordine Mouachorum Cisterciensium in terra 
Dowiskir donationes omnium terrarum et possessionum cum liber- 
tatibus omnibu.=. et liberis cousuetudiuibus quas predictus pater noster 
eidem abbatie iu puram et perpetuam elemosinam dedit et incartauit; 
scilicet totam illam terram Dowiskir cum pertiuentiis suis, et Athenemolt 
pro undeeim carnicatis terre, et Tulaehkenni cum pertiuentiis. suis, 
scilicet Clundaf et Kilmeggeth et Liscrithan iuxta Kilkenny, pro decem 
carrucatis terre, unum quoque burgagium in Kilkenny, et aliud in Weseford, 
et tertium in Insula, et preterea quicquid ei poterit in future pia dona- 
tione seu uenditione fidelium, saluo seruitio nostro et heredum nostrorum 

Volumus igitur et tirmiter statuimus ut abbatia prouomiuata et abbas 
et monachi ipsius loci habeant et teneant omnes predictas terras et tene- 
menta pronominata cum ecclesiis et capellis et omnibus libertatibus et liberis 
cousuetudiuibus suis cum socha et sacha et toln et theam et infaugenetheof 
bene et in pace libere et quiete plenarie et integre et liouoritice ; In bosco et 
in piano, in pratis et pasturis, in aquis et molendinis, iu stagnis et uiuariis, 
in mariscis et piscariis et gliscriis, in grangiis et uirgultis, in uiis et semitis, 
infra burgum et extra et in omuibus aliis locis et rebus ; et sint quieti ipsi et 
homines et seruientes sui et res et possessioues eorum de geld et deuegeld et 
murdro et latrocinio et de pecunia que ad murdrum pertiuet uel ad latro- 
cinium et de uaccarum solutioue quam dare solebant pro capitibus utlo- 
gorum, et de scuagio et hidagio et carruagio, et cornagio et summagio et 
hutiban et scyris et hundredis et de sectis scyrarum et hundredum et de 
exercitibus et assisis et summonitionibus et de tesauro duceudo et de auxiliis 
uicecomitum et omnium scruieutum suorum et omnibus aliis auxiliis et de 
operationibus eastellorum et poutium et parcorum et murorum et uiuariorum 
et de misericordia comitatus et de teloneo et pontagio et passagio et passagiof 
et lestagio et stallagio et tallagio et de clausuris et do wcrdpeni et liauerpeni 
et thethingpeni et blodwite et tichtwite et hengwite et tlemeneswite. 


34 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Et sit ipsa abbatia cum omnibus tenementis suis extra forestam et 
omnino sine regardo forestarie, et liceat eisdem monachis de boscho et in 
omni bosco suo de aquis et in aquis suis quicquid uoluerint facere et sint 
liberi ab omni uexatione et penitus extra dangerium foresCariarum et omnium 
aliorum seruientum terre de pastu uidelicet et omnibus aliis exactionibus 
quas forestarii et alii seruientes terie solent exigere, et de omnibus querelis 
et placitis et oecasiouibus et eonsuetudinibus et de omni seruili opere et 
seculari exaetione. 

Et habeant sibi omnimodam forisfacturam propriorum hominum 
suorum, sola iustioia uite et membrorum nobis et heredibus nostris 
retenta, et per omnes forestas nostras pasturam habeant porcorum 
suorum quietam a pannagio, et quicquid ad ardcndum et ad edifiraiuluni 
habuerint iicccssariuni. 

.Si<|uis uero uel in presenti uel in futuro quicquam de his que predicte 
abbatie concessimus et confirniauimus calunipniatus fuerit non tenebuntur 
inde nionachi respomlere, set ad nos i>erLiiicbit ct ad heredes nostros calump- 
niatoribiis eorum uel exeanibio uel alio rationabili modo satisfacere monachis, 
que quicquid els pater noster donauit guarantizare et integrum conseruare. 

DiHtricte ei-go prnhibenius super forisfacturam nostram uidelicet decern 
niarcarum, ne ijuis eos uel homines suos aut seruientes suos aut res aut 
possessiones eorum maliciosc uexet an grauet uel in ali(|ua re disturbet. 

Volontes igitur banc conccssionis nostrc et confirmationis paginam ratam 
in pcrpetuum ct ftabileni permanerc sigilluni nostrum eidem ai)posuimus. 

His testibus. Domino I'etro Ossoriensi episcopo, .lohanne Marescallo, 
Thoina filio Antonii tunc senescallo I,J^Jenic, Fuleone lilio Warini, Henrico 
le Rutcillier, Waltero I'urccl, Willclmo Crasso utroque, liamone Crasso, 
Henrico de Kernet, Ucginahlo ile Kernel, Magistro Deodato, et Magistro 
Henrico, clericis doniini comitis, et nniltis aliis. 

Tills charter, wliicli was of great importance to the Abbey (see no. 56, below), 
has lost its seal. It is the Confirmation of his father's grants by William Mui;-hal 
tho younger (see p. 81); and, from the names of the witnesses, it must be of 
approximately the same date as his charters to Kilitenny,' Carlow,' and St. John's 
Priory, Kilkenny,' ami may be set down as of the year 1223.' 

Peter Malveisin, although elected in 1218, was not consecrated to the bishopric 
of Ossory until the end of 1221 or the beginning of 1222.' He died in 1280 or 

We have had before John Marshal (p. 15), Thomas Fits Antony' {p. 15), and 
Walter Purccll (p. 21), all of wliom witnessed the Foundation Charter of the elder 
Wilham Marshal. 

Tlie attestation " Willelmo Crasso ntroque" seems to mean that both the 
brothers called William Crassm (see p. 16) were present on this occasion. 

' Chartae. &c., p. 34. ' Chartae, &c, p. 38. * Carrigan, iii, 249. 

* Another of William Marshal's charters with many of the same witnesses is found in 
R.T.A. 119. i Carrigan, i, 3.5. 

Bkrnakd — The Charters of Ihc Ahbej of Duiske. 35 

Hamo Crassus is often associated with his bvotlier as a witness.' 

Fulk Fits Warm man-ied Matilda, the widow of Theobald Walter the first (see 

p. 82) in 1207, and he appears as one of the Marshal tenants in 12-16.= A letter 

from him to Hubert de Burgh, justiciar, is extant.' 

There is a charter of Hennj la Butler in the Kegister of St. Thomas' Abbey.* 
Beglnald de Kernel and Henry de Kernel appear again in Charter IG. Reginald 

also signs Charter 46 as Sheriff of Kilkenny about 1233. Henry appears in an 

unpublished Kells charter of date about 12-10 ; his wife's name was Claricia. 

Masler Deodatus, one of the earl's clerks, signed his charter to Kilkenny in 

1223. His signature is not attached to the later charter to Carlow. It is possible 

that he is to be identified with the Deodatus who became bishop of Meath in 1224, 

but there is no direct evidence. 

Master Henry, another of the earl's clerks, signed his Carlow charter. 

In the Extracts from the Duiske registers (EL) we have a record of an 
acquisition of land by the convent in the year 1223, which should be noted 
at this point. 

At the end of the twelfth century a Benedictine priory was founded at 
Glasscarrig, near Gorey, co. Wexford, from the Abbey of St. Dogmael's in 
Pembrokeshire. And in the year 1223 (as appears from the name of John 
[St. John] bishop-elect of Ferns, as a witness) two carucates of land in 
Bantry, which had been granted to Glasscarrig Priory by Adam de Caunteton 
(see p. 21), were transferred to the abbey of Duiske (see no. 41), by an 
agreement made by Andrew, abbot of St. Dogmael's, between the Prior of 
Glasscarrig and Thomas the abbot of Duiske. Besides John St. John, two 
other witnesses are named in the precis in E, viz., "William de Caunteton 
senior, who was Lord of Glasscarrig (p. 21), and Pdchard Prendergast 
(see p. 42, below). 


Grant, for the good of his soul, &c., by Alan Beg, with the consent of 
William de Caunteton and his wife, Cecilia, daughter and heiress of 
the said Alan, to the convent of Duiske, of the church of Duntnac- 
tathec in Idrone, with consecrated ground of twelve acres, also of the 
chapel of Rathkenny, with its consecrated ground, and the chapel of 
Rathsenboth in Forth, with consecrated ground of twelve acres. 

Omnibus Saucte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum perve- 
nerit Alanus Beg eternam in domino salulem. 

Sciatis quod ego, pro salute anime mee et uxoris mee Neste, et omnium 

' William Crassus senior and Hamo Cvaasus attested in 1222 the charter of William 
Marslial the younger, confirming the foundation of Tintern in Monmouthshire (Dugdale, 
Monasikon, v, 267). 

2 C.M.A. ii, 404 3 jjo^^j Lett&rs Menry III, vol. i, p. 305. * p. 138. 


36 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

predecessoruin pareutum meorum ac liberoium et aliorum successoium 
ineorum, assensu et voluntate Willelmi de Kantiutune et uxoris sue 
Cecilie filie mee, heredum scilicet meorum, dedi et concessi quantum 
pertinet ad jus patroui 'et hae presenti carta mea coufirmaui abbatie 
Beate Marie de Yalle Saucti Saluatoris que est de ordine Cisterciensi ad 
sustentatiouem abbalis et monachorum ibidem Deo seruieutium, ecclesiam de 
Duutnactathec in Odrona cum terra sanctuarii, scilicet duodecim acris et cum 
omnibus ad eandem ecclesiam pcrtineutibus, uidelicet capellam de Piatbkeuny 
cum terra sanctuarii el aliis pertinentiis suis, capellam quoque de Kathsenboth 
in Fodbred eisdem concessi cum t«rra sanctuarii scilicet duodecim acris et 
cum omnibus pertinentiis suis. 

Yolo igitur et firmiter statuo ut prememoratus abbas et convenlus de 
Valle Sancli Saluatoris habeant et tencanl prenominala beneficia ecclesiastica 
in puram et perpetuam elemosinam ab omni exactione quantum ad Jus patroni 
pertinet libera omnimodis et tiuicta. Et ego heredes mei warantizabimus 
eadem benelicia abbati et monachis eisdem contra omnes homines in quantum 
potest patronus warantizare. 

Ut igitur hec mea donatio et concessio rata in perpeluum et stabilis per- 
nianeat presens scriptuui censui in testimonium Uim sigilii mei quam prcdicti 
Willelmi de LLautintune nnmimine roborandum. 

His lestibus, Domino Tlieobaldo I'incerna llybernic, Willelmo Crasso 
primogcnito tunc seiiescallo Lagenic, llamone Crasso fratre ipsius, liicardo 
rinccrna, Nicholao le Mai-chisj Osberto priore Sancti Johannis de Kilkenni, 
Alueredo priore de Instioc, Raiulolpho pereoua de Baligaurau, et multis aliis. 

One of the two seals of ibis charter is preBer\'ed. Tlie grant was of great value 
(ibcre is a uote of il in E) ; it was confirmed in 1249 and agaiu in 1262, as appears 
from notes in E as follows : — 

" Charta W. Leigh! : episc : (cuius in superior! facta mentio) an. 1219 ponlilicatus 
nostri 21. Confirmatio charte Alan! Beg patroni ccclesie Duumaclaydg per 
Lucam Dublin : archiep : " 

William (1228-12.51) is the bishop of Leighlin indicated, and Luke (1228-1255) 
was the aichbi&liop of Dublin. See p. 72. 
And again : 

" Charta confirmationis (super eodem) T. Leglilin : episc : ad confirmationem 
doni el iustrumcnti bonae memoriae W. predecessoris nostri. Dat : anno 
gralie 12U2, poutiiicatus nostri anno 10." 

This was ,the confirmation by Bishop Thomas of Leighlin (1252-1275) of 
Bishop William's instrument. See nos. 49 and G8, infra. 

We have already met with Alan Beg (p. 11) and bis son-in-law William de 
Caunteton (p. 21). 

The church of Duntnactathec may perhaps, as Mr. Orpcn suggests, be 
identified with the "ecclesia de villa ALini," mentioned in the Ecclesiastical 

BnR^fARD — The Charier a oj Ihc Abbeij oj Duiskc. 37 

Taxation of Idroiic' lie Ihinlis tliis may have been BallycUin, near Ullard (see 
no. 14). 

Bathkcnny- was the name of a church on the estate (apparently in co. Meath) 
of Nicholas le Petit in 1229. 

llathscnboth in the barony of Forth may, perhaps, be identified with Templc- 
shanbo, in co. Wexford, the root of both being the word seanbotha, which means 
" old huts." 

We liave already had several of the witnesses : Theobald Walter the second 
(p. 32) ; William (.'rassus senior (p. 16), who appears here as seneschal of Leinster, 
an office which we know he held in 1224 f Hamo Crassus (p. 55) ; Osbcrt, prior of 
St. John's, Kilkenny (p. 27) ; and Balpli, the pai-son of Gowran (p. 11). 

Bicardus Pinccrna was probably connected somehow with the Walters, and 
perhaps we should call him Kichard Fitz Walter (see p. 42). He attested, along 
with Thomas Fitz Antony (see p. 15), a grant by one Simon Power, which is 
included in the Eegister of St. Thomas' Abbey.' 

The priory of Inistiogc was founded for Austin canons, by Thomas Fitz Antony 
about 1210, and Aliired of the priory of Keils, formerly of Bodmin (see p. 22), was 
chosen as the first prior of the new bouse. He witnesses several of our charters,' 
the latest in date being nos. 43, 44, about the year 1232. A fine stone effigy is still 
preserved in Inistioge church, which is thought to represent Alured, and to have 
been placed over his grave. "^ 

Nicliolas le Marchis or Marsh (see no. 42) was the owner of a fish-pond in the 
river Barrow, and probably held land adjoining. 

The date of this charter (no. 13) is about 1224. 

Grant, for the good of his soul, &c., by Alan Beg, with the consent of 
William de Caunteton and his wife Cecilia, daughter and heiress of 
the said Alan, to the convent of Duiske (in the abbey of wliich he 
chooses a burial-place for himself), of half the church of Ullard, viz., 
all its tithes from his holdings in that vill. 

Omnibus Saucte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit 
Alanus Beg eteruam in domino salutem. 

Sciatis quod ego pro salute anime mee et uxoris mee Neste et omnium 
parentum predecessorum ac successoruni nieorum asseusu et uoluntateWillclmi 
de Kantintune et uxoris sue Cecilia filie mee, hereduni scilicet meorum, dedi 
et concessi, quantum ad ius pertinet patroni, el hac presenli carta niea contir- 
maui abbatie beate Marie de Valle Sancti Saluatoris ad susteutatiouem abbatis 
et nionachorum ibidem deo seruientium niedieLatem ecclesie de Erard, scilicet 
decimas omnes et obueutiones ad eandeni ecclesiam de terra quaui in eadem 

1 C.D.I. V, p. 250. Odrone or Idrone {Ui Drona) is a large district in co. Carlow. 

2 C.D.I, i, 1673, 2037, 2163. 

3 Oormiindon Ite<j., f. 209. He also held it in ov after 1235 (ibid., f. 208). 
* R.T.A. 208. ° See R.T.A. 133 for a charter grautcd by hhu. 

Carrigan, iv, 113. 

38 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy . 

habeo uilla pertinentes, liberas et quietas ab omni exactione quantum ad ius 
patroni pertinet in puram et perpetuam elemosinam possidendas. 

Et ego et heredes mei warantizabimus easdem decimas prefatis abbati et 
monachis contra omnes homines in quantum potest patronus warantizare. 

Elegi etiam mihi in eadem abbatia cum obiero sepulturam, unde et me 
ipsum super eiusdem abbatie obtuli altare. 

Ut igitur predicta donatio mea et concessio rata in perpetuum et stabilis 
permaneat presens scriptum in testimonium censui tarn sigilli mei quam 
predicti Willelrai de Kantinlune munimine roborandum. 

Hiis testibus, Domino Theobaldo Pincerna llybernie, Willelmo Crasso 
primogenito tunc Senescallo Lagenie, Willelmo Crasso iuniore, et Hamone 
Crasso fratribus ipsius, Kicardo Pincerna, Xicholao le Marchis, Osberto Priore 
Sancti Johannis de Kilkenni, Alueredo priore de Instioc, Kandolpho persona 
de Baligauran, et multis aliis. 

Both the seals have disappeared from this charter, which is of the same 
character and must b« of the same date as no. 13, viz. 1221. The vritnesses are 
the same, with tlie additiou of William Crassus junior, whom we have had before 
(see p. 17). and who frequently attested the charters of William Marshal the 

Erard or Ollard, as it is now called, was a prebendal church in the diocese of 
LeighUn, about three miles to the north of the abbey of Gi-aiguenamanagh or 
Dnlske. An interesting doorway still remains among its ruins. 

Among the Patent Ilolls of 1225 [m4] there are Letters of Protection for 
two years for men and things belonging to the Abbot of ' Dus,' which come 
into England. 


Confinnation to the convent of Duiske by William Fitz Maurice, for the 
good of his Boal. Sue., of two acres of land, granted them by Bichard 
of Flanders : and also of four acres adjoining on the east, granted by 
Matthew, the son of Richard : reserving the ser\"ice which Kichard 
and Matthew are bound to pay on behalf of the monks. 

Omnibus ad quos presens scriptum perueuerit Willclmus filius Mauricii 
et'>mam in domino salutem. 

Nouerit uniuersitas uestra me pro salute anime mee et uxoris mee ac 
libeixirum nostrorum et antecessorum et succcssorum nostrorum concessisse 
et hac present! carta mea confirmasse Deo et Sancte Marie et abbatie de 
Valle Sancti Saluatoris ordinis Cisterciensis et monachis ibidem Deo seruien- 
tibus duas acras terre quas eis Rieardus Flandren-sis dedit et incartauit, que 
iacent in angulo quodam iuxta terram dicte abbatie in Thulachenni et non 

• See Chartat 34, 38 ; Carrigan, iii. 249 ; R.T.A. 119. 357 

Beknahd — The Charters of (he Ahhey of Duiske. 39 

sunt cliuise per aliiiuod rossaluiu ab ilia terra; habent quoque a parte sui 
occidentali terrain Willelmi de Valle : 

Insuper eciam f[uatuor acras terre quas eisdem dedit et incartauiL Matheus 
lllius Jlicardi Flaiulrcnsis, que iacent propimjuiorcs duabus acris jiredictis ex 
parte orientali, et que sunt propriores terre dictorum monachorum ex parte 
raeridionali, tenendas et habendas in puram et pcrpetuam elemosinam de me 
et bcredibus nieis libere et quiete ab omni seruicio et exactione et demauda 
ad me uel ad heredes meos pertinente, saluo seruicio taute terre quod mihi et 
heredibus meis predicti Eicardus Flandrensis et Matheus filius eius et eorum 
heredes pro monachis tenentur soluere, et saluis dccimis ecclesiasticis. 

Ut autem hec mea coneessio et confirmatio stabilis in perpetuum perse- 
ueret presentem cartam sigilli raei appositione roboraui. 

Hiic testibus, Willelmo Crasso primogenito, Willelmo Crasso juniore, 
Willelmo de Sancto Leodegario, Keiniundo de Valle, Thonia de Kalian, 
Mauricio fratre meo, et aliis. 

This is a confirmation of no. 11 by the over-lord, JVilliam Fitz Matirice. It 
may be dated about 1225. 

William Fitz Maurice and his brother Maurice Fitz Maurice (who is a witness) 
were probably the sons of Maurice Fitz Maurice, 1st baron of Kiltraiiy.' The 
younger brother, Maurice, was baron of Kiltrany, and was drowned in 1268.' He 
was a witness to William Fitz Geoffrey's charter to Kells in 1215.^ 

We have met already the two brothers William Crassus or le Gras (pp. 17, 38) ; 
William de St. Legcr (p. 21) ; and Thomas de Callan (p. 31). 

For the family of de Valle of. pp. 20, 30. Reymund de Valle appears about 
1210,^ and again between 1231 and 12-13.'> 

Grant by Eichard de Marisco, for the good of his soul and of the soul of 
his wife Beatrice, &c., to the convent of Duiske, of three carucates of his 
land near Eathboghal, at a rent of ten shillings and gauntlets which he 
owes to his lords ; but if his lords relieve him from the foreign service 
which goes with the land, he gives it to the convent without rent, and 
with liberty to have wood for buildings and licence for feeding forty 
hogs and pasture for twelve cows. 

Uniuersis Saacte Matris Eeclesie filiis ad quos prcsens seriptum poruenerit 
Eicardus de Marisco salutem in domino. 

Nouerit uniuersitas nostra quod ego pro salute anime mee et Beatricis 
uxoris mee et liberoruni nostrorum necnon et omnium parentum nostrorum 
predecessorum et successorum dedi et concessi et hac presenti carta mea 
confirmaui ad houorem Dei et beate Matris eius omniumque sanctorum 

See Burtchaell, Journal B..&.A.1., 1892, pp. 362-3. 
= C.M.A. ii, 290, 316. 3 o/un<«e, &c., p. 17. ' R.T..\. 120. ^ R.T.A. 18G. 

40 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

abbati et conuentui de Valle Saneti Saluatoris terrain meam que dieitur 
Eathbogliel et iacet pro tribiis carrueatis terre, habendam et tenendam libera 
et quiete in piiram et perpetuam eleinosiuam, saluo redditu deeeni solidorum 
et quarumdam cirotecanim quem debeo dominis meis de eadem terra, et saluo 
forinseco seruitio quod ad terrain pertiuet eanderii. 

Si uero domiui mei predictuui seruitiuni relaxaneriut et redditum, maneant 
et monachi predicti inde liberi in perpetuum. Concessi etiam monachis eisdem 
conifmunain] in bosco meo lit libere capiant in eo ligna quantum opus 
habuerint ad ignem et ad edificia sibi [construenjda, panuagium quoque 
quadraginta porcorum liberum in perpetuum et pasturam duodecim uaccarum 

Volo igitur et firmiter statuo ut predictus couueutus de Valle Saneti 
Saluatoris habeat et teneat predictam teiTam sicut prediHinituin est liberam 
in perpetuum et quiet-am ab omni seruitio et exaetionc, (pie uol ad me uel ad 
heredcs meos possit pertinere. Ego autem et heredes mei warautizabimus 
predictam terrain conuentui memorato contra oinues homines et contra 
omnes feminas. 

Ut igitur hec mea donatio et concessio rata in perpetuum et stabilis 
permaneat in ipsius testimonium present) scripto meum appendi sigillum. 

Hiis testibus, Nidiolao de Ynteljerghe, Henrico de Kernet, Regiiialdo de 
Keriiet, Roberto de Kacrdif, Kogcro Russel, Pliilippo de Ynteberglie. Nicholao 
le Marchis, Symone Lupo, Ricardo Tallin, et multis aliis. 

Charters 17, 18, 41, 79 are all concerned with the land of Rathboghal or Rath- 
bachlach (liath bacltaill ?) in the barony of Bantry, co. Wexford, of which the over- 
lord was Philip de Prendergast. Perhaps, as Mr. Goddard Orpen suggests, we 
should identify liatftboghal with bis demesne of Monksgrange, 10 miles from 

No. IG must be prior to no. 17, which again seems to have been executed before 
the death of Philip de Prendergast in 1229 (p. 21). It may be dated about 1226. 

liichard de Marisco or Marsh is, along with Raymund de Valle (p. 39), witness 
to a charter executed between 122.3 and 1243.' lie is described as "dominus 
Bicardus de Marisco, miles," i.e. knight, in no. 79. 

For Sicholas de Hintcberg see p. 17. I'hilip dc Hintebcrg appears again about 
1248.' Tlie de Kernels we have had already (p. 35) about 1223 ; and also Sicholas 
le Marchis or Marsh (p. 37 ) about 1224. 

liobcrt de Cardiff or Kerdijf, who was a knight {miles), and owned lands in the 
neighbourhood of St. Mullins, co. Carlow (see nos. 4C, 47, 4)4), appears in a dated 
charter of 1227 (no. 23). He is perhaps to be identified with ' R. de Cardiff' who 
appears about 1229 in one of the dee<1s of Christ Church, Dublin.' A Robert de 
CardiflF. probably of tlie same family, was Provost of New Ross in 1285.' 

lloijcr Russell also appears again in nos. 46, 47. 

Richard Talun or Tallon witnessed a charter of Thomas Fitz Antony,' which 
most have been executed before the latter's death in 1229 (see p. 15). 

' R.T..\. 189 : cf. C.D.I, i, 2<S1. 2ti78. ' C.D.I, i. 2029 ; see p. 107, infra. 

* No. 29. « See Horos A'eic liuu, p. 151. ' C.M.A. ii, I'Jl. 

Bkrnard — The Charters of thr Ahhei/ of Duislce. 41 


Confirmation by Eoc^er Galj^heil, for the good of bis soul and of the soul 
n|' Eleanor his wife, of the gi'ant by liichard do Mariseo to the convent 
of Diiiske, of three carucates at Eatbboghal in Ikintry, whicb the said 
Eoger held from the lord Philip de Prendergast, and Eichard de Mariseo 
from him. 

Omnibus ad quos presens .scriptum peruenerit Eogerus Galgheil saluteni 
in domino. 

Sciatis quod ego pro salute anime mee et Alianor uxoris mee ae liberoruni 
nosti'orum concessi et hac present! carta mea eoufirmaui donationem quara 
Eicardus de llari.sco fecit abbatie de Valle Sancti Saluatoris de terra que 
dicitur Eatbbaglach et iaeet pro tribus carrucatis terre in Bentrie quam ego 
tenui de domino meo Philippo de Prendegast et predictus Eicardus de me ; 
quietumque clamaui memorate abbatie quicquid iuris uel redditus pertinebat 
ad me et ad heredes meos de terra memorata, quatinus abbatia predicta terram 
illam liberam in perpetuum et quietam ab omni exaetione possideat. 

In huius concessionis mee testimonium scripto presenti sigillum meum 

His testibus, Philippo, Willelmo, et Philippo, filiis meis, Eeginaldo Albo 
de Bristollo, Johanne filio eius, Henrico 61io Heurici de Kildauan, et multis 

This deed is concerned with the same grant as nos. 16 and 18, and may be 
assigned to the year 1226 or thereabouts. 

Richard de Mariseo or Marsh held the land of Kathboghal directly from Eoger 
Galgheil, whose overlord was Philip de Prendergast (see p. 21). The consents of 
all three were necessary, if the convent was to be put into secure possession of ihe 
large tract of land which was transferred. 

We meet some eighty years later with one John Galgal of Ballygally, who held 
land near New Eoss of Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk,' and he was probably of the 
same family as Eoger Galgheil. This Eoger had three sons, Philip, William, and 
Philip, who attest the grant. 

Of Reginald Albus, or White, of Bristol, and his son .John, we can discover 
nothing. Henry Fitz Henry of pildavan (which is on the borders of co. Carlow 
and CO. Wexford) may possibly be the man of that name who was seneschal of co. 
Wexford in 1259.- A Henry Fitz Henry also attested William Fitz Geoffrey's 
charter to Kells in 1215.^ 

' Here's JVeic Moss, 169. - See no. (32. ^ Chartne. &c., p. 17. 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. C. [6] 

42 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

Grant by Philip de Prendeigast and Matilda de Quency his wife, for the 
good of their souls, &c., to the convent of Duiske, of Eathboghal in 
Bantry, with three carucates of land in fee, which Eoger Galgheil held 
from the said Philip and which was given by Richard de Marisco to 
the said convent. 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos pi*esens scriptum peruenerit 
Philippus de Prendeigast eternam in domino salut«m. 

Nouerit uniuei-sitas uestra me, pro salute anime mee et anime Matildisf 
de Quinci uxoris mee et antecessonim et successornm nostrorum, ex consensu 
et uohintate predicte Matildis de Quinci uxoris nice, concessissc et hac presenti 
carta mea confirniasse Deo et abbatie bcate Marie de Valle Sancti Saluatoris 
et monachis ibidem Deo seruientibus Ratbachelach cum tribus carrucatis terre 
in feodo de Bentrie; scilicet illam quam Kogerus Galgeyhel tenuit de me et 
Ricardus de Marisco eisdem monachis dedit, et incartauit. 

Preterea dedi et concessi et confirmaui memoratis monachis redditum et 
omne seniilium quod ad mo uel ad heredes meos de terra predicta pertinebat 
in pur.iiii et perpetuam elemosinam. 

Volo igitur ut pretlicti monachi Iialieant et teneant dictam terram plenarie 
et integre libere et ijuiete ab om)u seruitio secnlari et exactione. 

Et ut hec donatio mea conccssio et confirmatio slabilis et inconcussa in 
perpetuum permaneat presenti scripto sigillnm meum apposui. 

Uiis tosiibus. Ricardo de Prendelgivst, Ricardo de Huscard, Roberto de 
lluscard, Wilielinn ile Prendeigast, liadolpho de Sumeri, Roberto Lupo, 
Ricardo de Marisco, It, filio Walteri, Th. Boscher, Ada Cod, A. clerico, et 
nmltis aliis. 

The seal is still attached to this inslrnmcnt' (sec Plate II). 

For I'hilip de Prendergiut and ifalilda de Quency his wife, see p. 21. He held 
the Duffrey estates in co. Wexford. Richard de Prendergast, who must have been 
one of the same family, and Adam i\id la Wexford name), appear elsewhere as 
attesting a deed in the Register of St. Thomas' Abbey.' William de Prendergast 
appears again about 1280 and 12on.' 

The name of Huskard survives in the parish of Ballyhuskard, in tlie barony of 
Ballaghkeen, co. Wexford ; and Robert de Hiiskard and Thomas Boscher appear as 
holders of land near New Ross in the deforestation charter of Richard Marshal, earl 
of Pembroke (p. 32), in 1283. 

For Richard de Marisco see p. 40. Perhaps we may equate R. Fits Waller 
with Ricao'dus Pincema of Charter 13 (see p. 37). 

Robert Lupus or de Low appears again in a deed relating to co. Wexford ;* 
of. p. 15. A. the clerk may be ' Augustine, the clerk,' who attests charters about 
the same date.* 

' There is n note of this charter in E. ' R.T.A. 185. 

» Charters .•» and 62. See also R.T. A. 186, 189. * Here's Fenu, p. 350. 

*R.T.A. 1843, 189. 

Beknakd — The Charters of the Abbey of Duislce. 43 

The CO. Wexford family of Dc Siimcri or Sutton appear half a dozen times in 
the Duiske charters (see nos. 3G, 38, -il, 50, 51). There were three brothers, Adam 
(whose wife was Clare), Ralph, and David. Of these, Adam had four sons, Robert, 
David (whose wife was Margaret), Ralph, and William. We shall meet with them 
all again. Here we have as a witnes.s, the elder Ralph de Suvieri: he appears 
elsewhere' before 1224, and in 1230 (see no. 38). The instrument before us may be 
dated about 122G. 

We next come to a series of deeds which direct that the small and poor 
abbey of Killenny (see p. 4) shall be united to the prosperous abbey of Duiske. 
Although only twenty years in existence, the convent of Duiske was now a 
rich corporation, endowed with many bi-oad acres, and enjoying the powerful 
patronage of Earl William Marshal and his great tenants. There was no need 
for another Cistercian house so near as Killenny ; but, as we shall see, the 
union of the two provoked a good deal of opposition, and was especially 
distasteful to Jerpoint Abbey, of which Killenny was a daughter house. 

The procedure necessary for absorbing Killenny in Duiske was elaborate. 
First, the abbot of Froidmont, who came from France to visit formally the 
Irish Cistercian houses, directed the union of the two abbeys (no. 19) ; then 
his recommendation was confirmed by the abbey of Clairvaux, the mother 
house of Froidmont (no. 20) ; next the abbots of Citeaux, and of the four 
elder ' daughters of Citeaux ' (see p. 3), viz., la Ferte, Pontigny, Clairvaux, 
and Morimund, added their final confirmation (no. 21) ; and lastly, the 
convent of Citeaux sent a formal order to the convent of Duiske on the 
subject (no. 22). And, to remove all doubt, Earl William Marshal gave a 
formal certificate of his approval (no. 25), and also the bishop of Leighlin. 
See nos. 32, 33. 


B., abbot of Froidmont, visiting the Irish Cistercian houses with full 
powers to reduce the poorer houses to be granges, to unite houses, to 
interdict, suspend, and excommunicate all gainsayers and even the 
monasteries themselves, finding that the abbey of Killenny is in debt 
so that it can subsist no longer, and that the monks are obliged to 
beg, directs the transfer of Killenny with its property to Duiske, 
ordering that the abbot and monks of the foimer house be well 
treated. He gives the abbot of Bective power to excommunicate, 
expel, or, if necessary, to punish by the secular arm in case of gain- 
saying or disobedience. 

Dated at Dublin, 22 July, 1227. 

Uniuersis presentes literas inspecturis Frater B. Frigidi Montis dictus 
abbas eternam in domino salutem. 

■ R.T.A. 221. 


44 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Ad uniuersitatis uestre notitiam uohimus penienire quod missi sumiis a 
capitulo generali Cisterciensi ad abbatias Hyberiiie uisitandas iu plenitudine 
potestatis ; Videlicet ut possimus inter cetera pauperiores maxiuie abbatias 
in grangias redigere, plures in unaiu coniungere, et omnia alia ageie secundum 
quod nobis uisum fuerit expedire, contradictores singulos et etiam ipsos 
conuentus et ecclesias interdicere snsspendeief et excommunicare. 

lutelligentes igitur manifeste quod abbatia de Valle Dei filia Jeripontis 
adeo debitis et aliis grauaminibus sit oppressa ut nullatenus iamdudum possit 
snbsist€re, in tantum quod tarn monachi quam conuei'si illius domus, pro 
defectu temporalium ordinem seruare, nee hosspitalitatenit facere ualent, 
sicut ex ipsorum quoque testimonio didicimus, sed in confusioneni ordinis 
per seculuni discurrere et necessaria mendicare coguntur ; pensatisque aliis 
niultis utilitaiibus et honestatibus, ipsjini domum de cetero non esse abbatiam 
auctoritate dicti capitvdi decernimus eandem, cum omnibus personis grangiis 
edificiis ct aliis rebus suis iinmobilibus, et niobilibus, et cum omni iure suo, 
proximo ablwtie Sancli Saluat<)ris ordinis nostri piorsus coniungentes et 
incorjiorantes, ila (juod predicti monachi et conuersi niutent, immo magis 
faciant ibidem professionem ; quos ut benignius ct honorabilius ceteris 
tractent quamdiu uixerint, abbati et conuenlui tiimiter et distriete pre- 

Et ad omnia cxequanda et specialiter ad ponendum dictos abbatem et 
couuenlum Sancti Salualoris in corporalem et ueram atque jierpetuam posses- 
sionem, constituimus uenerabilem et dilcctum nostrum abbatem de Beatitu- 
dine, quern pro aliis ordinis negotiis ad partes deslinamus illas, auctoritate 
prcfali capituli ita ut jKissit omnes contradictores et inobedientes, quod absit, 
excommunicare, et aliter quo uoluerit modo punire, et de dicto loco expellare 
etiam i^er brachium scculare si neccssarium erit. 

Datum apud Dubblinnt anno gratie millesimo ducentesimo uicesinio 
septimo in festo beate Marie Magdalene. 

A pricit of this important document is preserved in E, F. 
The abbey of Froidmont was in tbe diocese of Beauvais. The abbot's name was 


ConGrmation by 11. abbot of ClairA'aux and his convent, of the union of 
Killenny and Duiske, directed by the abbot of Froidmont. 
Dated at Citeaux, at the General Chapter, 1227. 

Venerabilibns ct in Christo dilectis abbati et conuentui Sancti Saluatoris 
in Hylwmia Frater K. dictua abbas Clareuallensis totiusque eiusdem loci 
connentus salutem in Christo. 

Cum uerc i-eligionis augmento intelligentes uenerabilem coabbatem nostrum 
Frigidi Montis auctoritate capituli generalis pro reparatione ordinis et 

' GoUia Chritiiana, ii, 832. 

Bkrnaki) — The Charters of lite Ahheij of Duiskc. 45 

aniinannu saluLu nobis couLulisse abbatiam Vallis Dei cum omiii iiu'c suo, ita 
ut de ceteret nunc sit abbatia que per se commode subsistere non poterat, sed 
ad uos pleno iuro pcrtineat cum omnibus ad se pertinenLibus, predictam colla- 
tionem et unionem presentibus Uteris nostris confirmamus, monentcs ct 
mandantes ([uatinus sic studeatis in caritate proficere et regularibus dis- 
ciplinis, ut semper gaudeamns in domino uos talibns beneficiis anipliassc. 
Datum anno gratie Jtccxxvil, tempore capituli generalis apud Cistercium. 

The seals have ilisappeavecl from this document. The abbot of Clairvaux in 
1227 was Ralph ' de Pinis seu de Peyrinis.'' 


Confirmation by the abbots of Citeaux, La Ferte, Pontigny, Clairvaux, and 
Morimund, of the reduction of Killenny to a grange, and its union 
with Duiske, as directed by tlie abbot of Froidmont. 
• Dated at Citeaux, at the General Chapter, 1227. 

Fratres Gr. Cistercii . . . de Firmitate ... do Pontiniaco . . . de Clareualle 
et . . . Morimundo dicti abbates, uenerabilibus et in Christo dilectis T. co- 
abbati suo Saucti Saluatoris in Hybernia et eiusdem loci conueutui salutem 
in Christo. 

Cum vere religionis augmento intelligentes plane uenerabilem B. co. 
abbatem nostrum Frigidi Montis, pro reparatione ordinis nostri in Hybernia 
et animarum salute, auctoritate nostra et totius capituli generalis, abbatiam 
Vallis Dei iam in grangiam redactam, eo quod per se commode subsistere non 
poterat, nobis et domui uestre cum omul iure suo in perpetuum contulisse, 
predictam collationem et unionem a predicto co-abbati nostro iam factam 
auctoritate presentium confirmamus, monentes et mandantes quatinus sic 
studeatis in caritate proficere et regularibus disciplinis studiosius inuigilare, 
ut semper gaudeamns in domino uos talibus beneficiis ampliasse. In huius 
siquidem rei testimonium presens scriptum sigillorum nostrorum munimine 

Datum est autem hoc tempore capituli generalis anno gratie Jiccxxvii 
apud Cistercium. 

Two seals are gone. The seal of the abbot of Citeaux remains (see Plate II). 
It represents the abbot in vestments, in his right hand a crozier, and in his left 
hand an open book, the legend being sigillv.m abbatis cisterciensis." His name 
was Gautier or Galcher de Ochies. The names of the abbots of La Fertc, Pontigny, 
and Morimund were Simon, Peter, and Guy respectively.^ 

' Gallia ChviMiana, iv, 805. 

- See also Brit. Mus. Cat. of Seals, vul. v, p. 2.50, no. 18o24. 

^ QalUa Christiana, iv, 992, 1023, 818 ; xii, 445. 

46 Proceedings of the tioyal Irish Academy. 


Letters from Gautiev, abbot of Citeaux, ami tlie General Chapter to the 
abbot and convent of Duiske coafirining the union of Killenny with 
Duiske, as directed by the abbot of Froidmont. 

Dated 1227. 

Venerabilibus et in Christo dilectis abbati et conuentni Sancti Saluatoris 
in Hybernia Frater G. dictus abbas Cistercionsis totnsque conuentiis 
abbatuni capituli generalis salutem in Christo. 

Cum uere religionis augmento intelligentcs ueiierabilem coalibatem 
nostrum Frigidi Montis pro reparatione ordinis et aniniaruni salute nobis 
contulisse abbatiam Vallis Dei cum omni iure sue, ita ut de cetero non sit 
abbatia que per se commode subsistere non poterat, sed ad uos plcno iure 
pertineat, cum omnibus atl se pertinentibus, predictam coUationeni et nnionem 
presentibus litteris confirmamus, monentes et mandantes (juatinus sic studeatis 
in caritate proficere regularibus disciplinis ut semper gaudeamus in domino 
uos talilnis beneficiis ampliasse. 

Datum anno gratie millesimo ccxxvii tempore capituli generalis. 

A small piece of the seal is left. 

An early transcript of this document is extant, as well as the original 

Paragraph 13 of the Stotutes of tlie General Chapter of the Cistercians for the 
year 1227 contains the record: "abbatia de Valle Dei hue usque filia Geripontis, 
quia per se subsistere non ualct, unitur abbatiae Sancti Salvatoris cum omuibus 
bonis suis."' 


Agreement between Peter, bishop of Ossory, and his chapter with 

the abbot and convent of Duiske, confirming the latter in the 

possession of Tikerlevan, with its church, &c., for an annual rent 

of 20 shillings, a chaplain to be provided for the church, and all 

episcopal dues being reserved. 

Dated 6 December 1227. 

Hec eat conuentio facta inter Petrum episcopum Ossoriensem et capi- 
tulum cathedralis ccclesie Ossoriensis diocesis e.\ una parte et abbatcm et 
conuentum Sancti Saluatoris ex altera ; 

Videlicet, quod idem episcopus assensu capituli sui concessit etconfirmauit 
dictis abbati et conuentui totam terram de Stachmackarlewan cum ecclesia 
et aliis pertinentiis suis in proprios usus, de quibus fuerunt in possessione 
tempore confectionis huius cyrographi, et cum omnibus natiuis et eorum 
sequelis existentibus in eadem terra, a tempore quo hoc cyrographum con- 
fectum fuit in pei-petuum ; qui inde reddenD annuatim ecclesie cathedrali de 

' Printed in Martene, Thuaunis, vol. iv, 8. a. 1227. 

Bkunakd — llie Charters of the Abbey of Duislce. 47 

Kilkeimi uigiuti solidos in duobus iiuni tenniiiis, uidelicet in Iimentione 
Saucte Grucis decern solidos et in festo Saucti Kannici decern solidos ; salua 
eompetente sustentatione capellani qui eideiii eeclesie deseruiet per eosdem, 
et saluis oneribus episcopalibus. 

Et ut bee couuentio rata et iuconcussa iu posteruni pennaneat, tam 
episcopus Ossorieusis et capituluni cathedralis eeclesie de Kilkenni quaiii 
abbas et coiiueutus earn sigillis suis hiuc iude appositis corroboraueruiit. 
Confectum fuit hoc cyrographum die Sancti Nicholai anno doniinice incar- 
natiouis millesimo duceiitisimo uicesirao septimo. 

liiis testibus, Doniiuis 11. de Portu Saucte Marie, W. de Yoto, et W. de 
Wetheui, abbatibus, et dominis A. de Instioch, et O. de Saucto Johaime de 
Kilkenni, prioribus, E. rectore eeclesie de Baligauran, T. rectore eeclesie 
de Kalian, Domino J. Marescallo, et E. de Hyda tunc Seuescallo Lageuie, 
Willelmo de DruhuUe, et E. de Kardif uiilitibus, et niultis aliis. 

There are extant two copies of this charter. The Bishop's seal and the 
Chapter seal remain in partial preservation in both copies.' The charter is a 
confirmation of no. 8. 

For Peter, buliop of Ossory, see p. 34. We have met several of the witnesses 
before, viz. : Alured, jirior of Inistioge, p. 37; Osbert, prior of St. John's, p. 27 ; 
Pudph, rector of Gowran, p. 11 ; Thomas, rector of Callan, p. 31 ; John Marshal, 
p. 15 ; William de Druhelle, p. 31 ; and Robert de Cardiff, p. 40. 

Boger de Hyda obtained letters of protection on 7 May, 1228, having gone 
to Ireland in the service of William Marshal, earl of Pembroke.^ He appears 
as seneschal of Leinster in 1229,' and 1231-2.^ He witnessed the younger 
William Marshal's charters to St. John's Priory^ (in 1223) and to Carlow' (in 1225). 

The Abbey de Portu S. Alariae was Dunbrody (p. 4) ; de Voto was Tintern 
(p. 4) ; and Wetheyiey was Abingdon in co. Limerick. 


Confirmation by Peter, bishop of Ossory, and his chapter, to the convent 
of Duiske, of the church of Tulachany with the chapels of Aunamiilt and 
Grange Castri, and the tithes thereof, for the annual rent of one mark, as 
arranged by llugh, bishop of Ossory. 

Dated G December, 1227. 

Universis presens seviptum inspecturis P. dei gratia Ossoriensis episcopus 
eternam in domino salutem. 

Quouiam ea que perpetua firmitate gaudere debent ad perpetuam memoriam 
puplice debent eommendari scripture, ad uniuersitatem uestram peruenire 
uolumus, uos diuini amoris intuitu et saerosancte religiouis obtentu et assensu 
capituli eeclesie nostre cathedrali conKrmasse abbati et conueutui de Sancto 

For a reproduction of the Chapter Seal of Ossory, see Ware's Ireland, i, 397. 
• C.D.I, i, p. 1597. 3 R.T.A. 330. 

35th Report Deputy Keeper of Records, Ireland, p. 33. ■" Carrigan, iii, 3t',». 

Gluxrtae, ifcc, p. 38. 

48 Proceedings of the Eot/al Irish Academi/. 

Saluatore eeclesiam de Tulacheniiy cum omnibus pertinentiis suis et cum 
decimis giangie sue, salua una maica quani dicti abbas et conuentus leddeut 
annuatim ecclesie cathediali de Kylkenny post obitum Odonis decani de 
Kylkenny, sicut eonuenit inter Hugoneni bone memorie antecessorem uostrum 
et capitulum cathedralis ecclesie sue et dictum abbatem et conuentum, et 
prout continetur in carta eoruui ^uam habcnt de eodem episcopo : 

Confinuauimus etiam eisdem capellam de Athermolt et capellam de 
Gi-angia Castri cum omnibus earuni pertinentiis et cum decimis carundem 
grangiarum, saluis debitis seruitiis que debebautuv de eisdem capellis tempore 
confectiouis huius carte, ut omnia predicta liabeant in propiios usus. 

Et ut hec nostra eonfirinatio rata sit et stabilis, eam presentis scripii testi- 
moiiio et sigilli nostri appositione una euui sigillo capiluli nostri dignum 
duximus roborare. Coufecta fuit hec carta die Sancti Nicholai anno doniinice 
incarnalionis millesinio duceiitisimo uicesimo scptimo. 

Hiis testibus, Douiinis 11. do Portu Sanetc Marie, W. de Voto, et W. de 
Wetlieny, abbatibus et Dominis A. de Instioch, ct 0. de Sancto Johanne de 
Kylkenny. prioribus. J. Man's.scalIo,f- et 1!. de Hy<la tunc senoscnllis Lagenie, 
Wilk'lnii) de Drulielle, et 1!. d.* Kacidif, luilitilius. et midti.s aliis. 

There are tliroo extant copies of this charter, and most of the seals remain 
attached. It was confirmatory of the grants set out in nos. 7, i), and 10 ; see also 
p. 20. 

The witne,sse3 are the same as in Charter 23, which was executed on the same 
day, except that the rectors of Gowran and Callan do not attest this. 

For the situation of Annamult and Grange Castri, see p. IS. 

Confirmation by William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, of the union of the 
abliey of Killenny witii the abbey of iJuiske, as decreed by the 
General Chapter of the Cistercian Order (in no. 22). 
Dated at Caverisham," 19 Jan. [1228]. 

Omnibus presens seriptum uisuris uel audituris W. Marescallus (/omes 
Pembroc salutcm. 

Nouerit uniuersitas uestra nos diuine pietatis intuitu con6rma.sse 
unionem abbatie de Killenny cum omni iure suo et omnibus rebus ad ip.sam 
pertinentibus cum abbatia de Valle Sancti Saluatori.s, quam dominus pater 
noster fundauit, sicut continetur in statute et sanctione domini abbatis et 
capituli generalis Cisterciensium, celebrati anno uerbi incarnati millesimo 
ducentesimo uicesimo septimo. 

Et ut ista confirmatio inperpetuum liruia pen?eueret eam presenti scripto 
et sigilli nostri appositione roborauimus. 

' Near Reading. 

Bkijnakd — The Charters of Ihc Allen of Dui^hc. 49 

Testibus, Johanne de Erlestoii, StcplKiuo lU; Hereford, Godefridu fiatre 
ipsius, Haiuoue le Gras, Willelino de Paigdone, Fiaucisco le Treis, Magistris 
Hugoiie et Roberto clericis, et multis aliis. 

Datum apud Cauerisliain xiiii Kalend : Febr : 

The seal has disappeared from this charter, of which an early transcript is also 
extant in a collection made up of Ghai-ters 28, 29, 30, 35, 58, 25, 54. 

John da Erleston is probably the John d'Erlee (see p. 20) who was a signatory 
to William Marshal the elder's Foundation Charter. It would be specially fitting 
that he should be a witness to this important confirmation by William Marshal's 

Stephen de Hereford' and his brother Godfrey were sons of Adam de Hereford, 
a young follower of Eichard, earl of Clare (Strongbow), who was granted lands at 
Uathdowney, Queen's Co., and also in co. Kildare by his lord.' Stephen appears 
again as a witness to Eichard Marshal's Deforestation Charter of New Eoss in 
1233,= and also as holder of lands at Eathdowney in 1240."' 

For Hamo Grassus or le Gras, see p. 35. 

Francis le Tyeis held Marshal lands at Damach in co. Kilkenny in 124G*. 

Hugh and llobert, clerks, witnessed the charter to Carlow given by William 
Marshal the younger in 1225.° 


Confirmation by Henry, archbishop of Dublin, of the rescript of Peter, 
bishop of Ossory [no. 24], confirming the convent of Duiske in the 
possession of Tnlachany, Tikerlevan, Annamult, and Grange Castri, 
for the annual rent of one mark <o be paid to the cathedral Church of 
St. Canice, Kilkenny, after the death of Odo, dean of Kilkenny. 

Uniuersis Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit Henricus 
dei gratia Dublinensis ecclesie minister humilis eternam in domino salutem. 

Ad sacre religionis institutionem et incrementum, sicnd ex officii debito 
nobis incumbit propensius inuigilare, ita ut instituta fructificent, tenemur 
studiosius procurare, et precipue uiros religiosos pia et paterna afiectione 
protegere et confouere ; inspecta siquidem carta uenerabilis in Ghristo f ratris 
et sutfraganei nostri P. Ossoriensis episcopi, per quam dilectis in Ghristo filiis 
abbati et mouachis de Sancto Saluatore quasdam terras et qucdam beneficia 
pietatis intuitu concessit et confirmauit, eadem beneficia et terra.s predictas 
auctoritate metropolitici, prout in carta memorati episcopi et ipsius cyro- 
grapho continetur, una cum ceteris beneficiis que eisdem pia fidelium 
largitione collata fnerunt aut in posteruni iuste conferentur concedimus et 

1 R.T.A. lOL', and CaniLjau, LUivd., G. - CM. A. ii, 157. 3 Q.M.A. ii, 405. 

J C.M.A. ii, 405. = Chartae, &c., p. 38. 

K.I.A. PROC, VOL. .\X.\V, SECT. C. [7] 

50 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Et eosdern et domum siiam cum terris omnibus possessionibus et bene- 
ficiis suis sub speciali protectione nostra auctoritate predicta suscipimus. 
A prefato siquidem episcopo per caitam et cyrographum que iuspeximus 
eoncessa et confii'inata beneficia propriis duxinius exspouendaf uoeabulis. 

Videlicet; ecclesiam de Tludacheuni cum omnibus pertiuentiis suis et 
cum decimis grangie quam ibi habent, salua una marca quam solueut ecelesie 
cathedrali de Kylkenny post obitum Odonis decani de Kylkenny, et capellam 
de Aetheremolth, et capellam de Graugia Castri cum omnibus earum perti- 
uentiis et cum decimis earumdem grangiarum, saluis debitis seruitiis que 
debebantur de eisdem capellis tempore confectionis carte memorati episcopi ; 

Totam etiam tcrram de Stacniakhurlewan cum ecclesia et aliis perti- 
nentiis suis in proprios usus cum omnibus natiuis et eorum sequelis existen- 
tibus in eadem terra, qui inde reddent annuatim ecelesie cathedrali de 
Kylkenuy uiginti solidos, salua conpetenti sustentatione capellani qui cidem 
ecelesie deseruiet per eosdcm, et Siiluis honeribus episcopalibus. 

llec quidem et alia prout in predictis carta et cyrographo continetur 
predictis abbati et monachis in proprios usus suos conuertenda auctoritace 
nostra concedimus et contirmamus. In cujus rei lestimoniuui presenti scripto 
sigilluni nostrum apponi fecimus. 

Hiis testibus, Domino W. decano Sancti Patricii Dublinensis, Magistro 
Thoma Cancellario, et R Luterel Tliesaurario, Waltero de Lundres, Willelmo 
de Pyron, Magistro Johanne de Tantona, Petro capellauo, Warino clerico, et 
nmltis aliis. 

This charter must be later than 6 December, 1227 (the date of no. 24, which it 
confirms), and earlier than Nov., 1228, when Arclibisliop Henry de I.ondres died, 
after an episcopate of sixteen years. For Peter Malveisin, bishop of Ossory, see 
p. 34. 

This charter wa,-; ovidenlly granted at Dublin, the witnesses being all connected 
with St. Patrick's Cathedral, whicli had been raised to the status of a cathedral 
church early in the thirteenth century. 

n'i7/iVim Fitz Guif, the first Dean, and Tlionias de Caslello, the first Chancellor, 
had both been nominated by Archbishop Henry in 1219. Itobcrt LuttrcU had 
become treasurer in 1223. WalUr de London, William de Piro, and John de 
Taunton were canons, and appear in many documents of this period.' 

PeUr the chaplain and n'arin were among the witnesses attesting Archbishop 
Henry's charter of 1219, founding the Precentorship, Chancellorship, and Treasurer- 
ship ; Peter appearing again as late as 1242.- 

> See R.T.A. 169. 328. 

' In .\ .Vlan's Register. All these names appear in the Chartulary of St. 
Pfttrick's, commonly called " Dignit^s Decani"; e.g., see nos. 2, 20 (Proc. Koy. Ir. 
Academy. 1905, p. 481). 

Bernard — The Charters of the. Abbey of Didske. 51 


Inspeximus by tlie abbots, T. of Nclit, E. of Tintoni, T. of Kingswooil, and 
T. of Duiske of (1) a Commission from G., abbot of Cileaux, and the 
General Chapter, to the abbot of Claivvaux or his deputies to visit 
the Cistercian houses in Ireland, with plenary powers ; (2) an appoint- 
ment by E., abbot of Clairvaux, of the abbot of Stanley as his deputy ; 
and (3) a mandate by G., abbot of Citeaux, and the General Chapter to 
the Cistercian houses in Ireland to recognize the powers thus given to 
the abbot of Stanley or his deputy ; 

All these documents being of the year 1228. 

Venerabilibus et in Christo dilectis uniuersis co-abbatibus suis prioribns 
et conuentibus ceterisque personis ordinis Cisterciensis in Hibernia constitutis 
necuon et omnibus Christi fidelibus, Fratres T. et E. et T. et T. de Neht et 
Tinternia et Kingaswed et Sancto Saluatore abbates salutem in domino. 

Uniuersitati uestre presentibus patefacimus nos uenerabilium patrum 
duorum uidelicet Cistercii et Clareuallis totiusque eonuentus abbatum capituli 
geueralis autentica subscripta inspexisse in hunc modum : 

[1,] Frater G. dictus abbas Cistercii totusque eonuentus abbatum capituli 
generalis uenerabilibus et in Christo dilectis uniuersis co-abbatibus suis 
prioribus subprioribus et conuentibus ceterisque personis ordinis Cisterciensis 
in Hibernia constitutis necnon et omnibus Christi fidelibus salutem in 

Uniuersitati uestre presentibus Uteris innotescat nos abbati Clareuallensi 
et illi uel illis quos secum duxerit assumendos uel nices suas committere per 
uniuersas domes Hiberuie ordinis nostri plenariam potestatem commississe, 
ita quod possint sine alicuius contradictionis obstaculo per omnes predictas 
domos, irrequisitis patribus abbatibus, abbatias quotienscumque iioluerint 
uisitare, abbates deponere, cessiones eorum recipere, et substituere personas, 
nionaehos et conuersos amittere et expellere, gentem mutare ad quoscumque 
domos, ordinis nostri decreuerint destinare, abbatias plures coniungere, aliis 
abbatiis eiusdem deriuationis pro reformatioue ordinis perpetuo in lilias dare, 
abbatias transplantare et in grangias redigere, ecclesias et contradictores 
interdicto subponere suspendere et excomunicare, personas expellare, et si 
necessitas fuerit per brachium seculare, et omnia ordiuare et agere sicut 
crediderint expedire ; unum nobis omnibus et singulis in uirtute obedientie 
districte precipimus, quatenus eidem abbati uel uices eius agenti uel agentibus 
tanquani nobis in omnibus obediatis semper quousque redierint ad propria. 

Eogamus insuper uniuersos Christi fideles quatenus sepedicto abbati et illi 
uel illis quos secum duxerit assumere uel uices suas committere taliter 
assistere dignemini, ut ordo noster ope et opcre uestro in dicta terra retloreat 
et in statum debitum redigatur ; scientes propter hoc honorum omuium que 
in ordiue uostro fiunt uos factos esse participes. 


52 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Datum auuo gratie milessimo ducentesimo uicesimo octauo tempore 
capituli generalis. 

[2.] Venerabilibus et in Christo dilectis uniuersis eo-abbatibus suis piioribns 
et conuentibus ceterisque personis ordinis Cisterciensis inHiberniacoustitutis 
necuoii et omuibus Christi fidelibas Frater E. dictus abbas Clareuall : 
salutem in domino. 

Uniuei'sitati uestre preseutibus Uteris innotescat nos uenerabili co-abbati 
nostro de Stanleg in Wiltesyr et illi uel illis quos secum duxerit assumere uel 
uices suas committere per uniuersas domes Hibernie ordinis nostri, sicut a 
eapitulo generali nobis est commissum, plenariam potestatem commisisse; ita 
quod possit uel uices eius agenti sine alieuius contradictionis obstaculo per 
omnes predictas domos, et irrequisitis patribus abbatibus, quotieuscumque 
uoluerit abbatias uisitare, abbates deponere, cessiones eorum recipere, uel 
substituere personas, mouactios et conuersos amittere et expellere, gentem 
mutare adquoscumque domos ordinis nostri decreuerint destinare, abbatias 
plures in uuam coniungere aliis abbatibus eiusdem deriuationis pro reforma- 
tione ordinis perpetuo in filias dare, abbatias transplantare et ingrangias 
redigere, ecclesias et contradictores interdicto subponere suspendere et 
excominauieare, personas expellere, et si uecessitas fuerit per brachium 
seculare, et omnia ordinare et agere sicut uidetur expedire ; unum nobis 
omnibus efc singulis in uirtute obedientie districte precipimus quatenus eidem 
abbati uel uices eius agentibus tanquam nobis in omnibus obediatis semper 
quousque ad propria redierint. Eogamus insuper uniuersos Cliristi quatenus 
sepedicto abbati et ille uel illis quos secum duxerit assumere uel uices suas 
committere taliter asisteref dignemini, ut ordo noster ope et opere uestro in 
dicta terra refloreat et in statum debitum redigatur ; scientes propter hoc 
bonorum omnium que in ordine nostro fiunt uos factos esse participes. 

Datmu anno doniini millesimo ducentesimo uicessimo octauo die beati 
Sequani abbatis. 

'[3.] Venerabilibus et in Christo dilectis co-abbatibus suis prioribus et 
conuentibus Cisterciensis ordinis Prater G. dictus abbas Gistercii totusque 
couuentus abbatum capituli generalis eternam in domino salutem. 

Mandamus nobis in uirtute obedientie districte precipientes quatenus ad 
amuionitionem et uoluntatem uenerabilis co-abbatis nostri de Stanleg in 
Wiltesir uel eius uices agentis eatis cum eo et cum eo ad prosequendum 
neo-otium Hiberniense, secundum quod ei uisum fuerit expedire ; et si quos de 
uestris monachis uel conuersis uoluerit ad partes Hibernie destinare, uel ibi 
sint perpetuo uel ad tempera, eidem abbati uel eius uices agenti libere 
concedatis, compellantes eos ad uoluntatem ipsius abbatis. 

Datum anno gratie millesimo ducentesimo xxviii tempore capituli 

Nos igitur predictorum patrum autenticis inspectis, presentem Wallie 
guerram diuersaque pericula ex uariis causis emergentia pro oculis habentes, 
et tanto negotio debita discretione et diligentia pro posse nostro tute prouidere 
cupientes, dictis autenticis tutissime reconditis, transcripta eorunidum uerbo 

Bernard — The Charters of the Ahbeij of Duiske. 53 

ad uerbum fideliter exarata cum sigilloruiii nostroriun testimonici, nobis 
recitanda ad maiorein fideni faciendaiii, m. . . . decreuimus. 

The date of the Inspeximus, which is in tiie usual form (see p. 64), is not 
given, but tlie reference to the war in Wales would suggest that it was made about 
1282, when Edward I subdued the Welsh. 

The seals of the four abbots have disappeared. Nelit (or Neath) and Kingsivood 
were in Glamorganshire and Gloucestershire respectively. The Tintern Abbey here 
mentioned was the elder Tintern in Monmouthshire. 

The abbot of Stanley, who appears in these documents as Visitor of the Irish 
Cistercian houses in 1228, was a remarkable person. His name was Stephen dc 
Lexinton, and he was a man of high character as well as of good family. He 
entered the monastic life at the suggestion of Edmund Eich, archbishop of 
Canterbury, whose disciple he was ; and having joined the Cistercian Order about 
1221, he was very soon appointed abbot of Stanley in Wiltshire. In the year after 
he acted as Visitor of the Cistercians in Ireland, that is, in 1229, he was elected 
abbot of Savigny, an abbey near Coutances in the diocese of Avranches. On 
6 December, 1213, he was elected abbot of Clairvaux, and among his many 
activities while ruling that great monastery was the foundation of a house in Paris 
for scholars of his order. He died some time after 1256.' 

The abbot of Citeaux was Gaidier, or Walter, and the abbot of Clairvaux 
was Ralph (see p. 45). 

Composition of dispute between E., bishop of Leighlin, W., archdeacon, 
and the chapter of Leiglilin, of tlie one part, and the abbot and convent 
of Duiske of the other part, through the mediation of the abbots of 
Buildwas and Stanley, and John de Taunton, canon of St. Patrick's, 
Dublin. The convent grants to the bishop of Leighlin for the time 
being two carucates of land, near the manor of Eynnore, viz., one 
carucate which the bishop formerly held from the convent of Killenny, 
and the other caruoate extending by the Barrow and by the land 
which William Crassus held from the monks of Killenny; and the 
convent further grants to the chapter of Leighlin the tithes of these 
two carucates with the church of Fynnore, which W., the archdeacon, 
holds from the chapter : with the concurrence of S., abbot of Stanley, 
Visitor-General of the Cistercian Order in Ireland. The convent to 
be freed for ever from procurations and exactions, provided that they 
erect a church in the said territory of KiUenny, which shall have a 
secular chaplain with cure of souls, to be presented by them to the 
bishop or archdeacon : the convent to have the tithes, the bishop of 
Leighlin renouncing all further claims against the abbey of Duiske, 
arising out of its absorption of Killenny. 

Dated at Fynnore, 6 June, 1228. 

' See D.N.B. s. v. ' Lexinton, Stephen de.' 

54 Proceedings oj ihe Roi/al Irish Academy. 

Omnibus Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptuni perueneric 
E. dei gratia Leelielincnsis episcopus et W. archidiaconus eiusdemque ecclesie 
capitulum saluteiii in domiuo. 

Scire nolunius uniuersos quod inter nos ex una parte et abbatem de 
Valle Sancti Salualoris eiusdemque loci conuentum ex altera, super reniotione 
abbalie de Killenny et omnibus aliis querelis que nobis competere poterunt 
ratione prefate remotionis, mediantibus uiris uenerabilibus S. de Bildewas, 
S. de Stanleg abbalibus et Magistro Jobanne de Tantona canonico Sancti 
Patricii Dublinensis, controuersia quieuit sub hac forma : 

, Videlicet quod dicti abbas et monachi, pro bono pacis et mutuo in perpe- 
tuum inter prefatas ccclesias dilectionis, dederunt et concesserunt deo et 
ecclesie noslre et episeopis (jui pro tempore substituentur duas carucatas 
terre iuxta nianerium de Fynbawcre, illam uidelicet carucatani quam dictus 
episcopus de domo de Kyllenny ad lirmam temporalem prius tenuit, et aliam 
carucatara terre mensui-at^m inter terram eandem pro parte et iuxta pro 
parte iacenlem que extendit se in latitudine per Baruwe et in longitudine 
per terram quam tenuit Willelmus Crassus de monacbis de Kyllonny ; 

I'retcrea dederunt et concesserunt dicti abbas et monachi prefato capitulo 
Lcchelincnsi onincs dccinias dnarnm carucatarum pronominatarum, ad eccle- 
siam de Finhewere quam dictus \V. archidiaconus Lechelensis de dido 
capilulo tenet reuerteudas, concurrenlc ad hoc consensu patris abbatis dicti, 
uidelicet uiri uenerabilis Domini S. de Stanleg in Wiltesirhe tunc tempore 
uisiuitoris generalis ordinis Ciatcixjiensis in Hybernia in plenaria poteslate. 

Jlemorati uero abbas et monachi de Valle Sancti Salualoris imnumes 
cnint in perpetuum a prestatione omnium niodarum decimarum et a procvi- 
rationibus et omnibus exactionibns que Beri poterunt ratione iuris ordinarii. 
Ita tanien <iuo«l ecclesiam erigant in dicto territorio de Kyllenny ubi uiderint 
expediro, in qua t«nentcs et scruiontes eorum diuina percipiant et ecclesias- 
ticam habeant sepulturam: Cni siquidem ecclesia dcseruietur per capellanum 
secularcm (jni dicto episcopo uel archidiacono per ipsos prcsentabitur et 
respondebit tanlunimodo de cura animarum. Item vero monachi dicto capel- 
lano neccssaria ministrabunt, et ecclesiam illam et decimas et obuentiones et 
omnia alia panK-hialia integre tarn a tenentibns quam a seruientibus, qui infra 
septa terre olim spectantea ad dictam abbatiam de Kyllenny habitabunt, in 
proprios usus haboliunt in periKjtuum. 

Celerum unionem dicle abbatie de Kyllenny cum omnibus grangiis suis 
terris et omnibus aliis pertinentiis et cum omni iure suo per capitulum 
gcnerale Cisterciense factam cum abbatia de Valle Sancti Saluatoris appro- 
bamus et auctoritale pontifical! et ecclesie nostre in perpetuum confirmamus, 
renuntiantes omni actioni que nobis quacumque ratione seu quocunque 
tempore competere posset contra abbatem et conuentum de Valle Sancti 
Saluatoris occasionc prefate unionis. 

In cuius rei robur et testimonium presens instrumentum confecimus et 
sigilla nostra apposuimus. 

Hiis testibus, S. et S. de Bildewas et de Stanleg, abbatibus, Domiuo W., 
archidiacono Lecheliiicnsi, li, Thcsaurario Lcchlinensi, Magistro Johanne de 

BicKNAKD — The Charters of the Ahbci/ of Duiske. 56 

Tautona, Doiniuo Ranuliilio rectore ecclesie de Balygauran, Domino Eicardo 
tunc ulliciali Lechliiiunsi, W. do Bcudeuillc mililc, ot niultis aliis. 
Datum apud Fynowci viii Iihis Jiuiii anno gratio Mccxxvni. 

Two copies o£ this charter are extant, and also an early transcript (see p. 49, 
above). Three seals were attached to each of the former, but of the whole six only 
one remains. 

The manor of Fynuore (Killenora), where this was executed, was near Kellis- 
town in co. Carlow and in the diocese of Leighlin. It is to be observed that the 
abbey of Killenny was situate in that diocese, which accounts for the bishop of 
Leighlin's position in the case. 

Of the various personages concerned in it, Robert Fleming was bishop of 
Leighlin from 1217 to 1228 ; William was archdeacon from 1200 to 1228, when he 
succeeded Eobert Fleming as bishop ; John of Taunton was a well-known canon of 
St. Patrick's (see p. 50) ; William Crassus we have had already (see p. 10) ; for 
Ralph, the rector of Goivran, see p. 11 ; B., treasurer of Leighlin, and Richard, 
official of Leighlin, do not seem to appear elsewhere ; W. de Bendeville, knight, 
may be a kinsman of the William de Wendeval who was dapifer of King John, 
and was given a messuage in Dublin." For Ralph de Bendeville, who also may 
have been a kinsman, see p. 21. 

The abbey of Buildwas, whose abbot S. appears in this charter, was a Cistercian 
house in Shropshire. Stephen, the abbot of Stanley in Wiltshire, had been 
appointed Visitor-General of the Cistercians in Ireland, as we know from 
Charter 27. 


Inspeximus by Henry, archbishop of Dublin, of the preceding Charter 

(no. 28). 

Dated at Dublin, 1 July, I22S. 

Uniuer.sis Christi lidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit H. dei 
gratia archiepiscopus Dublinensis salutem in Domino. 

Compositionem inter uenerabilem fratrem E. Lechelinenseui episcopnm 
necuon et W. ai-chidiaeonum eiusdeniqne ecclesie capitulum ex una parte, 
et abbatem et conueutum de Valle Saneti Salvatoris ex altera, super querelis 
subscriptis amicabiliter initam inspeximus sub hac forma : Omnibus Sancte 
Matris [as in no. 28 verhalim, down to] testibus et cetera. Nor igitur quorum 
interest pro officii debito paci et tranquillitali ecclesiarum prouidere et litinm 
occasioues preseiudere, que fraternam non numquam ofl'endunt et minuunt 
caritatem, dictani compositionem ratani habeutes, approbamus et auctoritate 
metropolitaua in perpetuuui confirmamus. 

In cuius rei robur inconcussum et testimonium presens scriptum sigilli 
uostri appositione muuiuimus. 

Testibus domino S. abbate de Stanleg, W. decano Sancti Patricii Dubli- 
nensis, G. archidiacono Dublinensi, T. cancellario, E. thesaurario, et aliis. 

■ R.T.A. 437. 

56 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Datum apud Dublin anno gratie mccxxtiu K1. Julii per manum Warini 
canonici Sancti Patiicii. 

A small piece of the archbishop's seal remains ; this charter must have been 
one of the last instruments executed by him. 

Geoffrey de Turville, archdeacon of Dublin, who was one of the witnesses, was 
a man of importance. In 1237 he was Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and in 1244 
became bishop of Ossory. For the otlier witnesses who were members of the 
Chapter of St. Patrick's Cathedral, see p. 50. 

Confirmation by Stephen, abbot of Stanley, in virtue of his commission 
(no. 27), of the union of Killenuy with the convent of Duiske, as to 
which there had btcu complaint by certain persons from Fountains 
and Jery>oint. Certifietl by the abbots of Xlargam and I'uildwas and 
thirteen abbots of Irish Ci.slcrcian houses. 

Dated at St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 1228. 

Uniuersis Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit Frater 
Stephanus dictus abbas de Stanleia salutem in domino. 

Cum capitulum generale Cisterciense ad partes Hibernie nos destinare 
decreuerit in plenitudine potestatis oh ordinis ibidem reformat ionem, merito 
nos zelari eongruit pumma<jue diligentia prouidere ut que ipsius auctoritate 
statuuntur maneant illibata et prcuaricAndi audacia compescalur, nam, ut cetera 
tacearaus, nobis potcstatem plenariam contulit abs*jue alicuius obstaculo con- 
tradictionis plures al>l>atias etiam irre<juisitis prioribus abbalibus in unum 
coniungendi, aliis^iue abbatiis eiusdem deiiuationis {>crpetuo in filias dandi, 
ita quod possimus ecclesias et contradictores interdicto subponere suppendere 
et excommunic-are in super omnia ordinare et ageresicut credidimus e.xpedire. 
Abbatia siquidem qtiondam Vallis Dei ad tantani deuenerat substanlie tempo- 
ralis inopiam, mobilibus eonsumptis et immobilibus niaj^na ex parte alienatis, 
ut nee onlinis disciplinam seruare nee hospital itatem sectari sufficeret, cum 
anno gratie Mccx.xvii abbatic proxinie de Valle Sancti Sahiatoris cum omnibus 
grangiis tcrris et aliis rebus .suis insui>er cum oumi iure suo iiitegre unita est, 
auctorilate capituli memorati, ut sic de cetero tam monachi ipsius quam con- 
uersi sub itigo degant regulari et norma discipline, qui prius in animarum 
suaruin i>ericulum et ordinis nostri gniite scandalum sub pretextu penurie foras 
euagando uiuebant dissolute. L'ui quideui slatuto auctorilate tanla firmiter 
approbate et sigillis uirorum uenerabilium tam Domini Cisterciensis quam 
quatuor primorum abbatum pleuius confiimato, prout accepimus in occulto, 
quidam submunuurani, utpote quidam de Fontanis et de Jeriponte, quasi 
futuris temporibus opus tam auctenticum possent irritare, propter quod 
simplicium et iuris ignarorum turbant conscientias et trahunt in errorem. 

Nos igitur quorum interest in hac parte, quam sit amica contemplation! 
pacis securitas et odiosa turbatio attendentes, ut omnis scrupuhis tollatur in 

BicRNARD — The Charters of the Ahhei/ of Ihdske. 57 

posterum et precludatui' occasio maligno, presertiiii cum in confirmationibus 
qnas Fontaneiiscs habent a capitulo gcnerali abbatia nuoiulam Vallis Dei que 
in giaiigiam reddita est abbatie de Saucto Saluatore excipiatur, de uiroriiin 
aucteiiticorum summequc peritorum maxiiiie aiitem subscriptonun abbatum 
consilio unaniiiii et consensu, dictam unionem Vallis Dei cum abbatia de 
Valle Sancti Saluatoris tarn iu bonis suis mobilibus quam immobilibus 
firmiter appro bamus et auctoiitate, supradicta nobis in potestate plenavia 
tradita in perpetuum, confirmamus. Insuper uniuersis tani abbatibus quam 
monachis et conuersis quacumtpie fuerint perpetuum iniponimus silentium, 
ne sibi contra prefatam ordinationem aliquatenus reclamare uel ipsam quomo- 
dolibet audeant perturbare, decernentes irrifcum et inane quicquid in contrarium 
ali(iuo tempore impetratum nel quomodocumque fuerit attemptatum. 

In liuius si(|uidem rei robur et consensus ac confirmationis in perpetuum 
testimonium subscripti abbates una nobiscum sigilla sua apposuerunt ; uide- 
licet, J. de Margan, S. de Bildevvas, A. de Sancta Maria iuxta Dublin :, 
W. de Magio, M. de Valle Salutis, Philippus de Jeriponte, E. de Sancta Cruce, 
H. de Eeatitudine, E. de Portu Beate Marie, . . . de Ilosaualle, W. de Wetlieni, 
W. de Voto, J. de Tracton, E. de Grenardo . . . de Aruicampo. 

Datum apud Sanctam Mariam iuxta Dublin : anno gratie mccxxyiii. 

All the fifteen abbatieal seals, formerly attached, have disappeared from this 

The union of Killenny with Duiske was long resented by the abbey of Jerpoint, 
of which Killenny had been a daughter house, and we shall meet with the dispute 
again (nos. 85, 86). Complaints seem to have been made, after the union had been 
formally ratified (see nos. 19-22), by monks of Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, as well 
as by those of Jerpoint, which had been affiliated to Fountains by an Act of the 
General Congregation of the Cistercians in 1227.' 

For Stephen, abbot of Stanley, see p. 53. 

Besides the abbots of Margam- (in Glamorganshire) and of Buikhras (in 
Shropshire), we have here the certificate of thirteen Irish Cistercian abbots, viz. : — 

A., abbot of St. Mary's, Dublin. 

TF., abbot of Nenay, situated about 7 miles west of Limerick, and called • de 
Magio ' because of its proximity to the river Maigue. Nenay is not to be con- 
founded with Nenagh in co. Tipperary. 

M., abbot of Baltinglass (de Valle Salutis), co. Wicklow. 

Philip, abbot of Jerpoint, co. Kilkenny. 

B., abbot of Holy Cross, near Thurles, co. Tipperary. 

H., abbot of Bective (de Beatitudine), co. Mealh. 

B., abbot of Dunbrody (de Portu Beatae Mariae), co. Wexford. 

The abbot of Monaslercvan (de Eosea Valle), co. Kildare. 

T7., abbot of Wetheney or Abingdon in co. Limerick. 

TF., abbot of Tintcrn (de Voto), co. Wexford. 

J., abbot of Tracton (de Albo Trantu), co. Cork. 

ii., abbot of Abbeylarha (de Grenardo), co. Longford ; and 

The abbot of Kilcooley (de Arvicampo), co. Tipperary. 

' See Marteue s. a. 1227. 

- His name was Joh}i de Golddive ; see W. de Gray Bu'ch, Margam Abbeij, p. 221. 

K.I. A. rUOC, VOL. XXXV, SECT. c. [8] 

58 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Confirmation bv Peter, bishop of Ossory, with his chapter, to the conven 
of Duiske. of the churches and chapels of Tulachany, Tikerlevan, 
Annamult, and Grange Gastri. after the decease or cession of Master P. 
of Christ Church, notwithstanding the presentation made to him. 

Dated at Kilkenny, 7 Sept., 1228. 

Uniuersis Sancte ilatris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit 
P. dei gratia Ossoriensis episcopus salutem in domino. 

Quoniam que intuitu dei et fauore religionis de assensu capituli nostri deo 
et abbalie de Sancto Saluatore et monachis ibidem deo seruientibus indulsimus 
et concessimus nullatenus uolumus irritari : De assensu dicti capituli nostri 
cathedrali.s concedimus et auctoritate pontificali confirmamus, quatinus non 
obstante presentatione facta Magistro P. de Christi ccclesia, libere liceat et 
akstine omni contradictione dictis monachis, post decessum uel cessioncm 
memorati iiiagistri P.. tam ecclesianim quam capellarum de Thalachenni, 
Tacniakcarlewan, Aethcremold, et Grangia Castri possessionem, ingredi et 
in projirios usus conuertere, cum omnibus perlinentiis suis, sicud in autcntico 
instniniento tam sigillo nostro quam capituli nostri cathedralis anno gratie 
MCC uicesimo septimo roborato continetur. Hec in alitjuo, ])er predictam 
pre.sentationem memorati Magistri P aud institulionem per nos factam, 
scriptcnim a nobis et capitulo nostro prius obtentonmi uigor minuatur aud 

In cuius roi robiir inconcussum et perpetuum te'^timonium confirmationis 
capitulum cathe<lralis ecclesie nostre una nobiscuni presenti scripto sigillum 
suum apposujt. 

Teatibu.s Domino Stephano abbate de Stanlegh in Wilteschyris, Domino 
Philip]x> abljate de JerijMjnte, Odonc decano de Kilkenny, Almarico archi- 
deaoono Ossoriensi, ISicanlo de Gninstede, Galfrido WiWrtb, Willelmo de 
Guileford, canonicis ecclesie de Kylkenny, Magi.>*tro Florencio, Fratre 
Willehno niojiachn de Sancto Saluatore, et multis aliis. 

Datum anno gratie M.c.c.xxviii septimo Idus SeptemViris aput Kylkenny. 

This is supplementary to, and confirmatory of, Charter no. 24. The bishop's 
seal is gone, bat the chapter seal remains. We do not know anything further of 
' Master P. of Clirist's Church.' who was entitled to the nest presentation. 

We have had before VeUr Malceiiin, bishop of Ossory (p. 84) ; Stephen, abbot 
of SlnnUy ip. " ' of Jerpfiint (p. 57) ; Odo, dean of Ossory (p. 27) ; 

AniAlmaric, _ry(p. 27). 

Eichard de GnimUde, Wilfrid Wiberd, and William de Gvde/ord, canons of 
Ossory. appear again a .'a deed in the Register of St. Thomas' Abbey.' 

We do not know an;. Ma.<iUr Florence or of Brother William, a monk of 

Dniske Abbey. 

' R.T.A. 314. 

Bernard — The Charters of the Atjheij of Duiake. 59 

Inspexiiiius by William, bisliop of Leighliii, of tlie Letters from the abbots 
of Citeaux, la Ferte, routigiiy, Clairvaux, and Morimuiid, confirming 
tlie union of Killenuy with iJuiske (no. 21). 

W. dei gratia Leglinensis episcopus luiiuersis presentes literas inspecturis 
uel audituris salutem in domino sempiternam. 

Discretioni uestre duximns declarare nos literas uenerabilium patrum 
de Cistercio . . de Firmitate . . de Pontiniaco . 

do Clareualle et . . de Morinuuido abbatum inspexisse et manibus 
nostris coutrectasse sub hac forma eonpositas : Fratres G. Cistercii [cis in 
no. 21, verbatim to] anno gratie Mccxxvii apud Cistercium. 

Ut igitur fides certissima super nos adhibeatur presenti scripto sigillum 
nostrum apposuimus. 

The bishop's seal has disappeared from this charter. 

The abbey of Killenny was in Leighlin diocese, and therefore confirmation of 
the union by the bishop of that see was necessary.' 

William le Chauniiwr, bishop of Leighlin, and formerly archdeacon, succeeded 
to the see on Robert Fleming's death, which (see uo. 28) must have been subsequent 
to 6 June, 1228. William was elected bishop by the Dean and Chapter, wilhout 
waiting for the royal licence, and this caused considerable delay in his coosecration. 
The present charter cannot, therefore, be earlier than the end of 1228 or the 
beginning of 1229. 


Inspeximus and Confirmation by William, bishop of Leighlin, with the 
consent of his chapter, of the Confirmation by E., bishop of Leighlin, of 
the union of Killenuy with Duiske. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos preseus scriptum perueuerit W. dei 
gratia Lechlinensis episcopus salutem et beuedietionem. 

Licet omnibus quibus deus preesse nos uoluit teueamur prodesse, maxime 
cum illis nos conuenit paierne dilectiouis curam sollicitius impendere, quos 
prepollere nouimus artiores uite et religionis decore. Inde est quod nos 
diuini amoris intuitu et sacrosancte religionis obteutu per assensum capituli 
ecclesie nostre cathedralis, iuspecta carta uenerabilis in Christo patris et 
predecessoris nostri E. bone memorie Lechlinensis episcopi, uuionem Vallis 
Dei quondam abbatie cum omnibus graugiis sius et terris et omnibus aliis 
pertineuciis et cum omni iure suo, per uisitatores capituli geueralis Cister- 
ciensis in pleuaria potestate ad sacre prouentum reUgiouis prouide factam, 
et per capitulum generale Cisterciense approbatam et consummatam cum 
abbatia de Valle Sancti Saluatoiis, approbamus et auctoritate poutificali et 

See p. 55, above. 


60 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ecclesie nostre cathedralis abbati et monachis Sancti Saluatoris ordiuis 
Cisteiciensis in perpetuum confirmamus, prout in auteutico memorati 
episeopi predecessoris nostri uerbo ad uerbum plenius eontinetui-. 

In cuius rei robur inconcussHin et perpetuum testimonium confirmationis 
capitulimi cathedralis ecclesie nostre una nobiscum present! scripto sigillum 
suuni apposuit. 

Teste capitiilo nostro, et Domino A. priore de Instioch, Magistro H. i-ectore 
ecclesie de Catberlach, Willelmo le Poer clerico, et aliis. 

The two seals remain attached to this charter (see Plate II i. The chapter seal 
represents Leighlin Cathedral. The bishop's seal has both an obverse and a 
reverse. The obverse shows the bishop in canonicals, with pastoral staff, giving 
his blessing, and the legend is : 


The reverse shows the crowned Virgin and Child, with the bishop kneeling beneath. 
The legend is a rough hexameter verse : 

iji SIS EOGo FiLi (te wille)lmo dvx ma vite, 

a prayer on behalf of the bishop which is put in the Virgin's mouth. Mr. E. C. R. 
Armstrong has pointed out to me that a counter-seal of William of Coriihill, bishop 
of Lichfield (1215-12281, has a similar device and inscription.' 

The original Cor.timiaiion of the union of the two convents, by Robert Fleming, 
bishop of Lc-ighlin, does not seem to be extant ; but this Inspesimus must be 
practically of the same date as no. 32, viz., at the end of 1228 or the beginning of 

For Alured, prior of Inittioge, who is a witness, see p. 37. H., rector of Carlow, 
is not known to us elsewhere. iVilliam le I'oer, clerk, attested many charters of 
this period.' 


Inspeximus by Luke, archbishop of Dublin, of the Lett«r8 from G., abbot of 
Citeaux, and the General Chapter of the order (no. 22), confinuing the 
union of Killenny with Duiske: at the request of the convent of 
Duiske for their greater security. 

Dated at Kilkenny, 13 May, 1229. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus presentes literas inspecturis L. dei gratia Dubli- 
neusis archiepiscopus salutem etemam in domino. 

Uniuersitali uestre notum facimus nos literas uenerabilis uiri G. abbatis 
Cisterciensis totiusque conuentus abbatum capituli generalis sub hac forma 
inspexisse: Venerabilibus et in Christo dilectis abbati et couuentui Sancti 
.Saluatoris [as in A^o. 22 verbatim <o] datum anno gratie Mccxxvu tempore 
capituli generalis. 

' See Brit. Mua. Cat. of Seals, i, p. 24^5, no. Hj3>J. 

' See R.T.A. 82, 12», M7 ; OLA. i, 114, llti; ii, 193. 

BuiiNAKD — llic Charters of Ihc Abbey of Duiske. 61 

Nos igitur ad petitionem uenerabilium abbatis ct conuentus de Sancto 
Saluatore, et iiiaiorem roi secuvitateni iie super dicto negotio ab aliquo possit 
dobitarc, presentes litcras iiostio sigillo niunilas diclis abbati et conucutui 
Sancti Saluatoris concessinius testimoniales. 

Datum apud Kilkenny tertiodecim die May, pontificatus uostri anno 

Archbishop Luke's seal has disappeared. He succeeded to the see of Dublin at 
the end of the year 1228. See p. 72. 

For Gauiicr, abbot of Citeaux, see p. 45. 

Confirmation by Ealph, abbot of Glairvaux, witli his convent, of the 
action of Stephen, abbot of Stanley, who was his deputy, in uniting 
the abbey of Killeuuy to that of Duiske. 

Dated at Glairvaux, 4 December, 1229. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit Frater 11 
dictus abbas Clareuallis et eiusdem loci conuentus salutem in domino. 

Quoniani uirum uenerabilem dominum S. coabbatem nostrum de Stanleg 
in Wyltesir ad partes Hyberuie loco nostro ob ordiuis in ibidem formationem, 
in plenetudine potestatis nobis a capitulo general! anno gratie Mccxx octauo 
commisse, destinare decreuimus, merito nos et zelari cougruit summa dili- 
geutia prouidere, ut que statuuutur maueaut illibata et preuaricaudi audacia 

Nos igitur quorum interest in hac parte quam sit arnica contemplatione 
pacis securitas et odiosa turbatio, attendentes ut omnis scrupulus toUatur in 
posterum et precludatur occasio maliguorum, consilio unanimi et consensu 

ordinationes necnon et immutationes confirmationes 

coabbatem nostrum dicto anno facta firmiter approbamus et auctoritate 
nostra confirmamus ; insuper uuiuersis tarn abbatibus quam monachis et 
■ conuersis unumcumque fuerint inperpetuum imponimus silentium, ne sit 
contra prefatam ordiuatioueui aliquatenus reclamare uel ipsam quomodolibet 
audeant perturbare, decementes irritum et inane quicquid in contrarium aliquo 
tempore impetratum uel quomodocunique fuerit attemptatum. 

In huius siquidem robur et perpetuum testimonium presenti scripto 
sigillum nostrum duximus apponendum. 

(Datum) anno gratie mccxx nouo. In Clareualle die beati Sigiraui 

The original of the above charter is not extant ; but we have a transcript 
(see p. ■19) of seven charters relating to the union of Killenny with Duiske, of which 
this is one. It is a Confirmation of no. 80, the abbot of Stanley having acted as 
the abbot of Clairvaux's deputy, as we know from no. 27. 

It is dated 1229 ' die beati Sigirani abbatis,' i.e. 4 December. 

For Balph de Pinis, abbot of Glairvaux, see Gallia Christiana, iv, 805. 

62 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academij. 


Grant by Adam de Sumeri for the good of his soul and of the soial of 
Chire, his wife, to the convent of Duiske, of the tithes of his lands at 
Denghen and Acherloski, with the obventions belonging to the chapel 
of these lands, after the death or cession of the possessor of the tithes, 
Thomas de Caunteton, rector of the church of Glennovere. 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad qiios presens scriptum peruenerit 
Adam de Sumeri eternam in domino salutem. 

Sciatis quod ego, pro salute auime mee et Clarec uxoris mee et liberorum 
nostrorum ac predeccssorum et successorum nostrorum, dedi et concossi et hac 
presenti carta mea confirmaui abbati dc Valle Sancti Saluatoris et monachis 
ibidem deo seruientibus omues decimas tene mee que dicitur Dcnghen et . . . 
terius terre mee que dicitur Atlierloski, cum omnibus obuentionibus ad 
capellam earundem terranim pertiueutibus, percipiendas in puram et per- 
petuam clemosinam iure perpetuo ; postquam Thomas de Kantiutune rector 
ecclesie de Glennoucre, qui in presenti decimas ))OSsidot memoratas, do hac 
uita discesscrit, uel uitam suam muUuerit. 

Et ego ct heredes mei wai-antizabinnis abbali et cdinu'niui donuis memo- 
rale dictas decimas cum obuentionibus contra omnes homines ct contra oumes 

In hiiius donationis mee testimonium ci munimen scripLu )pifsciili sigillum 
nieum apposui. 

Hiis testibue, Willelmo de Sumeri, Radulfo de Sumeri et Dauid de Sumeri 
fratribus meis, l{ol)erto I)aui<l et Kadulfo filiis meis, Willelmo de Kantintune 
filio Ado de Kanliutune et Itheil fratrc eius, Kicardo IJloet, et multis aliis. 

Tbo lauds named in this instrument art- the subject of later charters (nos. 50, 
61, 52), from wliicli it appears that they were in co. Cork in the diocese of Cloyne. 

Deuijhen or I >cnf)hc»ca(jhnach is probably to be identified with Ballindangan, 
which is near Glaiiworlii and in the barony of Fcrmoy. Glauworth was anciently 
called Glanorc (Glennovere = 'Gleann-iiibhair,' the glen of the yew tree), and this 
name still remains as that of a prebend of Cloyne Cathedral. 

Denghen means ' a fort ' or ' stronghold,' and Dcngheneachnach may stand for 
' the Fort of the Eoganachts,' i.e. the descendants of Eoghan Mor, a branch of the 
clan having settled near Glanorc. 

Acherloski (or Acheradloski = ' Achad loiscthi,' a rich, fertile field) was also in 
the barony of Fermoy. 

Adam dc Sumcri's seal hsis disappeared from this grant, which may be dated 
about 1230. We have already had bis family before us (p. 43), several of whom 
are named in this document, and also in no. 50. 

Several members of the de Caunteton family also appear in our charters. Here 
we have TT*i7/)<jm dc CaunUton, who is probably the man we have had before 
(pp. 21, 35), and his brother Ithkl, who nere sous of Adam de Caunteton. 
Thomas dc Caunteton, the rector of Glanore, may be identified with the person of 

Bkunard — The Charters of the Ahbejj of Diiishe. 63 

that name who was a clerk in the diocese of Cashel about 1219 :' he appears again 
in nos. 42, 59. 

A BicJiord Bluet signed one of Strongbow's ehartci's (before 117G),- but tlie 
witness to this instrument can liardly bo the same man. 


Petition from G., abbot of Citeaux, and the General Chapter of the 

Cistercian Order, to Pope Gregory IX, to confirm the union of the 

abbey of Killenny with the abbey of Duiske as directed by the abbot 

of Froidmontas Visitor (no. 19), on the general ground that a Cistercian 

house ought not to be maintained separately if it cannot support an 

abbot and twelve monks. -r^ . , ,..,.-,„ 

Dated 1230. 

Beatissimo patri et domino G. dei gratia Summo Pontifici suus Prater G. 
dictus abbas Cistercii et totus conuentus abbatum capituli generalis se ipsos 
ad pedes, et tara-deuotum quam debitum in omnibus famulatum. 

Sanctitati nestre necessarium duximus reclamare quod ante hos annos, 
uisitatione facta per co-abbatem nostrum Frigidi Montis in abbatia Vallis 
Dei in Hybernia illuc in potestate plenaria ordinis nostri, per nos missum 
cum earn inueniret possessionibus et rebus ita extenuatam quod nee sibi 
sufficere posset nee transenntibns hospitibirs et pauperibus iuxta morem 
ordinis earitatis obsequia ministrare, idem uisitator ne diuina domus in se 
ipsa omnino marcesseret et pro defectu necessariorum rigor ordinis in ea 
penitus deperiret, ipsam in grangiam pronida discretione redegit et domui 
Saneti Saluatoris in Hybernia cum omnibus pertineutiis suis perpetuo iure 
concessit ; laudabili nostri ordinis consuetudini et antiquorum patrum eonsti- 
tutioni inherendo qua utiliter dispensatur ne aliqua domus maneat abbatia 
que duodecim monachis et abbati cum honestate non possit sufficere. 

Nos igitur factum tale sicut prouide factum est approbantes et assensu 
capituli generalis sigillo nostro confirmantes beatitudini uestre supplicannis 
attentius quatenus illud uestro dignemini confirmationis munere roborare et 
latorem presentium propter hoc ad pedes s.anctitatis uestre directum in hiis 
et in'aliis negotiis suis habere plenius commendatum, maxime cum metropoli- 
tanus insimnl et diocesanus, una cum capitulo suo cathedrali, necnou et priu- 
ceps terre ordinationi dicte assensum probuerint, et instrumentis puplieis et 
autenticis sigillis suis inunitis duxerint confirmandum. 

Bene et diu conseruet dominus sanctitatem uestram ecclesie sue sancte. 

Datum anno gratie Mccxxx tempore capituli generalis. 

The seal remains attached to this document, but all that can be read of the 
legend on it is >J< si is )$( 

An early transcript of the Petition is also extant in an Inspeximus of Charters 
55, 37, 39, G4, G5, which ends thus: 

" Nos igitur predictorum patrum autenticis iuspectis, presentem Hybernio 
1 R.T.A. 239. -CM. .A. ii. 154. 

64 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

guerram diuersaque pericula de uariis causis emergentia pro oculis babentes, et 
tanto negotio debita discretioiie et diligentia pro posse nostro tnte prouidere 
cupientes, dictis aucteuticis tutissiuie reconditis, transcripta eorumdem de uerbo ad 
uerbum fidelium exonerata cum sigillorum nostrorum testimouio nobis reeitanda 
ad majorem fideui faciendam ad instanciaru predictorum patrum ni . . . de- 

TLe date of this Inspesimiis is not given. See p. 52 for a similar form. 


Grant by John St. John, bishop of Fcnis, with the consent of his cliapter, 
to the convent of Duiske of all the land of Kilalchuy, with its 
appurtenances, for an annual rent of ten sliillini.'s, U> be paid half- 
yearly, at Ea.'iter and Mieliaclnia.s. 

I'niuer.-iis Sancte Malris Ecclesie lilii.<! ad i|iiiis prcsens scriptuni peruenerit 
J. ili'i j^ratia Fernensis epi.scopus et<?rnani in l)iiniiii(.i saluteni. 

All uniuereitatis uestre noticiani uolunius penienire uos diuine caritatis 
intuitu et .sacro.'sancte reliuionia ohtentu, ile a.'^sensu et consensu canonicoruin 
nostrorum et totius capituli nostri de Femes, dedisse et concessisse et hac 
presenti carta nostra confirniasse Deo et Sancte Marie et monachis de Valle 
Sancti Saluatoris Ci.stoi-ciensis ordinis totani terrani de Kilalchuy cum 
omnibus suis jw^rtinentiis et cum omnibus liberlatibus et liberis consuetudi- 
nibus ad pi-efatam terrani spectantiljus ; tenendam et habendam de nobis 
et successoribus nostris in i>eriK?tuum libere quiete integre et pacifice; 

rcddeniio inde annuatira nobis ct successoribus nostris decern solidos 
esterlingoruui, uidelicet ad Pascha quinque solidos et ad festum Sancti 
Michaelis qiunque solidos pro omni .seruicio et exactionc que nos uel successores 
nostros (juocunique casu possint contingere. 

Insuper eciam cisdeni ecclesiam de Kilalchuy cum omnibus suis pertinen- 
tiis in puram et j>eq»i*tuam elcnuwinam caritatiueconcedimus ctconfirniamus. 

Ut autom hcc nostra donatio et con6riiiatio i>eipetuam forciantur finni- 
tatem presenti scripto sigiliuui nostrum una cum .sigillo capituli riostri 
cathe<1ralis duximus apfK)nendum. 

Hiis te.stibu.s, Rcginaldo archidiacono Femensi, Magislro Galfrido de 
Sancto Johanne tunc ofliciali Femensi, Magistro Willelmo de Foresta tunc 
officiali, Ma_'istro Adam de Oxonia, Magistro Waltero de Wexeford, 
Domino Willelmo de I'rendelgast. Iladulfo do Sumcri.Danid ilcSumcri.Dauid 
de Hiutebei^e, et multis alii.s. 

A pricU of this charter is given in the extracts from the Duiske papers which 
we have called L (fol. 82). The chapter seal attached to it is preserved ; but of the 
bishop's seal only a small piece remains. There is another copy of a similar 
charter extant, sealed, but without the names of witnesses, in which the land in 
question is called Kilchomoch, and is granted " cum omnibus decimis et obuen- 
tionibus ipsam contingentibus." 

Bernaud — The Charters of the Ahhei/ of Diiiikr. 65 

The place h'ilalchtiij or Kilcltoinocli or KUdalcujan (as it is described in L) or 
Killacy (as Ware calls it) is among various places resigned to tlio bishop of Ferns 
and his chapter by an agreement with Gerald de Prondorgast in the year 12'iO.' 
In that agreement it is called Killalethm, and it may safely be identified with ihe 
modern Eilialligan in Monart parish, in the barony of Scarawalsh, co. Wexford. 
Several of the persons named in this agreement are concerned witli the charter now 
before us, and the two instruments must be of the same date, i.e. the latter part of 
the year 1230. 

John St. John, who was the first Anglo-Norman bishop of Ferns (1223-1253), 
became Treasurer of the Exchequer at Dublin in 122G. flcginald de Dene was 
archdeacon of Fejins between 1228 and 1230, in which latter year he died.- 
WHliam de Forcsta or Forest was first ' official ' of Ferns, and afterwards ' official ' 
of Ossoi-y. (The duties of an ' official ' were akin to those discharged by a Chancellor 
or Vicar-General.) In the former capacity lie appears in a charter of Dunbrody 
Abbey about 1228,^ and in the Agreement between the bishop and Gerald de 
Prendergast above mentioned. He attests without any designation of his office a 
Kells charter of about the year 1228, and two other charters of Gerald de 
Prendergast about 1230.' At the time when he attested our Charter 38, he was 
official of Ossory (not of Ferns, the official of Ferns being Geoffrey St. John, who 
afterwards became bishop of that see), and in this capacity he also attested a charter 
later than 1232,= and a charter made in the time of Luke, archbishop of Dublin 

Adam of Oxford is probably the ' magister Adam ' who attested another of 
bishop John St. John's charters about 1280.' William de Prendergast we have 
had before (p. 42) ; he was a witness to the agreement above mentioned between 
bishop John St. John and Gerald de Prendergast, his kinsman, as was also Fialph 
de Sumeri, for whom, as for his brother David de Sumcri, see p. 43. 

Walter de Wexford was a witness to the grant made to the Dominicans at 
Kilkenny by bishop Geoffrey de Turville (1244-1250).* 

For the family of Vavid de Hinteherg see p. 17. 


Confirmation by Pope Gregory IX of the union of the abbey of Killenny 
with tlie abbey of Duiske. 

Dated at the Lateran, 9 Jan., 1231. 

Gregorius episcopus seruns seruorum dei dilcctis filiis abbati et eonnentni 
Sancti Saluatoris in llibernia Cisterciensis ordinis saluteni et apostolieam 

Solet annuere sedes apostolica piis notis et honestis petentinni pvecibns 
fauorem beniuolum impertiri. E.k parte siquidem uestra fuit nobis huniililcr 
supplicatum ut, cum . . abbas Frigidi Montis Cisterciensis ordinis totiusque 

' See Hore's Ferns, \^. 340. 

- Addl. MSS. Brit. Mus. 4793, fo. 15, as quoted in Hore's Ferns, p. 347. 

3 C.M.A. ii, 172. > R.T..\. 18(1. 180. ■"• R.T.A. .".4(;. 

" Hore's Duncannon Fori, p. 312. " It.T.A. IHO. * Carrignn, i, 38. 


66 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

eiusdem ordinis tuuc in Hibeniia uisitator doiuuiu de Valle Dei ciiin 

pertiuentiis suis, uenei'abilium fratruin nostioium Dublinensis 

archiepiseopi, . . Lechliiiensis episcopi eiiis sufliagaiiei diocesaui, et iiobilis 
uiri W. Marescalli Comitis Pembrochie doiuiiii loci accedente consensu, 
deliberatione prouida pro eo quod fratribus eiusdem ordinis degentibus tunc 
in ipsa in niultoruni seaudalum dissolute uiuentibus paupertate niniia 
primebatur, grangiam esse statuerit, uobisque concesserit ut ipsam possitis 
tamquam grangiam perpetuo possidere, quod super hoc ab eodeni abbate Frigidi 
Montis prouide factum est, diguareniur apostolico munimine corroborare : 

Nos ergo ueslris iustis precibus iuclinati quod super^hoc .... dicto 
abbate Frigidi Montis rite ac prouide . . . et in litteris confectis exinde 
diciiur plenius conlineri, aucloritate apostolica confirmanius et presentis 
seripti pa(irociui<i) couimunimus. 

XuUi ei-go oninino hoininuui liceat hanc paginam nostre confirmationis 
infringere uel ei ausu tcnierario contraire. 

Si quis a\ileni liocattenijitare presunii)seritindignationeui dei oninipolcnlis 
et beatoruni Petri et Pauli aposlolorum eius se nouerit incui-surum. 

Datum Latci-ani V Idus Jaiiuarii pontiticatus uostri anno quarto. 

Wo have not the original of this charter, but an early transcript is extant (see 
p. 08). Neither of this instrument, nor of no. '10, is there any note in tlie pub- 
lished Calendar of Papal l/iUers. 


Confirmation by Pope Gregoiy IX of the agreement between Peter, bishop 
of Ossorj', with liis chapter, and the convent of Duiske, as to tlie 
churches of Tulachany and Tikerlevan (no. 31), mediated by the abbot 
(if .'vivigny. then aljbot of .StJinley, and the sultpriorof Stanley, now the 


Dated at the Lateran, 20 Jan. 12:!1. 

Oregoriu."* episcoptis .icruus seniorum dei dilectis filiis abbate et conuentui 
Sancti Sahiatoris in Hiljemia Cist^^i-ciensis ordinis .salutem et apostolicam 

Ea que iudicio uel concordia terminantur fimia debent et illibata persistere, 
et, ne in recidiue cont«ntionis scnipulum labantur, apostolico conuenit presidio 

£apropt«r dilecti in domino filii uestris iustis postulationibus inclinati, 
compositioncm que, inter uos e.v parte una et uenerabileni fratrem nostrum 
episcopum et capitulum Ossoriense ex altera, super de Tliulacliannu et de 
Stannakhurlewan ecclesiis decimis possesaionibus ct rebus aliis, mechantibus . . . 
ablwle de Salbiniaco tunc abbate de Stanleia uisitatore totius ordinis in 
Hibernia et . . . subpriore de Stanleia nunc abbate loci eiusdem, amieabiiiter 
intcrueuit, sicut sine prauitate prouide facta est, et ab utraque parte spectate 
recejjta et hactenus pacifice obseruata, auctoritate apostolica conGrmamus et 
pre.'feiitis .seripti patrocinio roninmninius. 

Bkrnakd — The Charters of the Abbeij of Duiske. 67 

Nulli ergo omniiio liDUiiiiuiii liceat ])aginam iiostie confirmatiouis iufringere 
uel ei ausu temeiarid cimtniiie. Siquis autoui lioc attemptare presumpserit 
indiguatioiioin oiiniipoLcntis dei et beatoruiu retii cl I'anli apostoloium eius 
se nouerit iuciusiuum. 

Datum Lateraui xiii Kaknul Febiuaiii pontificatus iiostri anno. . . . 

This was probably executed about the same time as uo. 39. The possession of 
the churches of Tuhichany and Tikerlevan was the subject of many negotiations 
between the diocesan and the conventual authorities (see Charters 8, 9, 10, 23, 24, 
26, 31) ; and it would seem from the language of this instrument that agreement 
had finally been reached by the good offices of Stephen, abbot of Stanley, who came 
as Visitor-General of the Cistercian order in Ireland to inspect the Irish Cistercian 

Granted by Gerald de Prendergast, for the good of his soul, &c., to the 
convent of Duiske, of Eathboghal in Bantry, with three carucates of 
land in fee, which Koger Galgheil held from his father Philip de 
Prendergast (see no. 17) and Eichard de Marisco granted to the 
convent (no. 16) ; and also of Piathsalach, with two carucates of land 
which they hold from the prior and monks of Glascarrig ; these five 
carucates to be free from rent, except for half a mark which Philip de 
Hinteberg and his heirs ought to pay instead of the escheats of the 
two carucates of Eathsalach. 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit 
Geraldus de Prendelgast in domino salutem. 

Nouerit uuiuersitas uestra me pro salute anime mee et animarum 
antecessorum meorum et successoi'um concessisse et hac present! carta mea 
confirmasse Deo et abbatie Sancte Marie de Valle Sancti Saluatoris et 
monachis ibidem deo seruientibus Eathbachlach cum tribus carrucatis terre 
in feodo de P>entrie, illam scilicet quam Eogerus Galgheil tenuit de patre meo 
et Eicardus de Marisco eisdem monachis dedit et incartauit. 

Insuper concessi et confirmaui predictis monachis memorati loci Eath- 
salach cum duabus carrucatis terre quas ipsi tenent de priore et monachis de 
Glascarrach, que terra sita est iuxta dictas tres carrucatas uersus aquilouem 
in dicto feodo de Bentrie. 

Preterea dedi concessi et confirmaui memoratis monachia omnem rcdditum 
et omne seruicium quod ad me uel ad heredes meos de dictis c^uinque carru- 
catis terre pertinent uel pertinere poterunt in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, 
salua mihi et heredibus meis dimidia marca argenti quam Philippus de 
Inteberge et heredes sui aunuatim mihi et heredibus meis soluere debent, pro 
ascheanciisf que aecidere possent de dictis duabus carrucatis terre de Eath- 
salach ; quam dimidiam marcam si predictus Philippus et heredes sui mihi et 

' See p. 53 for Stephen de Lexinton. 


68 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

heredibus meis non peisoluerint, noii teuebuntur monaclii nee terie eoriim 
nee homines sui indc respondeie ; scilicet ad me et ad heiedes uieos per- 
tinebit dictum Philippum et heiedes suos compelleie ad illius diniidie inarce 
sohitionem, ita qnod monachi eriiut quieti ab omui uexatione et demanda. 

Volo igitur ut predicti mouachi habeaut et teneant dictas quinque cairu- 
catas terre pleuarie et integve et quiete ab omni demanda omnimodo uexatione 
omni sermcio secuhiii et exactione, quantum ad me pertinet et ad heredes 

Et ut hec donatio niea coucessio et coufirraatio stabilis peimancat inper- 
petuura et iuconcussa, piesens scriptum sigilli mei niiiniinine loboiaui. 

lliis tcstibus, Willehuo Crasso primogenito, W. Crasso junioro, Dauid de 
Sumeri, Rieaido de Maiisrco, Nicholao le Marcliis, Koberto Huscaid, Johanne 
Fossaid, Galfrido Walensi, et multis aliis. 

The seal is still attached to this charter. 

Gerald de Prendergast, son of Philip de Premlergasfc (see p. 21), was married, 
first to Matilda, sister of Theobald Walter the Second (see p. 32), and secondly to a 
daughter of Richard de Burgh. He succeeded to the DuDfrey estates near Ennis- 
corthy in 1220, and took possesion late in the year 1230. He died in 1251. This 
instrument is probably about the same date as no. 8H, viz. 1280 or 1281. 

The acquisition by the convent of land at lialhboylial has been before us in 
previous charters ^nos. 16, 17) ; but liathsalach has not been mentioned by name 
previously The two carueates at the latter place, however, were evidently the two 
carucatcs in Bantry of which the convent was put in possession in 1223 (see p. 85) 
by the prior and monks of Glascarrig. 

Philip de Uinteherg is evidently the same person as the man of that name who 
was a witness lo Hichard dc Marisco's grant of Ralhho<jhal (no. 10). See p. 17 for 
the Uinteherg family. As was fitting, Richard de Marisco or Marsh witnessed the 
present charter, which was of the nature of a confirmation by his overlord of his 
original benefaction. 

We have had before the brothers Trt7/ia»t Crassiis senior and William Crassus 
junior (p. 16) ; David dc Sutiteri (p. 48) ; Nicholas le Marchis or Marsh (p. 87 ; see 
also Charter 11) ; and Robert Huskard (p. 42). 

Of Geojfrcy the WeUhman (Walsh) and John Fossard we know nothing. 

Grant by Nicholas le Marchis, for the good of his soul, &c., to the convent 
of Duiskc, of the fish-pond called Cordredan, with its liberties, &c., to 
hold free of rent for ever. 

Sciant presentea et futuri quod ego Nicholaus le Marchis pro salute anime 
mee et nxoris inoe cX antecessoruni et sncc&ssorum inconun consensu etassensu 
hereduni meorum dedi et concessi et hac mea prcsenti carta confirmaui Deo 
et Beate Marie deValle Saucti iSaluatoris et nionachis ibidem deo seruientibus 
in puram et per[)etuani elemosinam pi.«cariam ijue dicitur Chory Dradan 
rum omnibu.s libniatilms ad ipsam pertinentibus ; ita ut ipsam habeant et 

Hkunaki) — The Chariers of Ihr Ahhei/ of Duinlcc. 69 

teneaiil [ilciKuiL'pauiiice libcronuiulc, sicuL uUaclciiKjsiiia libcriuK ctiiuie.sciii.s 
teneri potest. 

Et ego ot IioilhIl's iiioi luuio diiiialioncin iiiniKicliis pvedicte domus contra 
onines lioiaiiics waniiiLizabinuis. 

Iliiw Lcsliliiis, I'liili})po le Maiuliis, liobevLo Uscaul, Nicholao Coco, 
Mauricio Macuollctau, Dauid liliu Lyinin, ol niiilLis aliis. 

' Coraidh ' means a fishing- weir, and the fish-pond of Chory Dradan, or 
Cordredan, which was apparently a pool of the river Barrow (it is described as ' in 
Odrone ' in the endorsement on the back of the charter), is mentioned again in a 
later deed (no. 82). 

The seal of Nicholas Ic Marchis or Marsh (see pp. 37, 68) has been lost. 
Philip le Marchis was evidently a relative. Bobcri Huskarcl has appeared before 
(pp. 42, 68). 

A witness named Nicholas Coc or Cooke or Coke appears in a Leixlip charter' 
of Adam de Hereford (see p. 49) ; he may be the man mentioned here. 

Of David Fits Lynon and Maurice MacCollctan we know nothing. The 
Codhletans or Colletans were an Anglo-Irish family who settled at Aglis, co. 

The date of this charter may be about 1232, but there is nothing to fix it 

Confirmation by W., bishop of Ossory, to the convent of Duiske of the 
church of Tulacbany, one mark yearly to be paid to the cathedral 
church of Kilkenny, the synodical dues being reserved, and the convent 
to provide a chaplain to the church : also confirmation of the chapels 
of Annaniult and Grange Castri as agreed by Hugh, bishop of Ossory. 

Uniuersis presens scriptum uisuris uel audituris W. del gratia Ossoriensis 
episcopus etei'nam in domino salutem. 

Quoniam ea que perpetna gaudent firmitate ad perpetuam memoriam 
puplice debeut commendari scripture, ad uniuersitatem uestram uolumus 
peruenire, nos diuini araoris intuitu et sacrosancte religionis obtentu conces- 
sisse et hoc present! scripto nostro confirmasse deo et beate Marie et monachis 
de Valle Sancti Saluatoris Cistercicnsis ordinis ibidem deo seruieutibiis eccle- 
siam de Thulachenny cum omnibus decimis et obuentionibus ipsam contin- 
gentibus, salua una marca argenti quam dicti monachi ecclesie cathedralis de 
Kylkenny annuatim tenentur persoluere ad duos auui terminos, uidelicet in 
Inuentione Sancti Crueis dimidiam marcam et in festo Sancti Caunici dimi- 
diam marcam, pro omni consuetudinc demanda et exactionc, saluis tamen 
sinodalibus, et salua corapetenti sustentatione unius capellani qui eidem 
ecclesie deseruiet. 

Per easdem concedimus insuper dictis mouachis et confirmamus capellani 

' O.M.A. i, 236. 

70 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

de Athenemold et capellam de Giangia Castri cum omnibus decimis et obuen- 
tionibus ipsas coutingenlibus ut omnia pi-edicta habeant et teneant de nobis 
et successoribus uostiis in jwrpetuuni libera et quiete houoiifice et pacifice 
in usus proprias, saluis tamen sinodalibus nobis et successoribus nostris sicut 
continetur in autentico pie memorie Hugonis episeopi predecessoris nostri ; 
in uiitute obedieucie iniungentes et sub pena anathematis prohibentes ne 
archidiaconus uel aliquis alius a predictis monachis uel eorum capellanis 
ibidem seruieutibus ratione procurationis in preiudicium huius nostre confir- 
mationis aliquid attemplarc presumat. 

Et ut hec nostra conKrmatio et concessio rata permaneat et iuconcussa 
presenti scripto sigillum nostrum duximns appouendum. 

Hiis testibus uiris ucnerabilibus, M. dc Kcules, et A. de Instioch, tunc 
prioribus, Magistro Henrico de Pembroch, Thoma rectore ecclesie de Kalian, 
et aliis. 

This charter is an episcopal confirmation of previous grants (see nos. 7, 9, 10, 
2J, 2G, 31). 

The endorsement (not contemporary) on the back of the charter gives the 
bishop's name as William, but this is a mistake. William of Kilkenny was, indeed, 
elected bishop of Ossorj- after the death of Peter Malvcisin. but he refused the office 
and was not consecrated until 1255, when he became bishop of Ely (see p. 81). 
The bishop who granted the charter before us was ^Va^tcr dc Bracklcy, who 
succeeded to the see of Ossory in 1232. It is probable that the instrument was 
executed shortly after his accession, so that it may be placed at the end of 1232 or 
the beginning of 1233. 

Of the witnesses we have already had Alured, prior of Inistioge (p. 37), and 
Thomas, rector of i allan (p. 31). The Christian name of iL, prior of Sells, may 
have been Martin, as that name appears among the priors about this period in 
Ware's Abstract of the Charters of Kells.' Henry of Pembroke was dean of Ossory 
at a later date.' 


ConBnuation by W., bishop of O.ssorj-, to tlie convent of Duiske of the 
vill of Tikerlevan ; the convent to maintain a chaplain there, and to 
pay an annual rent of twenty shillings to the cathedral church of 
St. Canice, Kilkenny, the episcopal due.s being reserved. 

Uninersia Christi fidelibus presens scriptum uisuris uel audituris W. mise- 
ratione diuina Ossoriensis episcopus etemam in domino salutem. 

Ad uuiuersitatis uestre noticiam uolumus peruenire nas diuine caritatis 
intuitu et sacrosancte religionis obtentu concesi.sse et hoc presenti scripto 
nostro l)eo et Beate Marie Virgin! et monachi.s de Valle Sancti 
Saluatoris Cisterciensis ordinis ibidem Deo seruieutibus uillam de Stacmaker- 
lewan cum omnibus suis pertinentiis, tenendam et habendam de nobis et 

■ CairigMi. iv, 61. - Carrigan, i, 38. 

BuRNARD — The Charters of the Ahbej/ of Dtiiske. 71 

successoribus nostiis inperpetuum integre plenaiic ct pacifice, cum natiuis et 
Diiinihus aliis libertatibus ct liberis coiisuetiKliiiibiis ad ilictam uillain pcrti- 
iientibus ; 

reddendo iiide anuuatiui eathedrali ccelesie de Kilkenny uighiti solidos 
sterlingorum ad duos anui tenniuos, uidelicet in Iiuieiitioue Saucte Crucis 
decern solidos et in festo Sancti Kauici decern solidos, pro omni seruicio 
seculari et exactione. 

Insnper coneedinius et confirmainus dietis nionachis ecclesiani eiusdem 
iiille cum omnibus decimis et obuentionibus ipsam contingeutibus tenenda et 
habenda de nobis et successoribus nostris inperpetuum in usns proprios, sicut 
continetur in autenticis predecessorum uostrorum libera quiete integre et 
pacifice, saluis tamen siuodalibus nobis et successoribus nostris et salua 
competent! sustentatione unius capellani qui eidem ecclesie deseruiet per 

Nos igitur in uirtute obedientie firmiter iniungentes sub pena anethematis 
prohibemus, ne archidiaconus uel aliquis alius a dietis monachis uel eorum 
capellanis ibidem celebrantibus in preiudicium huius nostre confirmationis 
ratione procurationis alicquid attemptare presumat. 

Et ut liec nostra concessio et confirmatio in posterum rata permaneat et 
inconcussa present! scripto sigillum nostrum duximus apponendum. 

Hiis testibus uiris uenerabilibus, M. de Kenlis, A. de Instioch, tunc 
prioribus, Magistro Henrico de Pembroch, Domino Thoma rectors ecclesie 
de Kalian, et aliis. 

This charter was probably executed on the same day as no. 43 ( the witnesses 
being the same), i.e. at the end of l!i32 or the beginning of 1233. The original 
grant of the vill of Tikerlevan is recorded in Charter no. 8. 


Confirmation by Luke, archbishop of Dublin, to the convent of Duiske of 
Charter's no. 26 and no. 28, supra. 

Dated at Kilkenny, l25 Feb. 12;;;o. 

Uniuersis Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit, Lucas 
del gratia Dublin : ecclesie minister humilis eternam in domino salutem. 

Ad sacre religionis institutionem et incrementum sicut ex otiicii debito 
nobis incumbit propen.sius invigilare, ita ut iustituta fructificent tenemur 
studiosius procurare, et precipue uiros religiosos pia et paterua aflectioue 
protegere et confouere, diuine igitur remunerationis intuitu ct exemplo pie 
recordationis domini II. quondam Dublinensis archiepiscopi predecessoris 
nostri prouocati, quasdam terras et quedam beneficia que bone memorio 
P. Ossoriensis episcopus dilectis in Christo filiis abbati et monachis de 
Sancto Saluatore Cisterciensis ordinis pictatis intuitu concessit et confirmauit, 
eadem beneficia et terras predictas auctoritate metropolitica prout in carta 
memorati cpiscopi et ipsius cyrographo continentur una cum ceteris benoficiis 

72 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

que eisdem pia fidelium largitione coUata fueriut aut in posteium iuste eonfe- 
rentiir couceilimus et coufirmamus. 

Que propriis duximus expiiraeuda uocabulis : "Videlicet ecclesiain de Thila- 
chauni cum omuibus pertinentiis suis et cum deciniis graugie quam ibi habent, 
salua uua marca quam solueut ecclesic cathediali de Kilkenny, ka. [as in no. 
26, d&icn <o] concedimus et confirmamus." 

Compositionem etiam inter l>one memoiie 11. quondam Leclinensem 
episcopum necnon et W. tunc ai-chidiaconuni nunc uero episcopum eius- 
demqne ecclesie eapitulum ex una parte et abljatem et eonuentum de Yalle 
Sancti Saluat^ris prefatos ex alt4?i'a super qiiercllis subscriplis ratam habemus 
et confirmamus sub hac forma " Omnibus Sancte Matris Ecclesie . . [as in no. 
2S, dtnrn /o] Hiis testibus, &c." Nos igitur quorum iuterest pi'O officii debito 
paci et trauquillitati ecclesiarum prouidere et litium oecasiones prescindere 
que fmiernam nou nunquam oH'endunt et miuuuut caritatem dictam composi- 
tionem ratam habentes approbamus et auctoritate metropolitana in perpetuum 

In cuius rei robur inconcussum et testimonium presens scriptum sigilli 
nostri apfxisitione muniuimus. 

Datum quinto Kaleud : Marcii poutincaius nostri auno quinto apud 

Only half remains of the seal of Luke, arcbbisbop of Dublin. His election to 
the see was confirmed by the King on l.S December, 1228 ; but, as there had been 
some irregularity, it was not confirmed by the Pope until 1229. He was conse- 
crated 80 April, 1230. Thus, it is not possible to be certain as to the date from 
which tlie " years of his pontificate " begin ; but here, and in no. 34, supra, we 
have reckoned thc-m to run from 1228, the year of ek-ction. If the starting-point 
should be 1280, the year of consecration, nos. 84 and 45 should be dated 1231 and 
1285 respectiTely. 


Quit claim by Sir Kobert de CanlifT. for the good of his soul, «S:c., after a 
controversy between himself and the convent of Duiske, as to a ditch 
which is on his land. 

Uniuersis C'liristi fidelibu.s presentos literas insj»ecturis uel auditnris 
Robertus de Cardif miles etemam in domino salutem. 

Nouerit uniuersito-s uestra quod super quadam conUoucrsia inter me ex 
una parte et monachos Sancti Saluatoris ex alia oborta, uidelicet de quodam 
fossato quod dicti monachi iuxta pratum quoil tenent de me in tena mea 
fe-enint uersus orientem, ita conuenit inter nos quod ego pro anima niea et 
uxoris mee et antecessorum et successorum nostrorum onmem elamatiouem 
quam habui uersus dictos monachos in dicto fos-sato quietam clamaui, et totam 
teri^am infra fossatum predictam uua cum fussato illo presenli carta eisilem 
monachis in jterpetuum confirmaui. 

Bi:i(NAin) — The Chnrhn^ fij the Abhci) nf DuixJrc. 73 

Hiis testibus, Uoginaldo de Kenietli, tunc vicccoiiiite tie Kilkenny, Kogein 
Kussel, liis IjckiUli, IJoliino do, (jancu, All'rt'do Illmidd, el, iniillis aliis. 

Hobcrt ih: Cavdllf's seal haa disappeared. We have met with him already in a 
dated charter of 1227 (see p. 17), and this quit-claim may provisionally he assigned 
to tlie year 1233 or thereabout. 

For Reginald do. Kcrnct .see pp. 35, 40 ; and for Roger Husscll see p. 40. 

There were at least two people named Eis Bckct, who are concerned in these 
charters, and they were probably father and son. The elder, who appears here, 
must be of kin to the ' Resus Bechet ' who witnessed a grant of land in Idronc to 
Mary's Abbey in 1202 ;' and we take him as identical with the man who witnessed 
no. 50 about 1255, and no. 60 in 1256. Then we meet with ' Eis Beket junior ' 
in 1278 (Charters 71, 72), the signature indicating that the elder man was still 
alive. In the later charters 77, 80, 81, ' Eis Beket ' is named without any note 
of juniority, so that Eis Beket the elder had probably died previously to their 
execution. = 

The presence of Robin de Garetu as a witness recalls the fact that it was a 
Carew deed which the earliest of the Eis Bekets witnessed in 1202. 

Alfred Bhuid appears again in the next Charter (47). 


47. Grant by Eobert de Cardiff, for the good of his .soul, &c., to tlie 
convent of Duiske of three acres of meadow near Seskin, free of rent. 

Sciatis presentes et futuri quod ego Eobertus de Kaerdif dedi et concessi 
et hac present! carta mea confirmaui Deo et beate Marie matri eius et con- 
uentui de Valle Sancti Saluatoris tres acras prati que iaceut proximo iuxta 
Seskin pro salute auime mee et Tes . . ce uxoris mee ac liberorum nostrorum, 
habendas perpetuo et tenendas in puram et perpetuam elemosinam liberas et 
quietas al) onini seruitio et exactione que uel ad me uel ad heredes meas 

Et ego et heredes mei warantizabimus tres predictas acras prati meraorati 
conuentui de Valle Sancli Saluatoris contra omnes homines et contra omnes 

In huius donatiouis mee testimonium presenti scripto menm apposui 

Hiis testibus, Eogero Eussel, Waltero filio meo, Willelmo Chapun, 

Alueredo Blundo, de Kiltan, Eoberto IShuido de Kilblodhi, 

Johanne filio ., et multis aliis. 

Robert de Cardiff has appeared before (see pp. 40, 72), and we learn from this 
charter and from no. 60 that he had two sons, Walter and Eichard, his wife's 
name being almost obliterated in the deed before us. Seskiii is still the name of a 

1 C.M.A. i, 113. 

2 A Ris Beket appears in 1307 as holding lands in co. Cork {dd. of Irish Jvsticuir\i 
Rolls, ii, 3C7-9). 

B.I.A. PBGC., VOL. XXSV, SECT. C. [10] 

74 Proceedings of the Roijul Iri^h Academy. 

townland in the parish of St. MuUius, in the electoral division of Ballpnurpby, co. 
Carlow, not far from Ballybeg, or Ballybegan, the name given to Eichard de Cardiff's 
holding in Charter 60, in which this grant by Robert de Cardiff is mentioned. 

Roger Russell and Alfred Blund were witnesses to Charter 46, as well as to this. 
These Blunds evidently were neighbours, and are to be distinguished from the 
Blunds of Callan (see no. 88). A Robert le Blound held lands in the neighbour- 
hood of New Ross, from Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk, at the beginning of the 
fourteenth century,' and he was probably of the same family. The Robert Blund 
who appears here is described as of Kilbleddi (Cell B16idini), but we have not 
succeeded in identifying the place. 

Another witness, whose name is illegible, is described as ' de Kiltan.' 
The deed may, provisionally, be assigned to the year 1233 or thereabouts. 

Grant by "William de St. Logor, for the good of his soul and of the soul of 
Isabel, his wife, to tlie convent of Duiske of the river dividing his 
land of Tullaghanbrogue from the convent land at Tulacliany, with all 
other rivers in his holding at Tullaghanbrogue, that the iiKuiks may 
erect a mill ; twenty crannocks of corn to be ground fur his house 
every year free of toll. 

Sciant prescntes el futuri quod ego Willehnus de Sancto Leodegario pro 
salute aninie niec et Ysabole uxoris niee et pro salute parentum ineorum 
atque omnium antecessorum ac successorum meorum dedi et concessi et hac 
pre.senti carta iiiea eonfirnmui abbati et nionachis de Valle Saiicli Saliiatoris 
ordinis Cistereiensis totuni riuulum qui facit diuisas inter Icrrani mciini de 
Thulachanbroc et terrain dictorura monachoruni de Thulachenny cum 
omnibus aliis riuulis totius tenementi niei de Tliulachbroc, quoscumque 
poUTunt dedncere qualicumqiie arte sine detrimenlo pralorum meorum ad 
constniendinn inolendinnni ubi uiderunt sibi et suis successoribus expedire 
loco cnmiu'tenti, habendnm de nie et lieredibus nieis sibi et successoribus suis 
in lilieram punim et perpetuain eleniosinam in perpctuum. 

Dicti uero abbas et nionachi de Valle Sancti iSalnatoris concesserunt et 
qiiietuni clamauerunt niihi et hei-edibus nicis pro se et succcsfcoribus .suis, 
muliturnni uiginti cranoconun de donui mca innjiria et hcredum meorum 
singulis annis a theluueo inmunem. 

Ut autcm liec mea donatio concessio el conlirnn„io rata et stabilis in 
posteruni i>ermaneat presentein carlam sigilli niei munimine coraboraui. 

Hiis t«stibus, Willehno lilio Mauricii, Roso de Ardenie, Willelmo Baratin, 
mililibiis, llogero de I'enibrok tunc uiceconiite de Kilkenny, Galfrido Scurtals, 
Gilel>erto Tonere, Wallero de Jlora, et nmllis aliis. 

The date of this charter cannot be fixed precisely, but from the names of the 
witnesses it was probably executed about 1285. 

' Horc's New Host, p. 171. 

Bernard — The Charters of ike Ahbeij of Duiakc. 75 

We havG mot with William dc St. Lcgcr before (p. 21). Tlio river which is the 
subject of the grant is now called the King's River. For Tidlcujhanbrocjuc see p. 21 ; 
for Tulachany, p. 20 ; and for Williaiii, Fitz Maurice, the first witness, p. 39. 

Bis da Ardcrnc witnessed a charter of Dimbrody Abbey, granted by Walter 
Marshal between 1211 and 1213 ;' and ho appears in 12-iG as holding JIarshal 
lands.'- William Baratin, who is described as a knight (as well as Itis de Arderne), 
Geoffrey Scortals,^ and Gilbert Thunder were all witnesses of John Fitz Geofi'rey's 
Charter to Kells,' which was executed after 1234. 

Eager de Pembroke appears as witness to several charters, e.g. William Fitz 
Geoffrey's charter to Kells about 1215 ;° and the charter granted by Walter Marshal 
to Dunbrody between 1241 and 1245,'' already mentioned as signed by Ris de 
Arderne. He held Marshal lands in 1246.' He is here described as vicecomes, i.e. 
sherifl', of Kilkenny. See no. 59, infra. 

Of Walter dc Mora (or, perhaps, de Mera ; see no. 77) we know nothing. A 
person of the same name appears as holding lands in co. Wexford in 1281.* 


Letters of W., bishop of Leighlin, certifying that Laurence of London, 

precentor, had renounced his title to the Church of Duumatatheg in 

Idrone, to which he had formerly been presented by the convent of 


Dated at Lechdufthy Feb., 1236. 

Uniuersis presontes literas inspecturis nel audituris W. dei gratia 
Leehlinensis episcopus eternam in domino salutem. 

Noueritis quod cum aliquando abbas et conuentus de Valle Sancti Salua- 
toris ad ecclesiam de Dunmatatheg in Odrone cum suis pertinentiis 
magistrum Laurentium de London precentorem nostrum nobis presentassent, 
processu temporis idem L. mutando consilium omni iure quod habuit pretextu 
dicte presentationis in nostra presencia constitutus sponte et mere renunciauit, 
et literas suas renunciationis coram nobis in capitulo nostro apud Lechdufthy 
ad instanciam dictorum abbatis et conuentus legi fecimus. 

In cuius rei testimonium present! scripto sigillum nostrum apponi fecimus. 

Actum apud Lechdufthy anno gratie Mccxxxv mense Februario. 

We have had the church of Dunmatatheg or Duntnactathcc before (p. 30). 
The bishop was William le Chaimiuor, who held the see of Leighlin from 1228 
to 1251. 

Of Laurence of London, the precentor, we know nothing more. 
Of Lcchdzifthy we have not identified the situation. 

' C.M.A. ii, 164. - CM. A. ii, 406. 

^ Shovtalstown Chapel appears in the Red Book of Ossory as in the Deanery of Kells. 
CO. Kilkenny ; for the Shortall family, see Graves, Histoiij, d-c, of St. Caiiice's Cafhediid, 
p. 165. 

■* Ghartae, &c., p. 17 (where it is wrongly dated). ° Ghartae, &c., \>. IG. 

'^ C.M.A. ii, 164. " C.M.A. ii, 40ti. ^ Hore's -Ycii; Ross, p. 11. 


76 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Grant by David de Sumeri, for the good of his soul and of the soul of 
^Margaret, his wife, to the convent of Duiske of the chapel of 
Dengheueaghuach, with its tithes and obventious, and tliose of 

Ouiuibus Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos scriptum peiueneiit, Dauid 
de Sumeri eternam in domino salutem. 

Nouerit uuiuersitas uestra me pro s;ilute anime mee et Margarete uxoris 
race et patris mei et matris mee et omnium predecessorum et successorum 
nostrorum dedisse et concessisse et hac presenti carta confirmasse domui de 
Valle Sancti Saluatoris et monachis ibidem deo seruientibus capellam de 
Dengeneaghuach cum decimis et obuentionibus uniuersis ad earn pertinenlibus, 
scilicet decimas et obuentiones de Denghcneaghnach et de Acheradloski, 
habendas et possidendas iure fierpetuo in j)Ui-am et pcrpetuani clemosinam 
liberam et quietam ah omni exactione et demanda que ad me uel ad heredes 
meas pertineat, sine capella predicla ut capella pemianeat siue in matricem 
ecclesiam prouehatur. 

In liuius rci testimonium presens scriptum monachis dicti domus deA'alle 
Sancti Sahiatori.s contuli sigilli niei munimine roboratum. 

IJiis testibus Iladulfo de Sumeri, Dauid de Sumeri, patruis meis, Eadulfo 
et Willelmo fratribiis meis, Dauid de Kupe, Adam Taleboth, Ythcl de 
Kantintonc, Adam de Kantintone, Philippo de Kantintone, Koberto de 
Kantiiitone, et multis aliis. 

This charter may be approximately dated as of the year 1237. It must be prior 
to no. 51, which in its turn cannot be later than 1237. 

This grant is cDnfinuatory of Charter no. 86, and has to do (see p. 62) with 
tithes in the diocese of Cloyne. 

For the de Suineri family, see p. 48. The grantor in this instance was David 
de ^ r. 

luily of lloche or de llupc appear several times in our charters. 
Among the Flemings wlio came to Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Norman 
conquest was one Robert Fitz Godobert, enfeoffed near Wexford, whose sons, 
David, Henry, and .\dam, took the name of de la Itoche, from the castle still 
known as Roch Castle near Uaverforilwest.' IiaviJ liochc, probably to be 
identified with the witness to this charter who bore that name, appears in 1229' as 
the father of Raymond and Gerald Roche (see nos. 71, 72).= He may be the same 
man us Da ' r./ who lield Marshal lands in Kilmocar, co. Kilkenny, in 

1246,' and v. ,ii-(i in 1245 in a suit against William and David de Sumeri.^ 

For Ithiei de CaunUton, who was son of Adam de Caunteton. see p. 62. 
Probably the Adam de t'aunUton who appears here was, in his turn, son of Ithiel. 

Adam Taiclxjth or Talbot does not seem to be known elsewhere. 

' Orpen, I.e., i, 392. > C.D.I, i, 1679 

' For the Roche family aec Graves, PrtMnlmtnti ••/ Irith Chrittance* Ump. Hen. VIII, 
"" ' CM. A. ii. i'K, : cf K.T.A. 140. ' C.D.I, i, 2763. 

Bernard — The Charters oj the Abbey of Duiske. 77 


Giiiut by J)., bisliiip ol' Cloyiie, at Llic presentalioii ut' l)a\id do Sunieri, 
the patron [no. 50], to the convent of Duiske, of tlic chapel of 
Deugheneaghuach, and of Acherloski. 

Omnibus Chiisti fidelibus has literas uisuris vel audituris I), del gi'atia 
Clonensis episcopus eternam in doniiuo saluteui. 

Nouerit uniuorsitas uestra nos diuine caritatis intuitu et ad prcsenta- 
tionem Dauid de Sumeri patroni dedissc et concessisse dilectis in Christo 
filiis et uiris ueneiabilibus abbati et conuentui de Valle Sancti Saluatoris 
Cistei'ciensis ordinis capellain de Dengheneaghnach et de Acheiadloske cum 
omnibus pertinentiis suis iure perpetuo in proprios usus possideudam. 

In liuius lei testimonium preseuti scripto sigillum nostrum apposuimus. 

Only a small fragment of the bishop's seal is left. This charter can be dated 
within a year, for David M'Kcllij, who became [teste Cotton) bishop of Cloyne 
in 1237, was advanced to the see of Cashel in 1238. It is a confirmation oi no. 60 
by the bishop of the diocese. 

Confirmation by M., Archbishop of Cashel, of the grant made by the 
bishop of Cloyne [no. 51] to the convent of Duiske, of the 
chapels of Dengheneaghnach and Acherloski. 

Uniuersis Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit M. dei 
gratia Cassellensis archiepiscopus salutem in domino. 

Nouerit uniuersitas uestra nos capellam de Denghenoghnacht et de 
Acheradhloski cum omnibus pertinentiis suis abbati et conuentui de Valle 
Sancti Saluatoris Cisterciensis ordinis sicut melius et plenius carta uenerabilis 
in Christo fratris Clonensis episcopi eettaturf iure perpetuo possideudam 

In cuius rei testimonium preseuti scripto sigillum nostrum apponi fecimus. 
. Valeat uniuersitas uestra in domino. 

The archbishop's seal has gone. Marian O'Brien, archbishop of Cashel, died 
before October, 1237, so that this instrument (which is the confirmation by his 
metropolitan of the bishop's grant set out in no. 51) must belong to that year. 

The archbishop of Cashel and the abbots of Duisico and .Terpoint appear 
as Papal Mandatories in 1240.' 

' Cat. of Papal Leilas, 1240, 17 Kal. Dec. 

78 Proceediwjs of the Roi/al Irish Academj/. 


Inspeximus, at tlie petition of the convent of Duiske, by G., bishop of 
Ossory, of the rrivilegiuni, granted by Pope Innocent IV to the 
Cistercian Houses in Ireland, exempting them from tithes. 

Dated at the episcopal manor of Locli, 14 Feb,, 1245. 

Uninei-sis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit 
G. diuina miseratione Ossorieusis ecclesie humilis minister eternani in domino 
sal u tern. 

Nouerit uniuersitas uestra nos priuilegium doniini papo Innocentii quarli 
sub hac forma inspexisse : 

" Innocentius episcopus seruus seruorum dei dilectis filiis abbalibus ct 
couuentibus Cislerciensis ordinis in Hibernia constitutis salutem et 
apostolicani benedictioneni. 

Solet annuere sedes apostolica piis uotis et honcstis petentiuni precibus 
fauorem beniuolum iinpertiri. Cum igitur sicut ex parte uestra fuit pro- 
positum coram nobis ordini uestro et uobis a sedc apostolica per priuilegia 
ct indulgenlias sit indultum, ut nullus a uobis do uestrorum animalium 
nulrimentis uel aliis, pro eo quod animalia uestra in pastura uel custodia sua 
habcant, decinias exigere, uel quoniodolibet extorquerc, prcsumat ; et si quis 
in benefactores uestros, pro eo quod aliqua uobis beneficia uel obsequia ex 
caritate prestiterint, excommunicationis suspensionis uel interdicti sententias 
promulgarit, huiusniodi .sententie tanquain contra apostolice sedis indulta 
prelate deccrnuntur jier eandeni indulgenciam irrite ac inanea : quia nonnulli 
ccclesiarum prelati ordinarii et rectores, spretis priuilegiis ct indnlgentiis 
.supiwlictis, uos et benefactores uestros super hiis multiplici uexatione 
fatigant, nobi.s humiliter supplicastis ut indenipnilati nostre prouide in hac 
parte paterna sollicitudine curarenius : 

Noa igitur et ucstre prouiderc quieti et molestantium maliciis obuiare 
Holentcs, ne quia contra indulta pritiilegiorum apostolice sedis a uobis uel aliis 
occasione preniis.''A huiusmodi dccimas exigere, uel in uos sen alios ob hoc 
et eciam benefact<^ir&s uestros prefatas. sententias promulgare presumat, 
auctoritAte presentiuni districtius inhibemus, quas si promulgare forsan 
contigerit eadeni auctoritate decernimu.s irritas et inanes. 

Nulli ergo nmnino hominum liceat banc paginam nostre inliibitionis 
infringere uel ei aiisu temerario contrairc. Si quis autem hoc attcmptare 
presumpserit indignationem oninipotentia dei et beatorum Petri et Pauli 
aiK>.stolonini eius se nouerit incureurum. 

Datum I^terani xvi Kalend : Marcii pontificatns nostri .anno primo." 

Hos vero in Imins rei testimonium ad petitionem abbatis et conuentus de 
Vaile .'NJucti Saluatons, eo quod singulis uiabus ad sua negotia persequenda 
prefatum priuilegium propter uiannn pcricula jrortare formidant, presenti 
scripto sigillum nostrum duximus apponendum. 

Beunaki) — The Charters of the Alley of Duiske. 79 

Datum a|iu(l inaiuniiini iiostriiiii dc Loeli : anno gratie MCCXLiill. 
xvi Kaleiul : Feluuar: consecrationis uerq uostrc anno piiiiio. 

The bishop was Geoffrcij dc Turville, who succeeded to the see of Ossory in 
1244. He secured from the Crown valuable privileges for the episcopal manors of 
his see ;' Logh is named as one of these manors in the ' Red Book of Ossory ' ; it 
was afterwards called ' Bishopslough.' 

The fact that it was the bishop of Ossorij (not of Leighlin) who was asked by 
the convent to certify the Papal Privilegium shows that Duiske was reckoned as in 
the diocese of Ossory at the time (see p. 25). 

Innocent IF was elected Pope on 25 June, 1243, and the date of the Privilegium 
which he gave to the Irish Cistercian houses was 14 February, 1244. By Eoyal 
mandate of August, 1256, Cistercians, as well as other orders, were exempted from 
payment of tithes out of parish churches which they held to their own use. 


Confirmation by Matilda, Marshal of England, Countess of Norfolk and 
Warrenne, of the union of the abbey of Killenny with the abbey of 
Duiske, as decreed by the General Chapter of the Cistercian Order 
[in no. 22]. 

Omnibus presens scriptum uisuris uel audituris Matilda Marescallus 
Anglie Comitissa Norfolk et Warenne salutem in domino. 

Nouerit uniuersitas uestra nos diuine pietatis intuitu confirmasse unionem 
abbatie de Killenny cum omni inre suo et omnibus I'ebus ad ipsam pertinen- 
tibus cum abbatia de Valle Sancti Saluatoris quam dominus Willelmus pater 
noster fundauit, sicut continetur in statuto et sanctione domini abbatis et 
eapituli generalis Cisterciensium celebrati anno uerbi incarnati millesimo 
ducentissimo uieesimo septimo. 

Et ut ista confirmatio inpevpetuuni firnia perseueret earn presenti scripto 
sigilli nostri appositioiie roborauinius. 

Hiis testibus Dominis Hugone le Bigot, Eadolpho le Bigot, Adam ile 
Hereford, Bernardo de Maruille, Bogero de London, Eoberto Waspail, 
Johanne de Killergi, Eogero le Boer, Thoma de Kantinton, et multis aliis. 

A small piece of the seal is still attached to this charter, which must have been 
executed after Matilda Marshal became " Marescallus Angliae," i.e. after 
December, 1245, when her last surviving brother died (see p. 82), and she 
succeeded to her great estates. The two first witnesses, Hugh Bigod and Balph 
Bigod, were her sons (see p. 32). 

The charter, of which an early transcript is also extant (see p. 49), may be 
assigned to the year 1246. 

' Carris'.in, i. 37. 

80 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadcmif. 

For the de Hereford family see p. 49 ; Adam dc Hereford, who appears as a 
witness, may be the same person as the man of that name who witnessed William 
Fitz Geofirey's charter of Kells' in 1215, but he may just as well belong to a later 

Robert n'aspail was witness to a charter of Gerald Prendergast (see p. 68) 
about 1230 ;' and Roger le Poer appears again in no. 59, where he is designated a 
' knight' {tniles), and also in unpublished Kells charters about 1230 and 1257. 

For Thontas de Cautiteton see p. 62. 

John de Killergi does not seem to appear again : probably Killergi ought to be 
identified with Killerig, N.E. of Urglin, co. Carlow, where a preceptory was founded 
for Knights Templars by King John. 

Mention is made in the Extracts from the Duiske Eegisters, which we 
cite as L, of a charter of W. bishop of Leighlin, confirming the convent 
of Duiske in the possession of the church of "Dunmtadge" (see no. 49). 
This sliould be noted here, as it is said to have been dated in 1249, in 
the iJOth year of llishop Willi.ini's episcopate : but no sucli charter is 
e.Ttant ; see p. 36. 


Confirmation by King Henr)- III of the union of llie abl)ey of Killcnny 

with the abbey of Dui.ske, as sanctioned by William Marshal the 

younger [no. 25] and the General Cliapter of the Cistercian Order 

[no. 22]. 

Dated at Woodstock, 11 August, 1252. 

Henricus dei gratia Rex Anglic Dominus LIil>eniie Dux Xormannie 
Aquitanie et Comes Andegauie Arcliicpi-scojiLs Episcopis Abbatibus Prioribus 
Comitibus Baronibus Justiciariis Vicecoinitibus Prepositis Ministris et 
omnibus Palliuis et fidelibus suis i^ahiteni. 

Unionem abbatie dc Killenny factam abbatie de Valle Sancti Saluatoris 
per abbatem et capitulum gencrale Cisterciensium, quam Willelmus 
Marescallus quondam Comes Pembrf»ck ablwiti et monachis predictis Sancti 
Saluatoris confirmauit cum suis pertinentiis ratam habentes et gratam 
here<libus nostris, prefatis abbati et monachis Sancti Saluatoris concedimus et 
confinnamus sicut instrumcntum predicti capituli Cisterciensis, el confirmatio 
eiasdem Comitis quHUi i<l>^m abbas et monachi inde habeut ratiouabiliter 

Hiis testibus uenerabili patre W. Bathonensi et Wellensi episcopo, 
Galfrido de I^ezinnan fratre nostro, Iladolpho filio Nicholai, Johanne 

' duirint, &c., p. IT. 

' R.T.A. 189. Westp:ilstowii in cr>. Dablin derives its nAme fmm the family of 
W/is|v»il («>e Reeves, PrinviU Colton't ViriUitum, p. l.*!). 

Bernard — The Charters of the Ablieij of Dulslcc. 81 

Maunsell preposito Beuerlacensi, Magistro Willclmo de Kilkenny archidia- 
cono Couentry, lloberto de Mucegvos, Eoberto Walorand, Nicholao de Sancto 
Mauvibio, Henrico le Petteuin, Rogcro do Luivinton, Eoberto le Norreys, 
et aliis. 

Datum per manuni nosti'am apud Wodcstok undecimo die Augusti anno 
regni nostri tricosinio sexto. 

The seal royal is still attached to this document, with part o£ the legend still 
uninjured : 


The confirmation is also preserved in the Eecord Office, London,' and is printed by 
Dugdale.- A note of its existence was kept in the Extracts from the Duiske 
Eegisters, which we call E. It is on record that the fee paid by the Abbot of 
Duiske to obtain this royal confirmation of the union of Killenny with his convent 
was " three marks in bezants."^ 

An early transcript of this valuable document has also survived (see p. 63). 

All the witnesses were men of high station at the royal court. Most of them 
appear elsewhere as attesting other Irish charters granted by Henry III : e.g. the 
charters to Cork, Drogheda, and the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, which 
were executed respectively in the years 12-11, 1217, and 1253.* 

William do Bitton was bishop of Bath and Wells from 1218 to 1261. 

Geoffrey de Lusignan, who is described as " the King's brother,"^ was son of 
Hugh de Lusignan, count of La Marche, who had married (in 1220) Isabella of 
Angouleme, the widow of King John and the mother of Henry III.' The king and 
Geoffrey de Lusignan were thus half-brothers. 

Balpli Fits Nicholas was one of the king's seneschals.'^ He married Alice 
Peche,' a granddaughter of Stephen de Hereford (see p. 49). 

John Maunsell was keeper of the great seal, and one of the most trusted coun- 
sellors of the king. He played a large part in public affairs, and represented his 
royal master in various important missions on the Continent. The provostship of 
Beverley was only one of his benefices, for he was a pluralist on the grand scale, 
being reputed to hold as many as three hundred ecclesiastical offices of emolument. 

William of Kilkenny was another lawyer-ecclesiastic. He filled several legal 
positions of importance, among them being that of keeper of the great seal. He 
was Archdeacon of Coventry, and was appointed Bishop of Ely in 1255. He had 
been Chancellor of Ossory, and indeed was elected bishop in 1230, but was not 
consecrated for that see.- 

Bobert Walerand is said to have occupied a position among the knights of the 
royal court similar to that which John Maunsell held among the clerks.^ He was 
one of the king's seneschals, and subsequently Warden of the Cinque Ports.'" He 

' Charter Roll 30 Heu. Ill, iii 5. ^ Monast. Anglicmmm (ed. 1830), vi, 1135. 

3 Orig. Roll 36 Hen. Ill, m 14. < Cluirtae, &c., pp. 25-28. 

" See Vhartae, p. 28, aud Cal. of Papal Letters, 3 Non Sept., 1252. 
^ See Royal Letters Henry III, vol. ii, p. 95 ; and vol. i, passivi. 
' R.T.A. 103. s See p. 70. '■> See D.N.B. s. v. " Widcrand, Robert." 

'" Koyal Letters Hem-y III, vol. ii, passim. 

U.I. A. PROC. VOL. XXXV, SECT. C. [11] 

82 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

had a special judicial connesion witb L'eland, having received custody of the 
Marshal estates in 124G, and he appears as ' Official of the Couit of Dublin ' in 

Henry le Foitevin, or Henry of Poitou, may perhaps be identified with 
' Heuricus Pictavinus, a citizen of Genoa,' whose son was given a benefice in the 
diocese of Lincoln in 1251.- 


Inspeximus by King Henry III of the Charter which William Marshal 
the younger granted to the convent of Diiiske [no. 12], and confirma- 
tion of the same. 

Dated at, Woodstock, 11 Aug., 1252. 

Uenricus Dei gratia Kex Anglie Dominus Ilibernie Dux Xormaunie 
Aquitanie et Comes Andegauie Archiepiscopis Episcopis Abbatibus Priori- 
bus Coraitibus Baronibus Justiciariis Vicecomitibus Prepositis Miuistris et 
omnibus Balliuis et fidelibus suis salutem. 

Inspeximus cartam quam Willelmus Marescallus quondam Comes 
Pembroch fecit abbatie Sancti Saluatoris de ordine monachorum Cistercieusi 
in llibcniia in hec uerba: "Willelmus Marescallus [as in no. 12 verbatim to] 
maliciose uexet aut grauet uel in aliqua ro disturbet. 

Quod si quis facere prpsumpserit dei maledictionem et nostram sinuil et 
forisfaeturam premonslratani se nouerit incidissc; quicumcumque uero locum 
ipsum et elemosinam patris nostri ac nostram eidem assignatam promouerint 
siue manu tcnuerint, cum dei benedictione et nostra remunerationem eteniam 

Uiis testibus Domino Petro Ossoriensi episcopo, Johanne Marescallo, 
Tlioma filio Antonii tunc scnescallo Ligenie, Henrico le Buteiller. Waltero 
I'urcel, WiUelmo Crasso, Uamone Crasso, Henrico de Kernet, lieginaido de 
Kernel. Magistro Dcodato et multis aliis." 

Nos autem predictas donationes et concessiones ratas habentes et gratas 
eas pro nobis et lieredibus nostris concedimus et confirmamus sicut predicta 
carta rationabiliter testatur. 

Hiis testibus uenerabili patre W. Bathoncnsi et Wellensi episcopo, 
Galfrido de Lezimnau fratre nostro, Kadoipho filio Nieholai, Johanne 
Maunsell preposito Beuerlacensi, Magistro Willelmo de Kilkenny archi- 
diacono Coueutrensi, Iloberto de Mucegros, Roberto Walerand, Nicholao de 
Sancto Mauritio, Henrico le Peyteuin, Rogero de Lokintone, Roberto le 
Norreys, et aliis. 

Datum per manum nostram apud Wodestok undecimo die Augusti anno 
regni nostri tricesimo sexto. 

Part of the Great Seal is still attached to this docament, which is also preserved 

' Christ Church Deeds (Dublin), no. 122 ; cf. CD-I. i, 3174. 
' Cat. of Pip-a LttUrt. 7 Id. Jun., 12-51. 

IBernard — The Charters of the Abbe;/ of Duiske. 83 

in the Kecord Office, London," and is printed by Dugdale.' The fee paid by the 
convent was the same as for no. 55, viz. : " three niarlts in bezants " ; and the 
witnesses are the same as for that instrument, executed on the same day. 

Letters Patent of unlimited protection granted by King Henry III to the 

Convent of Duiske. 

Dated at Woodstock, 11 Aug. 1252. 

Henricus Dei gratia Eex Anglie Dominus Hibernie Dux Normannie 
Aquitanie et Comes Andegauie omnibus balliuis et fidelibus suis ad quos 
presentes littere peruenerint salutem. 

Sciatis quod su.scepimus in protectionem et defeusionem nostram abbatiam 
abbatem et conuentum de Valle Sancti Saluatoris in Hibernia homines terras 
res redditus et omnes possessiones eorum. Et ideo nobis mandamus quod 
predictos abbatiam abbatem et conuentum homines terras res redditus et 
omnes possessiones eorum manu teneatis protegatis et defendatis, non infe- 
rentes eis uel inferri permittentes iniuriam moles tiam dampnum aut grauamen. 
Et si quid eis forisfactum fuerit, id eis sine dilatione facialis emendari. 

In cuius rei testimonium has litteras nostras eis fieri fecimus patentes. 
Teste me ipso apud Wodestok undecimo die Augusti anno regni nostri 
tricesimo sexto. 

Half of the Great Seal is still attached to this instrument.^ 


Consent, with reservations, of Matthew, abbot of Mellifont, and his 
convent, to the union of the abbey of Killenuy with the abbey of 

Dated at Mellifont, March, 1253. 

Uniuersis Christi fidelibus presentes literas inspecturis uel audituris 
Frater Mattheus dictus abbas Mellifontis et eiusdem loci conuentus eternam 
in domino salutem ...... 

. . . nobis displiceat distrlbutio domorum generationis nostre facta per 

abbates Trium Font ium,Frigidi Montis, de Margan 

auctoritatem eapituli generalis ad redigendum al)batias in grangias et ad 

coniungendas abbatias abbatiis ordinatio nobis et succes- 

soribus nostris grauis sit et nociua et spem adhunc in futuruni conceperimus 

reuocandi filias tamen profectui domus de Valle Sancti 

Saluatoris que nobis et domui nostre pluries multiplicia fecit et contulit 

' Charter Roll 36 Hen. Ill, m (i. = Monasi. Amjlk. (cd. 1830), vi, 1135. 

3 See Patent Rolls 36 Henry III, m 4. 


84 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

beneficia Valle dei abbatie per predictos abbates auetoritate 

capituli generalis eidem domui de Valle Sancti Saluatoris factam ratam 

habemus et giatam ac firmiter omni calumpnia et 

ad unionem predictam tamen quod aliquo tempore suceedente 

nobis uel doniui nostre contingere present! scripto 

et sigilli nostri impressione roborauimus. 

Datum apud Mellifontem die Martis prox 

millesimo ducentesimo quinquagesimo tertio. 

The original deed is not extant, but we have an early transcript of it (see p. 49). 
It alludes to some earlier instrument, not now extant, in which the abbots of 
Trois-Fontaines, Froidmont, and Margam had issued directions for the amalgama- 
tion of Cistercian houses in Ireland, including Killenny and Duiske. 

The abbey of Trois-Fontaines, in the ^iocese of Chalons, and province of 
Blieims, was one of the oldest Cistercian houses, having been founded from 
Clairvaus in 1118.' For Froidmont, see p. 44. 


Cirant by Richard, son and heir of Alan de St. Florence, to the convent of 
Duiske, of his land of Makarne; viz., lialf a carucate between the 
Spring of Atbboly Moclnietlie and Lynans on the east ; thence on 
tlic north to IJrelhgortyn ; thence to the boundary of Grathsighan ; 
tliciice to the place wliere the Templars formerly erected a Cross 
between their land of Adkellhan and the convent land ; thence to 
Baliitdowisky, as far as Rathgory, and so back to the aforesaid Spring ; 
rent free. 

Sciant prescntos et futuri quod ego Ricardus filius et hercs Alani de 
Sancto Florencio dedi et liac present! carta mea confirmaui deo et 
beate Marie et monachis de Valle Sancti Saluatoris ibidem deo seruientibus 
totam torram nicam que uocatur Makame cum omnibus suis pcrtinentiis, 
que iacet pro dimidia carucata terre cum suis pertinentiis per sub- 
scriptas: uidelicet, a foute qui uocatur Athboly-Moelmethe, et sic ex parte 
orientali usqtie ad locum que uocatur Lynans, et de loco illo ex parte 
aquilonali Uiique ad locum qui uocatur Brethgortyn, et sic de loco illo usque 
ad finem illius loci qui uocatur Grathsighan, et de loco illo sic usque ad 
quendam locum ubi Templarii quondam quamdam crucem erexerunt ad 
diuisam faciendam inter teiram ipsorum de Adkelthan et teiram dictorum 
monachoram de Valle Sancti Saluatoris, et sic usque ad diuisas terre dictoiiim 
monachonim que terra uocatur Baliodowisky, et sic sicut diuise sint inter 
predictam terram de Makame et Baliodowiskj* usque ad Rathgorj', et sic 
usque ad primo nominalum fontcm de Athbolymoelmethe : habendam et 

' (ToUia Chrisliana, ix, 957. 

Bernard — The Charters of the Ahhey of Duiskc. 85 

tenendam dictam Lerraiu cum omnibus suis pertinentiis dictis monacliis et 
eoi'um successoribus de me eb heicdibus lueis in puram ct perpetuam elemo- 
sinaia in perpetuum a deo liberc et quiete, sicut aliqua clemosina liberius 
melius securius plenius daii potest et incaitari absque aliqua denianda et 
exactione seculari. 

Ego autem et heredes niei predictam terram cum omnibus suis perti- 
nentiis predictis monachis et eorum successoribus quocumque casu contingente 
contra omnes warantizare tenebimur. 

Ut autem hec mea donatio concessio et presentis carte confirmatio robur 
stabilitatis in posterum obtineant presentem cartam sigilli mei impressions 
duxi confirmandam. 

Hiis testibus Domino Willclmo de Dene tunc seneseallo Ossorgye, Domino 
Willelmo Malherbe tunc seneseallo de Katherlach, Domino Hugone I'urcell, 
Domino Mauricio de London, Domino Johanne Cadel, Domino Ada de Sancto 
Johanne, Domino Eogero le Poer militibus, Eogero de rembrochia, Tlioma 
de Kantingtonia, Eeso Beket, Michaelao filio Ricardi, et aliis. 

Most of the places named in this charter were in the baronies of Shelburne and 
Shelmalier, co. Wexford. Alakaiiic or Ballymacarne, in the barony of Forth, was 
afterwards the seat of the Stafford family ; Ath-boly is probably to be identified 
with the village of Boley in the parish of Owenduff ; Lynans is now Bally-lennan, 
which is near the head of Bannow Bay ; Baliodozvishj is the equivalent of Owen- 
duff (haile duibh iiisrjo = town of the black water) ; and Bathgory is the modern 
Bathcjarogue in Ballyanne parish, Bantry. We have not succeeded in locating the 
Templars' Cross, of which the charter makes mention, or their land at Adkeltlian. 
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries there were frequent disputes as to the 
ownership of lands in the south of co. Wexford between the Knights Templars, 
who had a Preceptory at Kilclogan (near Templetown Church) and the Cistercian 
monks of Dunbrody. 

The family of St. Florence appears in several subsequent charters (nos. 70, 78, 
82, 83, 87). It would seem that before 1255 (which we take as an approximate 
date for the charter now under consideration, no. 59), Alan de St. Florence held 
lands in the south-west of co. Wexford. Here we have Biehard de St. Florence, 
his son and heir, who appears again in 1280, quitting his claim to Athboly (no. 78 ; 
cf. also 76), and also in 1289 (no. 87). 

The first witness, William de Dene, appears elsewhere as seneschal of Kilkenny 
(or of Ossory, as he is here described) about 1260,' and he died in 1261.' He is 
described as holding land in co. Wexford in 1230 f and as sheriff of Wexford in 
1241.^ About the latter date he witnessed some of Walter Marshal's charters to 
Dunbrody Abbey.* In 1247 he held Marshal lands in Ogenti^ near Thomastown, 
CO. Kilkenny." 

William Malherbe, seneschal of Carlotv, appears along with Jo/m Cadel, knight, 

' See 35fch Report of Deputy Keeper of the Irish Records, p. 38. 

2 C.M.A. ii, 316. 3 r.t.A. 188. ■• CM. A. ii, 1T7. 

^ C.M.A. ii, 1C4-16G. " C.M.A. ii, 406. 

86 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi). 

in unpublislied Kells charters, one of tliera being dated 1257.' One of the Mallierbe 
famUy held Marshal lands in co. Kilkenny in 1247.- 

Hiigh Ptircell, baron of Lochmoe, married as her second husband Beatrice, 
daughter of Theobald ^Y alter the First. He held Marshal lands at Athenirke, co. 
Kilkenny, in 1247 ;' and appears elsewhere as witnessing charters of William 
Marshal the younger,' and of Walter .Marshal.' (See also p. 21.) 

Maurice de London is a name which has already appeared in our charters (see 
p. 21). 

In 1284 Nicholas de St. John, archdeacon of Ferns, administered the estate* of 
Adam de St. John, who is probably to be identified with the laiight of that name 
attesting this charter. 

For liogcr Ic Peer and Thomas de Cauntelon see p. 80 ; for Roger de Pembroke 
p. 75 ; and for Bis Beket p. 73. 

In an indult of Innocent IV, issued 11 December, 125.3, the abbots of 
Tintern and Duiske arc named as conservators ; Duiske being described as in 
the diocese of Ossory (see p. 25). The same abbots were appointed conserva- 
tors in the case of a faculty in 1254.' 


Agreement for an exchange between the convent of Duiske and Richard 
de CardifT; the convent to cede to him five acres of meadow near his 
house in CaiTaman, and three acres in the liolding of Ballybegan 
wliich Robert de Cardiff, liis father, granted to the convent [no. 47] ; 
in exchange for eight acres of meadow lying near the abbot's land at 


Dated oii Nov. 1256. 

Ita conuenit inter abbatem et conuentum de Sancto Saluatore ex una 
parte et Rieardnm de Kerdyff ex altera circa festum IJeati Andree anno 
domini millesimo ducentisimo quinqua;,'e.sirao sexto: 

Quod predictus abbas et conuentus concesserunt et tradiderunt pro se et 
successoribus suis predicto Ricardo de Kerdyff quinque acras prati iacenles 
prope domum suam in Karramman et tres acras in tenemento de Balybegan 
quaa Robertas de Kerdyff pater predicti Ricardi dedit predicte domui Sancti 
Saluatoris pro anima sua : habenda.s et lenemlas predicto Ricardo dicta.s octo 
acras cum suis j>ertinentJis sibi et heredibus suis in perjjetuum : in excanibium 
octo acranim prati cum suis pertinentiis iacentium prope terrani dicti abbatis 
que uocatur Athco|»cnach, sicut predicta terra cum suis pertinentiis melius 
perambulata et assignata est. predicte domui in perpetuum habenda. 

' S«e also C.D.T. iii, p. 204, where William do Malherbe is mentioned as having been 
•eneschal of Carlow. 

» C.M.A. ii. 4iifi. ' CM. A. ii. 40C. ' R.T..-\ 1.^8. :^u ; cf. 142, 352. 

' C.M..\. ii. Ifio. • Hore's fVrrM, p. 1!JI. ' t<i/. »J I'apal LetUrt, i, 2«3. 

BiiKNAKU — Tlie Charters of the Abbey of Duiske. 87 

Et ut hec concessio traditio et confirmatio futuiis temporibus robur stabi- 
litatis et lirniitalis opiineant presenti scripto in inodum cyrographi confeclo 
tarn predicUis abbas quaiu predictus llicardus impressioues sigillorum suoniiii 
alternatim apposuerunt. 

Hiis testibus Domino Tbonia de Kanlowell, Eys Beket, Henrico de 
Kantewell, Gcroldo de Clunlelb, Willelmo Oikor, llogero Orkor, et aliis. 

It appears from this clocumeut that Liicliard da Cardiff's house was at Carra- 
man, in the barony of Gowran, co. Killcenny, between Coppenagh and Kilfane. 
See p. 7i for JJaUi/began and the de Cardiff' family ;' and p. 73 for Bis Bckct. 

The Cantwells were neighbours of Biclianl dc Cardiff', holding land in Kilfano 
from the early days of the Anglo-Norman invasion. An effigy of a knight in 
armour, exliibiting the Cantwell arms, is still to be seen among the ruins of the old 
church at Kilfane. 

Of the other witnesses we know nothing. Clundeleth Church belonged to the 
Priory of St. Saviour, Eoss ;- and it is possible that Gerald de Clunleth came from 


Lease by Griffin le Gros to the convent of Duiske, in consideration of a 
payment of twenty marks, of one carucate in Bantry, called Gilkhac, 
which he held from Thomas le Hore, and afterwards from Hugh his 
son ; the monks to be answerable to his lord for the rent, as stated in 
the charter of Thomas le Ilore. 

Sciant presentes (jt futuri quod ego Griffinus Grossus dedi concessi et hac 
presenti carta mea confirmaui Deo et beate Marie et domni Sancti Saluatoris 
ordinis Gistercieusis et monachis ibidem deo seruientibus unani carucatam 
terre cum suis pertinentiis in Bentrie ; illam uidelicet quam tenui primo de 
Thoma le Horhe et postea de Hugone le Horhe filio eiusdem Thome le Horhe, 
que etiam carucata terre uocatur Gilkhac, habendam et tenendam dictam 
terram cum suis pertinentiis dictis monachis et suis successoribus per easdem 
metas et bundas per quas ego dictam terram teuere consueiii, adeo libere et 
quiete pro me et heredibus meis in perpetuum sicut ego illam dare et waran- 
tizare possum absque aliquo retenemento ad me uel ad heredes meos per- 

Hoc tamen saluo quod dicti mouachi respondeant domino meo de quo 
dictam terram tenui de annuo redditu prout continetiu- in carta Thome le 
Horhe quam quidem cartam una cum carta mea perfeci et cum terra predicta 
dictis monachis liberaui. 

Pro hoc autem douatione et concessione mea dederunt michi dicti monachi 
pre manibus uiginti marcas esterlingorum ingersummam. Et ego et heredes 
mei predictam terram predictis monachis in perpetuum warantizabimus. Ut 

' Richard de C'arrfi^ appear-s in 12G9 [Inq. oi Hen. Ill, no. 04.] - CM. A. ii, xc. 

88 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

aiitern hec donatio et concessio mea rata et stabilis inperpetuum permaneat 
presentem cartam sigilli mei impressione roboraui. 

Hiis testibus : Domino Helya filio Eicardi de Prendelgast, Alano filio 
Milonis, militibus, Philippo Boscho, Nicholao Boscho, Eoberto Hnschard, 
liadulfo Kod, Thoma Kod, Johauue Olenon, Thoma Longo, Matheo de Cnoc, 
K. de Ponte Cardonis, et miiltis aliis. 

We date this lease about the year 1258. It must be prior to 1259, because 
Alan Fitz Milo was dead in that year (see Charter 62), and Charter 66 (of date 
1262-1265) cannot be long subsequent to it. As has already been observed (p. 20), 
this is the first lease granted on terms by an individual lessor, which we find among 
the abbey muniments. 

The situation of the land in question, which is variously called Gilkhac, Bally- 
gilkach (no. 70) and Aunrocbewellan (no. CG), cannot be precisely determined. 
'' Guilcagh " means " a place producing broom " ; and the estate was, doubtless, a 
tract of wild mountain land in Bantry. The overlords were the Hore family, from 
whom Griffin le tiros held as a tenant. This person 1 have not identified ; but 
the appellation " le Gros " appears in Wexford annals more than once towards the 
end of the thirteenth century.' 

The Hore family is one of the oldest in co. Wexford. They trace their descent 
to two brothers, Philip and William le Ilore, Anglo-Norman knights who served 
under Maurice Fitz Gerald, and obtained lands in the county for military services in 
the first conquest of Ireland. " Le hore " means " the hoary -headed one," as is plain 
from the forms which the name assumes in Latin (CaniUus ; see no. 70) or in old 
French (le chanu ; see no. 66). From the charter before us, we see that Thomas le 
Hore (wlio was dead when it was executed) was the father of IJugh le Hore. The 
name of Hugh's son was Robert le Horo (see no. 70). 

Elioi de Prendergasl, knight, was son of Bicliard de Frendergast (see p. 42). 
He appears again in no. 62.' 

.Uan Fitz Milo may have been a son of Milo Fitz David, or Fitz Bishop, whom 
we have had before (p. 8), but this is uncertain. 

The name Boschiis stands for Bosclicr,^ a common Wexford name, still surviv- 
ing in the to\«'nland of Busberstown, in the electoral division of Shanbogh (see p. 
42, above). 

Robert Huskard may be the person of that name whom we have had already in 
1226 (p. 42). Another of the name appears in 1299.* 

For tlie name Cod, see p. 42. 

Of the remaining witnesses we know nothing. 

The name dc Pontc Cardonis is the Latin form of Pont Chardon or Punchar- 
dou, which occurs 1288-1802 in co. Kildare and elsewhere." 

' See Here's Ptms, p. 192, and Wtx/ord, p. 94. 
'SeealsoR.T.A. 191. 

' For the juxtAposition in co. Wexford of the names Nicholas Busher, William Hore, 
and Robert Cod, in 1620, sec Hore's FfV/Vrrf, p. 2:i5. 

* Hore, Fern^, p. 8. * C.D.I, iii, J78, 407 ; v, 37. 

]?KKNAKn — The Charters of the Ahhc'j of DuMe. 80 


Eatificatiou by Thomas, son of Alan Fitz Milo, of an agreement of date 
29 Sept., 1253, between his father and the convent of Dui.ske: by